Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Firm Performance Related Abstracts

25 An Empirical Examination of the Determinant of the Financial CEOs’ Compensation for the Post-Financial Crisis Period

Authors: Eunsup Daniel Shim, Jooh Lee

Abstract:

The US financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent Global Financial Crisis were considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. As a results, Dodd-Frank Act has passed and aims '(1) to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, to end "too big to fail", (2) to protect the American taxpayer by ending bailouts, (3) to protect consumers from abusive financial services practices, and for other purposes.' The enactment of Dodd-Frank Act, in part, intended to significantly influence accountability on executive compensation especially for the financial institutions. This paper empirically investigates the changes in Financial CEOs’ compensation since the Financial Crisis of 2008. Our findings show that in the post- Financial Crisis period financial leverage is significant factor influencing the CEOs’ total compensation. In addition market based performance such as stock price and market-to-book ratio shows significant positive relationship with CEO compensation. This change can be interpreted an attempt to reduce opportunistic behavior of top executives after the financial crisis and the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act.

Keywords: Firm Performance, financial CEO compensation, financial crisis of 2008, dodd-frank act

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24 Board Structure, Composition, and Firm Performance: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

Authors: Suleiman Ahmed Badayi

Abstract:

Corporate governance literature is very wide and involves several empirical studies conducted on the relationship between board structure, composition and firm performance. The separation of ownership and control in organizations were aimed at reducing the losses suffered by the investors in the event of financial scandals. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between board composition and its impact on firm performance. The findings from the studies provide different results while some are of the view that board structure is related to firm performance, many empirical studies indicates no relationship. However, others found a U-shape relationship between firm performance and board structure. Therefore, this study argued that board structure is not much significant to determine the financial performance of a firm.

Keywords: Composition, Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, board structure

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23 Governance Disclosure Quality and Cooperative Performance in Malaysia

Authors: Intan Waheedah Othman, Maslinawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdullah

Abstract:

Few discussions were made on cooperative governance reforms despite the fact that cooperative movements operate and compete in an identical business environment as the private as well as the public corporations. Due to the scarcity of research examining the issue of governance among cooperatives, this paper is motivated to examine the extent of governance compliance and disclosure among cooperatives, hence the relationship between cooperative governance and its firm performance. Results from the study provide empirical evidence that disclosure on ownership structure and exercise of control rights was found to have significant negative relationship with cooperative firm performance.

Keywords: Governance, Cooperative, Firm Performance, Malaysia

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22 Innovative Activity and Firm Performance: The Case of Eurozone Periphery

Authors: Ilias A. Makris

Abstract:

In this work, we attempt to analyse the contribution of innovative activities to firm performance and growth. We examine economic data from some of the economies that were heavily affected by current economic crisis: the countries of southern Europe (Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain) and Ireland. Following literature, an appropriate econometric model is developed and several indicators are tested in order to disclose possible relation with innovative activity. Findings confirm the crucial effect of innovative process in economic activity, in firm and country level.

Keywords: R&D, Firm Performance, Eurozone periphery, innovative activity

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21 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Intensity and Capabilities on Internationalization and Firm Performance

Authors: B. Urban

Abstract:

International entrepreneurship represents the process of discovering and creatively exploiting opportunities that exist outside a firm’s national borders in order to obtain a competitive advantage. Firms in emerging economies are increasingly looking towards internationalisation since they are faced with rising competition in their domestic markets and attracted to opportunities in foreign markets. This article investigates international entrepreneurship by examining how the influence of entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities at the firm level influence performance, while at the same time considering environmental influences on this relationship. Based on past theoretical and empirical findings, hypotheses are formulated and then tested using correlational and regression analysis. Generally, the results support the hypotheses where both entrepreneurial intensity and capabilities are positively related to internationalisation and firm performance, while weak evidence is found for environmental hostility as a moderating influence. Several recommendations are made in light of the findings, where it is suggested that firms foster higher levels of innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness while developing human, social and technology related capabilities in order to enhance their performance and increase their levels of internationalisation.

