Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

finite element model Related Abstracts

19 Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Nour Ismail, Sahar El Kardawy, Bassant Badwy


Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in a nonhomogenous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of a nonhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.

Keywords: Pain relief, finite element model, nerve lesioning, radiofrequency lesion

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18 Reduction of Rotor-Bearing-Support Finite Element Model through Substructuring

Authors: Mohanad Alata, Abdur Rosyid, Mohamed El-Madany


Due to simplicity and low cost, rotordynamic system is often modeled by using lumped parameters. Recently, finite elements have been used to model rotordynamic system as it offers higher accuracy. However, it involves high degrees of freedom. In some applications such as control design, this requires higher cost. For this reason, various model reduction methods have been proposed. This work demonstrates the quality of model reduction of rotor-bearing-support system through substructuring. The quality of the model reduction is evaluated by comparing some first natural frequencies, modal damping ratio, critical speeds and response of both the full system and the reduced system. The simulation shows that the substructuring is proven adequate to reduce finite element rotor model in the frequency range of interest as long as the numbers and the locations of master nodes are determined appropriately. However, the reduction is less accurate in an unstable or nearly-unstable system.

Keywords: finite element model, rotordynamic, timoshenko beam, Guyan reduction method

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17 Effect of Infill’s in Influencing the Dynamic Responses of Multistoried Structures

Authors: Rahmathulla Noufal E.


Investigating the dynamic responses of high rise structures under the effect of siesmic ground motion is extremely important for the proper analysis and design of multitoried structures. Since the presence of infilled walls strongly influences the behaviour of frame systems in multistoried buildings, there is an increased need for developing guidelines for the analysis and design of infilled frames under the effect of dynamic loads for safe and proper design of buildings. In this manuscript, we evaluate the natural frequencies and natural periods of single bay single storey frames considering the effect of infill walls by using the Eigen value analysis and validating with SAP 2000 (free vibration analysis). Various parameters obtained from the diagonal strut model followed for the free vibration analysis is then compared with the Finite Element model, where infill is modeled as shell elements (four noded). We also evaluated the effect of various parameters on the natural periods of vibration obtained by free vibration analysis in SAP 2000 comparing them with those obtained by the empirical expressions presented in I.S. 1893(Part I)-2002.

Keywords: finite element model, SAP 2000, natural period, infilled frame, eigen value analysis, free vibration analysis, diagonal strut model

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16 E-Bike FE Model Analysis: Connection Stiffness of Elements with Different DOFs

Authors: Lele Zhang, Alexander Konyukhov, Shuguang Li, Hui Leng Choo


Finite Element (FE) model of simplified e-bike structure was generated by main frame with two tiers, which consisted of pipe, mass, beam, and shell elements (pipe 289, beam188, shell 181, shell 281, combin14, link11, mass21). These elements would be introduced and demonstrated using mathematical formulas. Based on coupling theory, constrain equations was proposed. Exporting all the parameters obtained from theory part, the connection stiffness matrix of the whole e-bike structure between each of these elements was detected.

Keywords: finite element model, e-bike, coupling theory, stiffness matrix

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15 Design and Simulation of a Double-Stator Linear Induction Machine with Short Squirrel-Cage Mover

Authors: David Rafetseder, Walter Bauer, Florian Poltschak, Wolfgang Amrhein


A flat double-stator linear induction machine (DSLIM) with a short squirrel-cage mover is designed for high thrust force at moderate speed < 5m/s. The performance and motor parameters are determined on the basis of a 2D time-transient simulation with the finite element (FE) software Maxwell 2015. Design guidelines and transformation rules for space vector theory of the LIM are presented. Resulting thrust calculated by flux and current vectors is compared with the FE results showing good coherence and reduced noise. The parameters of the equivalent circuit model are obtained.

