Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Fire Related Abstracts

20 The Impact of Steel Connections on the Fire Resistance of Composite Buildings

Authors: Mizi Fan, Shuyuan Lin, Zhaohui Huang

Abstract:

In the majority of previous research into modelling large scale composite floor subjected to fire, the beam-to-column and beam-to-beam connections were assumed to behave either as pinned or rigid for simplicity, and the vertical shear and axial tension failures of the connection were not taken into account. We have recently developed robust two-noded connection models for modeling endplate and partial endplate steel connections under fire conditions. The main objective of this research is to systematically investigate the impact of the connections of protected beams, on the tensile membrane actions of supported floor slabs in which the failures of the connections, such as, axial tension, vertical shear and bending are accounted for. The models developed have very good numerical stability under a static solver condition, and can be used for large scale modelling of composite buildings in fire.

Keywords: Steel Structure, Fire, component-based model, beam-to-column connections

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19 Numerical Study of Fire Propagation in Confined and Open Area

Authors: Hadj Miloua, Abbes Azzi

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to understand, predict and modeled the fire behavior in confined and open area in different conditions and diverse fuels such as liquid pool fire and the vegetative materials. The distinctive problems are a ventilated road tunnel used for urban transport, by the characterization installations of ventilation and his influence in the mode of smoke dispersion and the flame shape. A general investigation is relatively traditional, based on the modeling and simulation the scenario of the pool fire interacted with wind ventilation by the use of numerical software fire dynamic simulator FDS ver.5 to simulate the fire in ventilated tunnel. The second simulation by WFDS.5 is Wildland fire which is always occurs in forest and rangeland fire environments and will thus have an impact on people, property and resources.

Keywords: Simulation, Vegetation, Fire, road tunnel, wildland

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18 Device to Alert and Fire Prevention through Temperature Monitoring and Gas Detection

Authors: Dêivisson Alves Anjos, Blenda Fonseca Aires Teles, Queitiane Castro Costa

Abstract:

Fire is one of the biggest dangers for factories, warehouses, mills, among other places, causing unimaginable damage, because besides the material damage also directly affects the lives of workers who are likely to suffer death or very serious consequences. This protection of the lives of these people should be taken seriously, always seeking safety. Thus investment in security and monitoring equipment must be high, so you can prevent or reduce the impacts of a possible fire. Our device, made in PIC micro controller monitors the temperature and the presence of gas in the environment, it sends the data via Bluetooth device to a developed in LabVIEW interface saves these data continuously and alert if the temperature exceeds the allowed or some gas is detected. Currently the device is in operation and can perform several tests, as well as use in different areas for which you need anti-fire protection.

Keywords: Gas, temperature, bluetooth, Fire, labview, pic

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17 Deformation Characteristics of Fire Damaged and Rehabilitated Normal Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Yeo Kyeong Lee, Hae Won Min, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

Fire incidents have been steadily increased over the last year according to national emergency management agency of South Korea. Even though most of the fire incidents with property damage have been occurred in building, rehabilitation has not been properly done with consideration of structure safety. Therefore, this study aims at evaluating rehabilitation effects on fire damaged normal strength concrete beams through experiments and finite element analyses. For the experiments, reinforced concrete beams were fabricated having designed concrete strength of 21 MPa. Two different cover thicknesses were used as 40 mm and 50 mm. After cured, the fabricated beams were heated for 1hour or 2hours according to ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve. Rehabilitation was done by removing the damaged part of cover thickness and filling polymeric mortar into the removed part. Both fire damaged beams and rehabilitated beams were tested with four point loading system to observe structural behaviors and the rehabilitation effect. To verify the experiment, finite element (FE) models for structural analysis were generated using commercial software ABAQUS 6.10-3. For the rehabilitated beam models, integrated temperature-structural analyses were performed in advance to obtain geometries of the fire damaged beams. In addition to the fire damaged beam models, rehabilitated part was added with material properties of polymeric mortar. Three dimensional continuum brick elements were used for both temperature and structural analyses. The same loading and boundary conditions as experiments were implemented to the rehabilitated beam models and non-linear geometrical analyses were performed. Test results showed that maximum loads of the rehabilitated beams were 8~10% higher than those of the non-rehabilitated beams and even 1~6 % higher than those of the non-fire damaged beam. Stiffness of the rehabilitated beams were also larger than that of non-rehabilitated beams but smaller than that of the non-fire damaged beams. In addition, predicted structural behaviors from the analyses also showed good rehabilitation effect and the predicted load-deflection curves were similar to the experimental results. From this study, both experiments and analytical results demonstrated good rehabilitation effect on the fire damaged normal strength concrete beams. For the further, the proposed analytical method can be used to predict structural behaviors of rehabilitated and fire damaged concrete beams accurately without suffering from time and cost consuming experimental process.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Fire, reinforced concrete beam, normal strength concrete