Keywords: International Entrepreneurship, capabilities, Firm Performance, South Africa, entrepreneurial intensity, exporting

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20 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance in the UAE

Authors: Bakr Ali Al-Gamrh, Ku Nor Izah B. Ku Ismail

Abstract:

We investigate the relationship between corporate governance, leverage, risk, and firm performance. We use a firm level panel that spans the period 2008 to 2012 of all listed firms on Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange and Dubai Financial Market. After constructing an index of corporate governance strength, we find a negative effect of corporate governance on firm performance. We, however, discover that corporate governance strength indirectly improves the negative influence of leverage on firm performance in normal times. On the contrary, the results completely reversed when there is a black swan event. Corporate governance strength plays a significantly negative role in moderating the relationship between leverage and firm performance during the financial crisis. We also reveal that corporate governance strength increases firms’ risk and deteriorates performance during crisis. Results provide evidence that corporate governance indirectly plays a completely different role in different time periods.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Risk, Firm Performance, leverage, the UAE

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19 A Study on Determining Market Orientation, Innovation Orientation and Firm Performance

Authors: Emel Gelmez, Derya Özilhan

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between market orientation, innovation orientation and firm performance in the hotel enterprises in Konya was examined. Research data was obtained by survey method and the research was conducted on the enterprises operating in tourism business in Konya. Hypothesis were tested in terms of the main aim of the present study. According to the findings it was determined that there is a positive and significant relationship between each parameters.

Keywords: Innovation, Firm Performance, Market Orientation, innovation orientation

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18 Innovative Activity and Development: Analysing Firm Data from Eurozone Country-Members

Authors: Ilias A. Makris

Abstract:

In this work, we attempt to associate firm characteristics with innovative activity. We collect microdata from listed firms of selected Eurozone Country-members, after the beginning of 2007 financial crisis. The following literature, several indicators of growth and performance were selected and tested for their ability to interpret innovative activity. The main scope is to examine the possible differences in performance and growth between innovative and non-innovative firms, during a severe recession. Additionally to that, a special focus will be held on whether macroeconomic performance and national innovation system, determines the extent of innovators' performance. Preliminary findings, through correlation matrices and non-parametric tests, strongly indicate the positive relation between innovative activity and most of the measures used (profitability, size, employment), confirming that even during a recessionary period, innovative firms not only survive but also seem to succeed better economic results in almost all indexes relative to non-innovative. However, even though innovators seem to perform better in all economies examined, the extent of that performance seems to be strongly affected by the supportive mechanisms (financial and structural) that their country provides. Thus, it is clear, that the technologically intensive 'gap' between European South and North, during the economic crisis, became chaotic, due to the harsh austerity measures and reduced budgets in those countries, even in sectors with high potentials in economic activity and employment, impairing the effects of crisis and enhancing the vicious circle of recession.

Keywords: Development, Firm Performance, eurozone, innovative activity, non-parametric tests

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17 The Role of Strategic Flexibility for Achieving Sustainable Competition Advantage and Its Effect on Business Performance

Authors: Kemalettin Eryesil, Osman Esmen, Aykut Beduk

Abstract:

In this study, it has been studied to determine the relationship between business performance and strategic flexibility, which is defined to be the strategic choice that provides the ability of rapidly responding the changes of the dynamic environment of the companies, for having competitive advantages. In this context a field study has been conducted over 56 companies, which are active in informatics and electronics sectors in TEKNOKENT. As a result of the study it has been determined that; strategic flexibility has an effect on business performance and there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between strategic flexibility and business performance.