Keywords: finite element model, equivalent circuit model, linear induction motor, space vector theory

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14 Mechanical Properties of CNT Reinforced Composite Using Berkovich Nanoindentation Analysis

Authors: Khondaker Sakil Ahmed, Ang Kok Keng, Shah Md Muniruzzaman


Spherical and Berkovich indentation tests are carried out numerically using finite element method for uniformly dispersed Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in the polymer matrix in which perfectly bonded CNT/matrix interface is considered. The Large strain elasto-plastic analysis is performed to investigate the actual scenario of nanoindentation test. This study investigates how the addition of CNT in polymer matrix influences the mechanical properties like hardness, elastic modulus of the nanocomposite. Since the wall thickness to radius ratio (t/r) is significantly small for SWCNT there is a huge possibility of lateral buckling which is a function of the location of indentation tip as well as the mechanical properties of matrix. Separate finite element models are constructed to compare the result with Berkovich indentation. This study also investigates the buckling behavior of different nanotube in a different polymer matrix.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, finite element model, elasto-plastic, nano-indentation

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13 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: Control, Fatigue, finite element model, FRP, concrete bond

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12 Effects of Active Muscle Contraction in a Car Occupant in Whiplash Injury

Authors: Nisha Nandlal Sharma, Julaluk Carmai, Saiprasit Koetniyom, Bernd Markert


Whiplash Injuries are usually associated with car accidents. The sudden forward or backward jerk to head causes neck strain, which is the result of damage to the muscle or tendons. Neck pain and headaches are the two most common symptoms of whiplash. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies but the Injury mechanism is poorly understood. Neck muscles are the most important factor to study the neck Injury. This study focuses on the development of finite element (FE) model of human neck muscle to study the whiplash injury mechanism and effect of active muscle contraction on occupant kinematics. A detailed study of Injury mechanism will promote development and evaluation of new safety systems in cars, hence reducing the occurrence of severe injuries to the occupant. In present study, an active human finite element (FE) model with 3D neck muscle model is developed. Neck muscle was modeled with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Muscle active properties were represented by beam elements whereas, passive properties by solid tetrahedral elements. To generate muscular force according to inputted activation levels, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Material properties were assigned from published experimental tests. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) 50th percentile male pedestrian model. To reduce the simulation time required, THUMS lower body parts were not included. Posterior to muscle insertion, THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.

Keywords: finite element model, muscle activation, neck muscle, whiplash injury prevention

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11 Development of 3D Neck Muscle to Analyze the Effect of Active Muscle Contraction in Whiplash Injury

Authors: Nisha Nandlal Sharma, Julaluk Carmai, Saiprasit Koetniyom, Bernd Markert


Whiplash Injuries are mostly experienced in car accidents. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies, neck pain and headaches are two most common symptoms observed. The whiplash Injury mechanism is poorly understood. In present study, hybrid neck muscle model were developed with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Solid tetrahedral elements represents passive part of the muscle whereas, 1D beam elements represents active part. To simulate the active behavior of the muscle, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.

Keywords: finite element model, muscle activation, THUMS, whiplash injury mechanism

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10 Numerical Simulation of Punching Shear of Flat Plates with Low Reinforcement

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Fatema-Tuz-Zahura


Punching shear failure is usually the governing failure mode of flat plate structures. Punching failure is brittle in nature which induces more vulnerability to this type of structure. In the present study, a 3D finite element model of a flat plate with low reinforcement ratio and without any transverse reinforcement has been developed. Punching shear stress and the deflection data were obtained on the surface of the flat plate as well as through the thickness of the model from numerical simulations. The obtained data were compared with the experimental results. Variation of punching stress with respect to deflection as obtained from numerical results is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results; the range of variation of punching stress is within 5%. The numerical simulation shows an early and gradual onset of nonlinearity, whereas the same is late and abrupt as observed in the experimental results. The range of variation of punching stress for different slab thicknesses between experimental and numerical results is less than 15%. The developed numerical model is useful to complement available punching test series performed in the past. The results obtained from the numerical model will be helpful for designing retrofitting schemes of flat plates.

