Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Finite Element Modelling Related Abstracts

7 Finite Element Analysis of the Blanking and Stamping Processes of Nuclear Fuel Spacer Grids

Authors: Marcelo Costa Cardoso, Luciano Pessanha Moreira, Rafael Oliveira Santos


Spacer grid assembly supporting the nuclear fuel rods is an important concern in the design of structural components of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The spacer grid is composed by springs and dimples which are formed from a strip sheet by means of blanking and stamping processes. In this paper, the blanking process and tooling parameters are evaluated by means of a 2D plane-strain finite element model in order to evaluate the punch load and quality of the sheared edges of Inconel 718 strips used for nuclear spacer grids. A 3D finite element model is also proposed to predict the tooling loads resulting from the stamping process of a preformed Inconel 718 strip and to analyse the residual stress effects upon the spring and dimple design geometries of a nuclear spacer grid.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, blanking process, damage model, inconel 718, spacer grids, stamping process

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6 Thermal-Mechanical Analysis of a Bridge Deck to Determine Residual Weld Stresses

Authors: Evy Van Puymbroeck, Wim Nagy, Ken Schotte, Heng Fang, Hans De Backer


The knowledge of residual stresses for welded bridge components is essential to determine the effect of the residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior. The residual stresses of an orthotropic bridge deck are determined by simulating the welding process with finite element modelling. The stiffener is placed on top of the deck plate before welding. A chained thermal-mechanical analysis is set up to determine the distribution of residual stresses for the bridge deck. First, a thermal analysis is used to determine the temperatures of the orthotropic deck for different time steps during the welding process. Twin wire submerged arc welding is used to construct the orthotropic plate. A double ellipsoidal volume heat source model is used to describe the heat flow through a material for a moving heat source. The heat input is used to determine the heat flux which is applied as a thermal load during the thermal analysis. The heat flux for each element is calculated for different time steps to simulate the passage of the welding torch with the considered welding speed. This results in a time dependent heat flux that is applied as a thermal loading. Thermal material behavior is specified by assigning the properties of the material in function of the high temperatures during welding. Isotropic hardening behavior is included in the model. The thermal analysis simulates the heat introduced in the two plates of the orthotropic deck and calculates the temperatures during the welding process. After the calculation of the temperatures introduced during the welding process in the thermal analysis, a subsequent mechanical analysis is performed. For the boundary conditions of the mechanical analysis, the actual welding conditions are considered. Before welding, the stiffener is connected to the deck plate by using tack welds. These tack welds are implemented in the model. The deck plate is allowed to expand freely in an upwards direction while it rests on a firm and flat surface. This behavior is modelled by using grounded springs. Furthermore, symmetry points and lines are used to prevent the model to move freely in other directions. In the thermal analysis, a mechanical material model is used. The calculated temperatures during the thermal analysis are introduced during the mechanical analysis as a time dependent load. The connection of the elements of the two plates in the fusion zone is realized with a glued connection which is activated when the welding temperature is reached. The mechanical analysis results in a distribution of the residual stresses. The distribution of the residual stresses of the orthotropic bridge deck is compared with results from literature. Literature proposes uniform tensile yield stresses in the weld while the finite element modelling showed tensile yield stresses at a short distance from the weld root or the weld toe. The chained thermal-mechanical analysis results in a distribution of residual weld stresses for an orthotropic bridge deck. In future research, the effect of these residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior of welded bridge components can be studied.

Keywords: Residual Stresses, Finite Element Modelling, welding simulation, thermal-mechanical analysis

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5 Forced Vibration of a Fiber Metal Laminated Beam Containing a Delamination

Authors: M. Sedighi, Sh. Mirhosseini, Y. Haghighatfar


Forced vibration problem of a delaminated beam made of fiber metal laminates is studied in this paper. Firstly, a delamination is considered to divide the beam into four sections. The classic beam theory is assumed to dominate each section. The layers on two sides of the delamination are constrained to have the same deflection. This hypothesis approves the conditions of compatibility as well. Consequently, dynamic response of the beam is obtained by the means of differential transform method (DTM). In order to verify the correctness of the results, a model is constructed using commercial software ABAQUS 6.14. A linear spring with constant stiffness takes the effect of contact between delaminated layers into account. The attained semi-analytical outcomes are in great agreement with finite element analysis.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, delamination, natural frequency, forced vibration

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4 Micro-Scale Digital Image Correlation-Driven Finite Element Simulations of Deformation and Damage Initiation in Advanced High Strength Steels