Keywords: Firm Performance, sustainable competition advantage, strategic flexibility, TEKNOKENT

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16 The Relationships between Human Resource Management and Entrepreneurship: Case Study SME in Thailand

Authors: Bella Llego

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the relationships between human resource management and entrepreneurship in the view of owner-managers and employees, and among employees with in the SME in Thailand. The research method used a qualitative method to confirm the phenomenology interest with top management position which women are regarding their career path by using purposive sampling method. The results showed that human resources management has positive relate with the corporate entrepreneurship are including the recruitment process, training worker, professional career development and reward system impact to entrepreneur’s knowledge and innovation of corporate entrepreneurship in respectively to bring a very reliable way. Then, the key informant suggested that women’s career experiences predisposed them to find an alternative route for entrepreneurship, despite having achieved top management. The understanding factors that successfully contribute to the development of women entrepreneurs from career development perspective are critical endeavours for any type of organization as well.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Human resource management, Firm Performance, work efficiency

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15 The Effects of Corporate Governance on Firm’s Financial Performance: A Study of Family and Non-family Owned Firms in Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

This research will examine the impact of corporate governance on firm performance in family and non-family owned firms in Pakistan. For the purpose of this research, corporate governance mechanisms which included are board size, board composition, leadership structure, board meetings are taken as independent variable and firm performance taken as dependent variable and it will be measured with return on asset and return on equity. Firm size and firm’s age will be taken as control variables. Secondary data will collect from audited annul reports of companies and panel data regression model will applied, to check the impact of corporate governance on firm performance.

Keywords: Firm Performance, board size, board composition, Leadership Structure, board meetings, family and non-family owned firms

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14 The Impact Of Environmental Management System ISO 14001 Adoption on Firm Performance

Authors: Raymond Treacy, Paul Humphreys, Ronan McIvor, Trevor Cadden, Alan McKittrick

Abstract:

This study employed event study methodology to examine the role of institutions, resources and dynamic capabilities in the relationship between the Environmental Management System ISO 14001 adoption and firm performance. Utilising financial data from 140 ISO 14001 certified firms and 320 non-certified firms, the results of the study suggested that the UK and Irish manufacturers were not implementing ISO 14001 solely to gain legitimacy. In contrast, the results demonstrated that firms were fully integrating the ISO 14001 standard within their operations as certified firms were able to improve both financial and operating performance when compared to non-certified firms. However, while there were significant and long lasting improvements for employee productivity, manufacturing cost efficiency, return on assets and sales turnover, the sample firms operating cycle and fixed asset efficiency displayed evidence of diminishing returns in the long-run, underlying the observation that no operating advantage based on incremental improvements can be everlasting. Hence, there is an argument for investing in dynamic capabilities which help renew and refresh the resource base and help the firm adapt to changing environments. Indeed, the results of the regression analysis suggest that dynamic capabilities for innovation acted as a moderator in the relationship between ISO 14001 certification and firm performance. This, in turn, will have a significant and symbiotic influence on sustainability practices within the participating organisations. The study not only provides new and original insights, but demonstrates pragmatically how firms can take advantage of environmental management systems as a moderator to significantly enhance firm performance. However, while it was shown that firm innovation aided both short term and long term ROA performance, adaptive market capabilities only aided firms in the short-term at the marketing strategy deployment stage. Finally, the results have important implications for firms operating in an economic recession as the results suggest that firms should scale back investment in R&D while operating in an economic downturn. Conversely, under normal trading conditions, consistent and long term investments in R&D was found to moderate the relationship between ISO 14001 certification and firm performance. Hence, the results of the study have important implications for academics and management alike.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Quality management, Sustainability, Environmental management systems, Firm Performance

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13 The Board Structure of Public and Private Sector Companies and Its Impact on Firm Performance: A Study of Fortune 500 Indian Companies from 2006 to 2015

Authors: Gayathri P. Nair

Abstract:

The focus of this study is to identify whether the board structure has any significant impact on the firm performance and finding out any evidence of being listed in the Fortune 500 list compiled and published by the American business magazine, Fortune and published globally by Time Inc., as the world’s wealthiest companies. The list has been released based on the ranking obtained for the total revenues for the respective fiscal year which has ended on or before March 31st. The study has been conducted on the Indian companies that were listed in the Fortune 500 list for the past 10 years. This study employs a logical regression between the variables, firm performance and board composition as mentioned in the clause 49 of companies act 1956 and 2013. For getting the firm performance, ROA has selected as the key performance metric, as it focuses the management attention on the assets required to run the business. The highlight of the study is that the tools had been applied between public and private sector firms so that, it reveals whether the board composition is helping out to maintain the position in the list. In addition, the findings reveal that apart from independent directors, all other variables have significant impact on firm performance.