Keywords: finite element model, flat plate, punching shear, reinforcement ratio

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9 Development of a Finite Element Model of the Upper Cervical Spine to Evaluate the Atlantoaxial Fixation Techniques

Authors: Iman Zafarparandeh, Muzammil Mumtaz, Paniz Taherzadeh, Deniz Erbulut


The instability in the atlantoaxial joint may occur due to cervical surgery, congenital anomalies, and trauma. There are different types of fixation techniques proposed for restoring the stability and preventing harmful neurological deterioration. Application of the screw constructs has become a popular alternative to the older techniques for stabilizing the joint. The main difference between the various screw constructs is the type of the screw which can be lateral mass screw, pedicle screw, transarticular screw, and translaminar screw. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of three popular screw constructs fixation techniques on the biomechanics of the atlantoaxial joint using the finite element (FE) method. A three-dimensional FE model of the upper cervical spine including the skull, C1 and C2 vertebrae, and groups of the existing ligaments were developed. The accurate geometry of the model was obtained from the CT data of a 35-year old male. Three screw constructs were designed to compare; Magerl transarticular screw (TA-Screw), Goel-Harms lateral mass screw and pedicle screw (LM-Screw and Pedicle-Screw), and Wright lateral mass screw and translaminar screw (LM-Screw and TL-Screw). Pure moments were applied to the model in the three main planes; flexion (Flex), extension (Ext), axial rotation (AR) and lateral bending (LB). The range of motion (ROM) of C0-C1 and C1-C2 segments for the implanted FE models are compared to the intact FE model and the in vitro study of Panjabi (1988). The Magerl technique showed less effect on the ROM of C0-C1 than the other two techniques in sagittal plane. In lateral bending and axial rotation, the Goel-Harms and Wright techniques showed less effect on the ROM of C0-C1 than the Magerl technique. The Magerl technique has the highest fusion rate as 99% in all loading directions for the C1-C2 segment. The Wright technique has the lowest fusion rate in LB as 79%. The three techniques resulted in the same fusion rate in extension loading as 99%. The maximum stress for the Magerl technique is the lowest in all load direction compared to other two techniques. The maximum stress in all direction was 234 Mpa and occurred in flexion with the Wright technique. The maximum stress for the Goel-Harms and Wright techniques occurred in lateral mass screw. The ROM obtained from the FE results support this idea that the fusion rate of the Magerl is more than 99%. Moreover, the maximum stress occurred in each screw constructs proves the less failure possibility for the Magerl technique. Another advantage of the Magerl technique is the less number of components compared to other techniques using screw constructs. Despite the benefits of the Magerl technique, there are drawbacks to using this method such as reduction of the C1 and C2 before screw placement. Therefore, other fixation methods such as Goel-Harms and Wright techniques find the solution for the drawbacks of the Magerl technique by adding screws separately to C1 and C2. The FE model implanted with the Wright technique showed the highest maximum stress almost in all load direction.

Keywords: finite element model, cervical spine, atlantoaxial, fixation technique

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8 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong


Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: finite element model, equivalent stiffness, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

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7 Analysis of the Premature In-Service Failure of Engine Mounting Towers of an Industrial Generator

Authors: Stephen J Futter, Michael I Okereke


This paper presents an investigation of the premature in-service failure of the engine mounting towers that form part of the bedframe commonly used for industrial power generation applications. The client during a routine in-service assessment of the generator set observed that the engine mounting towers had cracked. Thus, this study has investigated in detail the origin of the crack and proffered solutions to prevent a re-occurrence. Seven step problem solving methodology was followed during this paper. The study used both experimental and numerical approaches to understand, monitor and evaluate the cause and evolution of the premature failure. Findings from this study indicated that the failure resulted from a combination of varied processes from procurement of material parts, material selection, welding processes and inaptly designed load-bearing mechanics of the generating set and its mounting arrangement. These in-field observations and experimental simulations provided insights to design and validate a numerical finite element sub-model of the cracked bedframe considering thermal cycling: designed as part of these investigations. Resulting findings led to a recommendation of several procedural changes that should be adopted by the manufacturer, in order to prevent the re-occurrence of such pre-mature failure in future industrial applications.