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16 Investigation of Rehabilitation Effects on Fire Damaged High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin, Eun Mi Ryu, Ah Young An

Abstract:

As the number of fire incidents has been increased, fire incidents significantly damage economy and human lives. Especially when high strength reinforced concrete is exposed to high temperature due to a fire, deterioration occurs such as loss in strength and elastic modulus, cracking, and spalling of the concrete. Therefore, it is important to understand risk of structural safety in building structures by studying structural behaviors and rehabilitation of fire damaged high strength concrete structures. This paper aims at investigating rehabilitation effect on fire damaged high strength concrete beams using experimental and analytical methods. In the experiments, flexural specimens with high strength concrete are exposed to high temperatures according to ISO 834 standard time temperature curve. After heated, the fire damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams having different cover thicknesses and fire exposure time periods are rehabilitated by removing damaged part of cover thickness and filling polymeric mortar into the removed part. From four-point loading test, results show that maximum loads of the rehabilitated RC beams are 1.8~20.9% higher than those of the non-fire damaged RC beam. On the other hand, ductility ratios of the rehabilitated RC beams are decreased than that of the non-fire damaged RC beam. In addition, structural analyses are performed using ABAQUS 6.10-3 with same conditions as experiments to provide accurate predictions on structural and mechanical behaviors of rehabilitated RC beams. For the rehabilitated RC beam models, integrated temperature–structural analyses are performed in advance to obtain geometries of the fire damaged RC beams. After spalled and damaged parts are removed, rehabilitated part is added to the damaged model with material properties of polymeric mortar. Three dimensional continuum brick elements are used for both temperature and structural analyses. The same loading and boundary conditions as experiments are implemented to the rehabilitated beam models and nonlinear geometrical analyses are performed. Structural analytical results show good rehabilitation effects, when the result predicted from the rehabilitated models are compared to structural behaviors of the non-damaged RC beams. In this study, fire damaged high strength concrete beams are rehabilitated using polymeric mortar. From four point loading tests, it is found that such rehabilitation is able to make the structural performance of fire damaged beams similar to non-damaged RC beams. The predictions from the finite element models show good agreements with the experimental results and the modeling approaches can be used to investigate applicability of various rehabilitation methods for further study.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Fire, high strength concrete, reinforced concrete beam

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15 The Effects of Wood Ash on Ignition Point of Wood

Authors: K. A. Ibe, J. I. Mbonu, G. K. Umukoro

Abstract:

The effects of wood ash on the ignition point of five common tropical woods in Nigeria were investigated. The ash and moisture contents of the wood saw dust from Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Opepe (Sarcocephalus latifolius), Abura (Hallealedermannii verdc), Rubber (Heavea brasilensis) and Poroporo (Sorghum bicolour) were determined using a furnace (Vecstar furnaces, model ECF2, serial no. f3077) and oven (Genlab laboratory oven, model MINO/040) respectively. The metal contents of the five wood sawdust ash samples were determined using a Perkin Elmer optima 3000 dv atomic absorption spectrometer while the ignition points were determined using Vecstar furnaces model ECF2. Poroporo had the highest ash content, 2.263 g while rubber had the least, 0.710 g. The results for the moisture content range from 2.971 g to 0.903 g. Magnesium metal had the highest concentration of all the metals, in all the wood ash samples; with mahogany ash having the highest concentration, 9.196 ppm while rubber ash had the least concentration of magnesium metal, 2.196 ppm. The ignition point results showed that the wood ashes from mahogany and opepe increased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them while the ashes from poroporo, rubber and abura decreased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them. However, Opepe saw dust ash decreased the ignition point in one of the test wood samples, suggesting that the metal content of the test wood sample was more than that of the Opepe saw dust ash. Therefore, Mahogany and Opepe saw dust ashes could be used in the surface treatment of wood to enhance their fire resistance or retardancy. However, the caution to be exercised in this application is that the metal content of the test wood samples should be evaluated as well.