Keywords: India, Firm Performance, board structure, Fortune 500 company

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12 The Strategic Management Affect to Firm Performance: An Empirical Investigation of Businesses in Thailand

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpongmanee

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships among business collaboration effectiveness, modern management excellence, proactive operational management, and firm performance to bring competitive advantage to the firm. Furthermore, the population and sample selected are exporters on textile businesses in Thailand in total of 566 companies. The data were collected by questionnaire survey and sent direct to the directors or managerial managers of each company which is appropriate as the key informant of this research. Moreover, the statistic to test hypothesis uses the hierarchical multiple regression analysis and provides those five hypotheses to testing. The results show direct effect that the business collaboration effectiveness has a significantly positive influence on firm performance, meaning that, the collaboration is an important factor in global business both internal and external of firms that reflect the linkage of business to create competitive advantage and gain benefits simultaneously of the firms efficiently also.

Keywords: Strategic Management, Firm Performance, business collaboration effectiveness, modern management excellence

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11 Competitive Advantage Effecting Firm Performance: Case Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Thailand

Authors: Somdech Rungsrisawas

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between the competitive advantage of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their overall performance. A mixed method has been applied to identify the effect of determinants toward competitive advantage. The sample is composed of SMEs in product and service businesses. The study has been tested at an organizational level with samples of SME entrepreneurs, business successors, and board of directors or management team. Quantitative analysis has been conducted through multiple regression analysis with 400 samples. The findings illustrate that each aspect of competitive advantage needs a different set of driving factors to explain either the direct or the indirect effect on firm performance. Interestingly, technological capability is a perfect mediator and interorganizational cooperation toward competitive advantage. In addition, differentiation is difficult to be perceived by customers, as well as difficult to manage; however, it is considered important to develop an SMEs product or service for firm sustainably.

Keywords: competitive advantage, Firm Performance, technological capability, Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs)

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10 Key Competences in Economics and Business Field: The Employers’ Side of the Story

Authors: Bruno Škrinjarić

Abstract:

Rapid technological developments and increase in organizations’ interdependence on international scale are changing the traditional workplace paradigm. A key feature of knowledge based economy is that employers are looking for individuals that possess both specific academic skills and knowledge, and also capability to be proactive and respond to problems creatively and autonomously. The focus of this paper is workers with Economics and Business background and its goals are threefold: (1) to explore wide range of competences and identify which are the most important to employers; (2) to investigate the existence and magnitude of gap between required and possessed level of a certain competency; and (3) to inquire how this gap is connected with performance of a company. A study was conducted on a representative sample of Croatian enterprises during the spring of 2016. Results show that generic, rather than specific, competences are more important to employers and the gap between the relative importance of certain competence and its current representation in existing workforce is greater for generic competences than for specific. Finally, results do not support the hypothesis that this gap is correlated with firms’ performance.

Keywords: Firm Performance, competency gap, competency matching, key competences

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9 Sustainability Reporting and Performances of the Companies in the Istanbul Stock Exchange Sustainability Index

Authors: Zeynep Şahin, Züleyha Yılmaz, Fikret Çankaya

Abstract:

In today's business world, in which it is difficult to survive, the economic life of products, services or knowledge is considerably reduced. Competitors produce similar products or extra-featured ones instantly. In this environment, the contribution of companies to the social and economic environment is a preferred criterion by consumers alongside products or services. Therefore, consumers need to obtain more detailed information about companies. Besides, this drastic change in the market encourages companies to become sustainable. Sustainable business means the company puts consumed products back. Corporate sustainability, corresponds to sustainability at the level of the company, and gives equal importance to company growth and profitability together with environmental and social issues. The BIST Sustainability Index started to be calculated by the Istanbul Stock Exchange (BIST) in 2014 to evaluate the sustainability performance of companies in Turkey. The main objective of this study is to present the importance of sustainability reports in Turkey. To this aim, the performances of 15 companies in the BIST Sustainability Index were compared the periods before and after entering the index. On the other hand, sustainability reporting practices should be encouraged to increase studies on this issue. In this context, to remain on the agenda of the issue is a further objective of this study. To achieve these objectives, the financial data of the companies in the period before and after entering to the BIST Sustainability Index were analyzed using t-test in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) package. The results of the study showed that no significant difference between the performances of the companies in terms of the net profit margin, the return on assets and equity capital in these periods could be found. Therefore, it can be said that insufficient importance is given to sustainability issues in Turkey. The reasons for this situation might be considered as a lack of awareness due to the recent introduction and calculation of the index. It is expected that the awareness of firms and investors about sustainability will increase, and that they will demonstrate the necessary importance to this issue over time.

Keywords: Firm Performance, sustainability index, sustainability reporting, BIST sustainability index

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8 Foreign Debt and Firm Performance: Evidence from French Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Salma Mefteh-Wali, Marie-Josephe Rigobert

Abstract:

We investigate the impact of foreign currency debt on firm performance for a sample of non-financial French firms studied over the period 2002 to 2012. As foreign currency debt is both a financing and hedging instrument against foreign exchange risk, we mobilize optimal hedging theory and capital structure theory. When we study the impact on firm value, our main results show that before and after the financial crisis of 2008, foreign debt had the same behavior as domestic debt. We find that during the crisis period, foreign debt positively affects firm value. Investors perceive foreign debt as a natural hedging instrument that is likely to reduce the costs of underinvestment, alleviate cash flow volatility, limit the costs of financial distress, and generate tax shield benefits. Also, our results show that foreign leverage negatively affects the firm performance proxied by ROA and ROE, during and after the financial crisis. However, this impact is positive in the pre-crisis period.

Keywords: Firm Performance, foreign currency derivatives, foreign currency debt, foreign currency hedging

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7 Analyzing the Impact of Board Diversity on Firm Performance: Case Study of the Nigerian Banking Sector

Authors: Data Collete Bob-Manuel

Abstract:

In light of global financial crisis in 2007-2008 various factors including board diversity, succession planning and board evaluation have been identified as essential ingredients in ensuring board effectiveness. The composition and structure of the board is of outmost importance in assessing a board’s ability and success in achieving its objectives. Following the corporate frauds and accounting scandals such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Oceanic Bank Nigeria and AfriBank Nigeria, there has been a notable amount of research about the effectiveness of the board of directors in the corporate governance of firms. The need to have an effective board cannot be over emphasized as it results in a more stable and thriving company. There has been an overarching need in the business world for a more diverse workforce and board of directors. Big corporations like Texaco, Ford Motors and DuPont have stated how diversity at every level of the workforce including the board of directors has been cited as a vital element for a company to succeed. Developed countries are also seeking for companies to have a more diverse board. For instance Norway has implemented a 60:40 board ratio to all companies. In West Africa, particularly Nigeria, the topic of diversity has received little attention as most studies conducted have focused on the gender aspect of diversity, which results found to have a negative impact on firm performance. This paper seeks to examine four variables of diversity; age, ethnicity, gender and skills to weigh the positive or negative impact the variables have on firm performance, based on evidence from the Nigerian Financial sector. Information used for this study will be gathered from financial statements and annual reports so as to enable the researcher to reflect on past years to know what is being done differently today. The findings of this study will help the researcher to develop a working definition for ethnicity with regards to the West African context where the issue of “tribe” is a sensitive topic.