Authors: Asim Alsharif, Christophe Pinna, Hassan Ghadbeigi


The development of next-generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) used in the automotive industry requires a better understanding of local deformation and damage development at the scale of their microstructures. This work is focused on dual-phase DP1000 steels and involves micro-mechanical tensile testing inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with digital image correlation (DIC) to quantify the heterogeneity of deformation in both ferrite and martensite and its evolution up to fracture. Natural features of the microstructure are used for the correlation carried out using Davis LaVision software. Strain localization is observed in both phases with tensile strain values up to 130% and 110% recorded in ferrite and martensite respectively just before final fracture. Damage initiation sites have been observed during deformation in martensite but could not be correlated to local strain values. A finite element (FE) model of the microstructure has then been developed using Abaqus to map stress distributions over representative areas of the microstructure by forcing the model to deform as in the experiment using DIC-measured displacement maps as boundary conditions. A MATLAB code has been developed to automatically mesh the microstructure from SEM images and to map displacement vectors from DIC onto the FE mesh. Results show a correlation of damage initiation at the interface between ferrite and martensite with local principal stress values of about 1700MPa in the martensite phase. Damage in ferrite is now being investigated, and results are expected to bring new insight into damage development in DP steels.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, Advanced high strength steels, digital image correlation, micro-mechanical testing

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3 Comparative Parametric Analysis on the Dynamic Response of Fibre Composite Beams with Debonding

Authors: Indunil Jayatilake, Warna Karunasena


Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites enjoy an array of applications ranging from aerospace, marine and military to automobile, recreational and civil industry due to their outstanding properties. A structural glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite sandwich panel made from E-glass fiber skin and a modified phenolic core has been manufactured in Australia for civil engineering applications. One of the major mechanisms of damage in FRP composites is skin-core debonding. The presence of debonding is of great concern not only because it severely affects the strength but also it modifies the dynamic characteristics of the structure, including natural frequency and vibration modes. This paper deals with the investigation of the dynamic characteristics of a GFRP beam with single and multiple debonding by finite element based numerical simulations and analyses using the STRAND7 finite element (FE) software package. Three-dimensional computer models have been developed, and numerical simulations were done to assess the dynamic behavior. The FE model developed has been validated with published experimental, analytical and numerical results for fully bonded as well as debonded beams. A comparative analysis is carried out based on a comprehensive parametric investigation. It is observed that the reduction in natural frequency is more affected by single debonding than the equally sized multiple debonding regions located symmetrically to the single debonding position. Thus it is revealed that a large single debonding area leads to more damage in terms of natural frequency reduction than isolated small debonding zones of equivalent area, appearing in the GFRP beam. Furthermore, the extents of natural frequency shifts seem mode-dependent and do not seem to have a monotonous trend of increasing with the mode numbers.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, dynamic response, debonding, novel FRP beams

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2 Evaluation of Deformable Boundary Condition Using Finite Element Method and Impact Test for Steel Tubes

Authors: Abed Ahmed, Mehrdad Asadi, Jennifer Martay


Stainless steel pipelines are crucial components to transportation and storage in the oil and gas industry. However, the rise of random attacks and vandalism on these pipes for their valuable transport has led to more security and protection for incoming surface impacts. These surface impacts can lead to large global deformations of the pipe and place the pipe under strain, causing the eventual failure of the pipeline. Therefore, understanding how these surface impact loads affect the pipes is vital to improving the pipes’ security and protection. In this study, experimental test and finite element analysis (FEA) have been carried out on EN3B stainless steel specimens to study the impact behaviour. Low velocity impact tests at 9 m/s with 16 kg dome impactor was used to simulate for high momentum impact for localised failure. FEA models of clamped and deformable boundaries were modelled to study the effect of the boundaries on the pipes impact behaviour on its impact resistance, using experimental and FEA approach. Comparison of experimental and FE simulation shows good correlation to the deformable boundaries in order to validate the robustness of the FE model to be implemented in pipe models with complex anisotropic structure.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, dynamic impact, LS-DYNA, deformable boundary conditions, stainless steel pipe

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1 Evaluation of Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Responses of an Industrial Gas Turbine Rotor

Authors: Wei Sun, Y. Rae, A. Benaarbia, J. Hughes


This paper describes an elasto-visco-plastic computational modelling method which can be used to assess the cyclic plasticity responses of high temperature structures operating under thermo-mechanical loadings. The material constitutive equation used is an improved unified multi-axial Chaboche-Lemaitre model, which takes into account non-linear kinematic and isotropic hardening. The computational methodology is a three-dimensional framework following an implicit formulation and based on a radial return mapping algorithm. The associated user material (UMAT) code is developed and calibrated across isothermal hold-time low cycle fatigue tests for a typical turbine rotor steel for use in finite element (FE) implementation. The model is applied to a realistic industrial gas turbine rotor, where the study focuses its attention on the deformation heterogeneities and critical high stress areas within the rotor structure. The potential improvements of such FE visco-plastic approach are discussed. An integrated life assessment procedure based on R5 and visco-plasticity modelling, is also briefly addressed.

Keywords: Finite Element Modelling, thermo-mechanical, unified visco-plasticity, turbine rotor

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