Keywords: Fire, ash, ignition point, retardant, wood saw dust

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14 Investigation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls with Axial Force

Authors: Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin, Hyun Ah Yoon

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall system of residential buildings is popular in South Korea. RC walls are subjected to axial forces in common and the effect of axial forces on the strength loss of the fire damaged walls has not been investigated. This paper aims at investigating temperature distribution on fire damaged concrete walls having different axial loads. In the experiments, a variable of specimens is axial force ratio. RC walls are fabricated with 150mm of wall thicknesses, 750mm of lengths and 1,300mm of heights having concrete strength of 24MPa. After curing, specimens are heated on one surface with ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve for 2 hours and temperature distributions during the test are measured using thermocouples inside the walls. The experimental results show that the temperature of the RC walls exposed to fire increases as axial force ratio increases. To verify the experiments, finite element (FE) models are generated for coupled temperature-structure analyses. The analytical results of thermal behaviors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted displacement of the walls decreases when the axial force increases. 

Keywords: Fire, residual strength, axial force ratio, reinforced concrete wall

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13 Diesel Engine Performance Optimization to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions Issues

Authors: hadi kargar, bahador shabani

Abstract:

In this article, 16 cylinder motor combustion CFD modeling with a diameter of 165 mm and 195 mm along the way to help the FIRE software to optimize its function to work. A three-dimensional model of the processes that formed inside the cylinder made that involves mixing the fuel and air, ignition and spraying. In this three-dimensional model, all chemical species, density of air fuel spraying and spray with full profile intended to detailed results from mixing the fuel and air, igniting the ignition advance, spray, and mixed media in different times and get fit by moving the piston. Optimal selection of the model for the shape of the piston and spraying fuel specifications (including the management of spraying, the number of azhneh hole, start time of spraying and spraying angle) to achieve the best fuel consumption and minimal pollution. The spray hole 6 and 7 in three different configurations with five spraying and gives the best geometry and various performances in the simulation. 6 hole spray angle, finally spraying 72.5 degrees and two forms of spraying a better performance in comparison with other items of their own.

Keywords: CFD, Fire, Diesel Engine, spray, optimize

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12 Development of Quality Assessment Tool to Gauge Fire Response Activities of Emergency Personnel in Denmark

Authors: Jennifer E. Lynette

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a nation-wide assessment tool to gauge the quality and efficiency of response activities by emergency personnel to fires in Denmark. Current fire incident reports lack detailed information that can lead to breakthroughs in research and improve emergency response efforts. Information generated from the report database is analyzed and assessed for efficiency and quality. By utilizing information collection gaps in the incident reports, an improved, indepth, and streamlined quality gauging system is developed for use by fire brigades. This study pinpoints previously unrecorded factors involved in the response phases of a fire. Variables are recorded and ranked based on their influence to event outcome. By assessing and measuring these data points, quality standards are developed. These quality standards include details of the response phase previously overlooked which individually and cumulatively impact the overall success of a fire response effort. Through the application of this tool and implementation of associated quality standards at Denmark’s fire brigades, there is potential to increase efficiency and quality in the preparedness and response phases, thereby saving additional lives, property, and resources.

Keywords: Preparedness, Emergency Management, response, Quality Standards, Fire

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11 Acacia mearnsii De Wild-A New Scourge on Cork Oak Forests of El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algeria)

Authors: Samir Chekchaki, ArifaBeddiar

Abstract:

Nowadays, more and more species are introduced outside their natural range. If most of them remain difficult, some may adopt a much more dynamic behavior. Indeed, we have witnessed in recent decades, the development of high forests of Acacia mearnsii in El Kala National Park. Introduced indefinitely, this leguminous intended to make money (nitrogen supply for industrial plantations of Eucalyptus), became one of the most invasive and more costly in terms of forest management. It has crossed all barriers: it has acclimatized, naturalized and then expanded through diverse landscapes; entry into competition with native species such as cork oak and altered ecosystem functioning. Therefore, it is interesting to analyze this new threat by relying on plants as bio-indicator for assessing biodiversity at different scales. We have identified the species present in several plots distributed in a range of vegetation types subjected to different degrees of disturbance by using the braun-blanquet method. Fifty-six species have been recorded. They are distributed in 48 genera and 29 families. The analysis of the relative frequency of species correlated with relative abundance clearly shows that the Acacia mearnsii feels marginalized. The ecological analysis of this biological invasion shows that disruption of either natural or anthropogenic origin (fire, prolonged drought, cut) represent the factors that exacerbate invasion by opening invasion windows. The lifting of seeds of Acacia mearnsii lasting physical dormancy (and variable) is ensured by the thermal shock in relation to its heliophilous character.