Keywords: Firm Performance, Nigeria, board of directors, Board Diversity

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6 Business Model Innovation and Firm Performance: Exploring Moderation Effects

Authors: Mohammad-Ali Latifi, Harry Bouwman

Abstract:

Changes in the business environment accelerated dramatically over the last decades as a result of changes in technology, regulation, market, and competitors’ behavior. Firms need to change the way they do business in order to survive or maintain their growth. Innovating business model (BM) can create competitive advantages and enhance firm performance. However, many companies fail to achieve expected outcomes in practice, mostly due to irreversible fundamental changes in key components of the company’s BM. This leads to more ambiguity, uncertainty, and risks associated with business performance. However, the relationship among BM Innovation, moderating factors, and the firm’s overall performance is by and large ignored in the current literature. In this study, we identified twenty moderating factors from our comprehensive literature review. We categorized these factors based on two criteria regarding the extent to which: the moderating factors can be controlled and managed by firms, and they are generic or specific changes to the firms. This leads to four moderation groups. The first group is BM implementation, which includes management support, employees’ commitment, employees’ skills, communication, detailed plan. The second group is called BM practices, which consists of BM tooling, BM experimentation, the scope of change, speed of change, degree of novelty. The third group is Firm characteristics, including firm size, age, and ownership. The last group is called Industry characteristics, which considers the industry sector, competitive intensity, industry life cycle, environmental dynamism, high-tech vs. low-tech industry. Through collecting data from 508 European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and using the structural equation modeling technique, the developed moderation model was examined. Results revealed that all factors highlighted through these four groups moderate the relation between BMI and firm performance significantly. Particularly, factors related to BM-Implementation and BM-Practices are more manageable and would potentially improve firm overall performance. We believe that this result is more important for researchers and practitioners since the possibility of working on factors in Firm characteristics and Industry characteristics groups are limited, and the firm can hardly control and manage them to improve the performance of BMI efforts.

Keywords: Business Model Innovation, Implementation, Firm Performance, moderation

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5 Development of Risk Index and Corporate Governance Index: An Application on Indian PSUs

Authors: M. V. Shivaani, P. K. Jain, Surendra S. Yadav

Abstract:

Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs), being government-owned organizations have commitments for the economic and social wellbeing of the society; this commitment needs to be reflected in their risk-taking, decision-making and governance structures. Therefore, the primary objective of the study is to suggest measures that may lead to improvement in performance of PSUs. To achieve this objective two normative frameworks (one relating to risk levels and other relating to governance structure) are being put forth. The risk index is based on nine risks, such as, solvency risk, liquidity risk, accounting risk, etc. and each of the risks have been scored on a scale of 1 to 5. The governance index is based on eleven variables, such as, board independence, diversity, risk management committee, etc. Each of them are scored on a scale of 1 to five. The sample consists of 39 PSUs that featured in Nifty 500 index and, the study covers a 10 year period from April 1, 2005 to March, 31, 2015. Return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) have been used as proxies of firm performance. The control variables used in the model include, age of firm, growth rate of firm and size of firm. A dummy variable has also been used to factor in the effects of recession. Given the panel nature of data and possibility of endogeneity, dynamic panel data- generalized method of moments (Diff-GMM) regression has been used. It is worth noting that the corporate governance index is positively related to both ROA and ROE, indicating that with the improvement in governance structure, PSUs tend to perform better. Considering the components of CGI, it may be suggested that (i). PSUs ensure adequate representation of women on Board, (ii). appoint a Chief Risk Officer, and (iii). constitute a risk management committee. The results also indicate that there is a negative association between risk index and returns. These results not only validate the framework used to develop the risk index but also provide a yardstick to PSUs benchmark their risk-taking if they want to maximize their ROA and ROE. While constructing the CGI, certain non-compliances were observed, even in terms of mandatory requirements, such as, proportion of independent directors. Such infringements call for stringent penal provisions and better monitoring of PSUs. Further, if the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) bring about such reforms in the PSUs and make mandatory the adherence to the normative frameworks put forth in the study, PSUs may have more effective and efficient decision-making, lower risks and hassle free management; all these ultimately leading to better ROA and ROE.

Keywords: Firm Performance, risk governance, PSU, diff-GMM, the risk index

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4 Demographic Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence in the French Context

Authors: Elhem Zaatir, Taher Hamza

Abstract:

Several governments seek to implement gender parity on boards, but the results of doing so are not clear and could harm corporations and economies. The present paper aims to investigate the relationship between women’s presence on boards and firms’ performance in the context of the French listed firms during the quota period. A dynamic panel generalized method of moment estimation is applied to control the endogenous effect of board structure and reverse the causality impact of the financial performance. Our results show that the impact of gender diversity manifests in conflicting directions, positively affecting accounting performance and negatively influencing market performance. These results suggest that female directors create economic value, but the market discounts their impact. Apparently, they are subject to a biased evaluation by the market, which undervalues their presence on boards. Added to that, our results confirm a twofold nature of female representation in the French market. The effect of female directorship on firm performance varies with the affiliation of the directors. In other words, the positive impact of gender diversity on return on assets primarily originates from the positive effect of non-family-affiliated women directors on market performance rather than on the effect of family-affiliated women directors on ROA. Finally, according to our results, women’s demographic attributes namely the level of education and multiple directorships strongly and positively impact firm performance as measured by return on assets (ROA). Obviously, women directors seem to be appointed to the business case rather than as token directors.

Keywords: gender diversity, Corporate Governance, Women, Firm Performance, board of directors, demographic attributes

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3 Assessment of the Two-Way Relationship between Capital Structure and Operation Performance of Listed Companies on Vietnam’s Stock

Authors: Uyen Tran Tu

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The decision on capital structure is one of the most important and sophisticated decisions in financial management in order to improve firm performance. This article would study the two-way impact between capital structure and firm performance. The study use EVIEWS 6.0 software to determine a two-way relationship between the capital structure and firm performance based on two-stage regression (2SLS - Two-Stage Least Squares). The findings are: capital structure has the opposite effect on the business efficiency and vice versa, factors that effect on business efficiency include Size and Opportunities. Factors effects on the capital structure are size; liquidity. These factors also affect the ratio of capital structure (total debt/ total asset) of companies. In particular, liquidity has the opposite effect; and the size of the business has the same impact. The results of the study are in line with the theory and empirical studies presented, and the results of the study are unchanged for all three years 2015-2017.

Keywords: Capital Structure, Firm Performance, factors, two-way relationship

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2 Knowledge Management and Motivation Management: Important Constituents of Firm Performance

Authors: Yassir Mahmood, Nadia Ehsan

Abstract:

In current research stream, empirical work regarding knowledge and motivation management along their dimensions is sparse. This study partially filled this void by investigating the influence of knowledge management (tacit and explicit) and motivation management (intrinsic and extrinsic) on firm performance with the mediating effects of innovative performance. Based on the quantitative research method, data were collected through questionnaire from 284 employees working in 18 different firms across the citrus industry located in Sargodha region (Pakistan). The proposed relationships were tested through regression analysis while mediation relations were analyzed through Barron and Kenny (1986) technique. The results suggested that knowledge management (KM) and motivation management (MM) have significant positive impacts on innovative performance (IP). In addition, the role of IP as full mediator between KM and firm performance (FP) is confirmed. Also, IP proved to be a partial mediator between MM and FP. From the managerial perspective, the findings of the study are vital as some of the important constituents of FP have been highlighted. The study produced important underpinnings for managers. In last, implications for policymakers along with future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Firm Performance, motivation management, innovative performance, Sargodha

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1 The Impact of other Comprehensive Income Disclosure and Corporate Governance on Earnings Management and Firm Performance

Authors: Yan Wang, Yuan George Shan

Abstract:

This study examines whether earnings management reduces firm performance and how other comprehensive income (OCI) disclosure and strong corporate governance restrain earnings management. Using a data set comprising 6,260 firm-year observations from listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges during 2009–2015, the results indicate that OCI disclosure generally improves firm performance, but earnings management lowers firm performance. The study also finds that OCI disclosure and corporate governance are complementary in restraining earnings manipulation and promote firm performance. The implications of the findings are relevant policy-makers and regulators in assisting them evaluate the consequences of convergence of Chinese Accounting Standards with the International Financial Reporting Standards.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Earnings Management, China, Firm Performance, other comprehensive income

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