Keywords: Vegetation, Fire, invasive, Acacia mearnsii De Wild, El Kala National park

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10 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: Concrete, Density, temperature, Fire, compressive strength, spalling

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9 Quality Standards for Emergency Response: A Methodological Framework

Authors: Jennifer E. Lynette

Abstract:

This study describes the development process of a methodological framework for quality standards used to measure the efficiency and quality of response efforts of trained personnel at emergency events. This paper describes the techniques used to develop the initial framework and its potential application to professions under the broader field of emergency management. The example described in detail in this paper applies the framework specifically to fire response activities by firefighters. Within the quality standards framework, the fire response process is chronologically mapped. Individual variables within the sequence of events are identified. Through in-person data collection, questionnaires, interviews, and the expansion of the incident reporting system, this study identifies and categorizes previously unrecorded variables involved in the response phase of a fire. Following a data analysis of each variable using a quantitative or qualitative assessment, the variables are ranked pertaining to the magnitude of their impact to the event outcome. Among others, key indicators of quality performance in the analysis involve decision communication, resource utilization, response techniques, and response time. Through the application of this framework and subsequent utilization of quality standards indicators, there is potential to increase efficiency in the response phase of an emergency event; thereby saving additional lives, property, and resources.

Keywords: Emergency Management, response, Quality Standards, Fire

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8 Preliminary Study of Human Reliability of Control in Case of Fire Based on the Decision Processes and Stress Model of Human in a Fire

Authors: Sa-Kil Kim, Seung-Un Chae, Heung-Yul Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of preliminary study on human control performance in case of fire. The relationship between human control and human decision is studied in decision processes and stress model of human in a fire. Human behavior aspects involved in the decision process during a fire incident. The decision processes appear that six of individual perceptual processes: recognition, validation, definition, evaluation, commitment, and reassessment. Then, human may be stressed in order to get an optimal decision for their activity. This paper explores problems in human control processes and stresses in a catastrophic situation. Thus, the future approach will be concerned to reduce stresses and ambiguous irrelevant information.

Keywords: Human Reliability, Decision Processes, Fire, stress model

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7 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali

Abstract:

This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: Experimental, Fire, monotonic loading, high strength concrete beams

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6 Sri Aurobindo's Views on Heraclitus' Philosophy: A Synthesis

Authors: Kamaladevi Kunkolienker

Abstract:

This paper appreciates the stimulating and thought-provoking synthesis of Heraclitus’ philosophy offered by Sri Aurobindo. The deep philosophical insights of Heraclitus expressed in aphoristic and cryptic form inspired him and supported his system of Integral Yoga. An attempt is made to reconstruct and synthesize Eastern and Western philosophical insights through hermeneutical treatment of many concepts. Aurobindo points out the sameness and kinship between Heraclitus’ thought and concepts from Vedic and upanishadic texts with illustrations and thus undertakes the task of synthesizing them. This fruitful synthesis also brings out the scientific perspective of Heraclitus’ thought and showcases it as a rare flowering of philosophy. It also enables the thinkers to reflect, reinterpret and synthesize such philosophies to bring out their significance in post-modern philosophy and science.

Keywords: Change, Fire, all, one

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5 Probabilistic Robustness Assessment of Structures under Sudden Column-Loss Scenario

Authors: Riadh Al-Mahaidi, Ali Y Al-Attraqchi, P. Rajeev, M. Javad Hashemi

Abstract:

This paper presents a probabilistic incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of a full reinforced concrete building subjected to column loss scenario for the assessment of progressive collapse. The IDA is chosen to explicitly account for uncertainties in loads and system capacity. Fragility curves are developed to predict the probability of progressive collapse given the loss of one or more columns. At a broader scale, it will also provide critical information needed to support the development of a new generation of design codes that attempt to explicitly quantify structural robustness.

Keywords: Structural Engineering, Fire, progressive collapse, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis

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4 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: A. Y. Abdelaziz, F. M. Mohamed

Abstract:

The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: Fire, crude oil, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

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3 Shooting Gas Cylinders to Prevent Their Explosion in Fire

Authors: Jerzy Ejsmont, Beata Świeczko-Żurek, Grzegorz Ronowski

Abstract:

Gas cylinders in general and particularly cylinders containing acetylene constitute a great potential danger for fire and rescue services involved in salvage operations. Experiments show that gas cylinders with acetylene, oxygen, hydrogen, CNG, LPG or CO2 may blow after short exposition to heat with very destructive effect as fragments of blown cylinder may fly even several hundred meters. In the case of acetylene, the explosion may occur also several hours after the cylinder is cooled down. One of the possible neutralization procedures that in many cases may be used to prevent explosions is shooting dangerous cylinders by rifle bullets. This technique is used to neutralize acetylene cylinders in a few European countries with great success. In Poland research project 'BLOW' was launched in 2014 with the aim to investigate phenomena related to fire influence on industrial and home used cylinders and to evaluate usefulness of the shooting technique. All together over 100 gas cylinders with different gases were experimentally tested at the military blasting grounds and in shelters. During the experiments cylinder temperature and pressure were recorded. In the case of acetylene that is subjected to thermal decomposition also concentration of hydrogen was monitored. Some of the cylinders were allowed to blow and others were shot by snipers. It was observed that shooting hot cylinders has never created more dangerous situations than letting the cylinders to explode spontaneously. In a great majority of cases cylinders that were punctured by bullets released gas in a more or less violent but relatively safe way. The paper presents detailed information about experiments and presents particularities of behavior of cylinders containing different gases. Extensive research was also done in order to select bullets that may be safely and efficiently used to puncture different cylinders. The paper shows also results of those experiments as well as gives practical information related to techniques that should be used during shooting.

Keywords: Shooting, Fire, neutralization, gas cylinders

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2 Impact of Fire on Bird Diversity in Oil Palm Plantation: Case Study in South Sumatra Province

Authors: Yanto Santosa, Windi Sugiharti

Abstract:

Fires occur annually in oil palm plantations. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of fire on bird diversity in oil palm plantations. Data of bird diversity were collected using the line transect method. Data were collected from February to March 2017. To estimate species richness, we used the Margalef index, to determine the evenness of species richness between site, we used an Evenness index, and to estimate the similarity of bird communities between different habitat, we used the Sørensen index. The result showed that the number of bird species and species richness in the post burned area was higher than those in unburned area. Different results were found for the Evenness Index, where the value was higher in unburned area that was in post burned area. These results indicate that fires did not decrease bird diversity as alleged by many parties whom stated that fires caused species extinction. Fire trigger the emerging of belowground plant and population of insects as a sources of food for the bird community. This result is consistent with several research findings in the United States and Australia that used controlled fires as one of regional management tools.

Keywords: Species Diversity, Fire, oil palm, bird, index of similarity

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1 Fire Resilient Cities: The Impact of Fire Regulations, Technological and Community Resilience

Authors: Fanny Guay

Abstract:

Building resilience, sustainable buildings, urbanization, climate change, resilient cities, are just a few examples of where the focus of research has been in the last few years. It is obvious that there is a need to rethink how we are building our cities and how we are renovating our existing buildings. However, the question remaining is how can we assure that we are building sustainable yet resilient cities? There are many aspects one can touch upon when discussing resilience in cities, but after the event of Grenfell in June 2017, it has become clear that fire resilience must be a priority. We define resilience as a holistic approach including communities, society and systems, focusing not only on resisting the effects of a disaster, but also how it will cope and recover from it. Cities are an example of such a system, where components such as buildings have an important role to play. A building on fire will have an impact on the community, the economy, the environment, and so the entire system. Therefore, we believe that fire and resilience go hand in hand when we discuss building resilient cities. This article aims at discussing the current state of the concept of fire resilience and suggests actions to support the built of more fire resilient buildings. Using the case of Grenfell and the fire safety regulations in the UK, we will briefly compare the fire regulations in other European countries, more precisely France, Germany and Denmark, to underline the difference and make some suggestions to increase fire resilience via regulation. For this research, we will also include other types of resilience such as technological resilience, discussing the structure of buildings itself, as well as community resilience, considering the role of communities in building resilience. Our findings demonstrate that to increase fire resilience, amending existing regulations might be necessary, for example, how we performed reaction to fire tests and how we classify building products. However, as we are looking at national regulations, we are only able to make general suggestions for improvement. Another finding of this research is that the capacity of the community to recover and adapt after a fire is also an essential factor. Fundamentally, fire resilience, technological resilience and community resilience are closely connected. Building resilient cities is not only about sustainable buildings or energy efficiency; it is about assuring that all the aspects of resilience are included when building or renovating buildings. We must ask ourselves questions as: Who are the users of this building? Where is the building located? What are the components of the building, how was it designed and which construction products have been used? If we want to have resilient cities, we must answer these basic questions and assure that basic factors such as fire resilience are included in our assessment.

Keywords: Buildings, Resilience, cities, Fire

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