Keywords: Failure analysis, Engine, finite element model, Premature Failure

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6 Investigation of Seismic T-Resisting Frame with Shear and Flexural Yield of Horizontal Plate Girders

Authors: Payam Ashtari, Helia Barzegar Sedigh, Farzaneh Hamedi


There are some limitations in common structural systems, such as providing appropriate lateral stiffness, adequate ductility, and architectural openings at the same time. Consequently, the concept of T-Resisting Frame (TRF) has been introduced to overcome all these deficiencies. The configuration of TRF in this study is a Vertical Plate Girder (VPG) which is placed within the span and two Horizontal Plate Girders (HPGs) connect VPG to side columns at each story level by the use of rigid connections. System performance is improved by utilizing rigid connections in side columns base joint. Shear yield of HPGs causes energy dissipation in TRF; therefore, high plastic deformation in web of HPGs and VPG affects the ductility of system. Moreover, in order to prevent shear buckling in web of TRF’s members and appropriate criteria for placement of web stiffeners are applied. In this paper, an experimental study is conducted by applying cyclic loading and using finite element models and numerical studies such as push over method are assessed on shear and flexural yielding of HPGs. As a result, seismic parameters indicate adequate lateral stiffness, and high ductility factor of 6.73, and HPGs’ shear yielding achieved as a proof of TRF’s better performance.

Keywords: experimental study, finite element model, flexural and shear yielding, t-resisting frame

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5 Numerical Study on Pretensioned Bridge Girder Using Thermal Strain Technique

Authors: Prashant Motwani, Arghadeep Laskar


The transfer of prestress force from prestressing strands to the surrounding concrete is dependent on the bond between the two materials. It is essential to understand the actual bond stress distribution along the transfer length to determine the transfer zone in pre-tensioned concrete. A 3-D nonlinear finite element model has been developed to simulate the transfer of prestress force from steel to concrete in pre-tensioned bridge girders through thermal strain technique using commercially available package ABAQUS. Full-scale bridge girder has been analyzed with thermal strain approach where the damage plasticity constitutive model has been used to model concrete. Parameters such as concrete strain, effective prestress, upward camber and longitudinal stress have been compared with analytical results. The discrepancy between numerical and analytical values was within 20%. The paper also presents a convergence study on mesh density and aspect ratio of the elements to perform the finite element study.

Keywords: finite element model, aspect ratio, bridge girder, centre of gravity of strand, mesh density, pretensioned bridge girder

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4 Micro-Meso 3D FE Damage Modelling of Woven Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite under Quasi-Static Bending

Authors: Aamir Mubashar, Ibrahim Fiaz


This research presents a three-dimensional finite element modelling strategy to simulate damage in a quasi-static three-point bending analysis of woven twill 2/2 type carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite on a micro-meso level using cohesive zone modelling technique. A meso scale finite element model comprised of a number of plies was developed in the commercial finite element code Abaqus/explicit. The interfaces between the plies were explicitly modelled using cohesive zone elements to allow for debonding by crack initiation and propagation. Load-deflection response of the CRFP within the quasi-static range was obtained and compared with the data existing in the literature. This provided validation of the model at the global scale. The outputs resulting from the global model were then used to develop a simulation model capturing the micro-meso scale material features. The sub-model consisted of a refined mesh representative volume element (RVE) modelled in texgen software, which was later embedded with cohesive elements in the finite element software environment. The results obtained from the developed strategy were successful in predicting the overall load-deflection response and the damage in global and sub-model at the flexure limit of the specimen. Detailed analysis of the effects of the micro-scale features was carried out.

Keywords: finite element model, cohesive zone, multi-scale modelling, woven composites

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3 Evaluation of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Slab Punching Shear Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Zhi Zhang, Liling Cao, Seyedbabak Momenzadeh, Lisa Davey


Reinforced concrete (RC) flat slab-column systems are commonly used in residential or office buildings, as the flat slab provides efficient clearance resulting in more stories at a given height than regular reinforced concrete beam-slab system. Punching shear of slab-column joints is a critical component of two-way reinforced concrete flat slab design. The unbalanced moment at the joint is transferred via slab moment and shear forces. ACI 318 provides an equation to evaluate the punching shear under the design load. It is important to note that the design code considers gravity and environmental load when considering the design load combinations, while it does not consider the effect from differential foundation settlement, which may be a governing load condition for the slab design. This paper describes how prestressed reinforced concrete slab punching shear is evaluated based on ACI 318 provisions and finite element analysis. A prestressed reinforced concrete slab under differential settlements is studied using the finite element modeling methodology. The punching shear check equation is explained. The methodology to extract data for punching shear check from the finite element model is described and correlated with the corresponding code provisions. The study indicates that the finite element analysis results should be carefully reviewed and processed in order to perform accurate punching shear evaluation. Conclusions are made based on the case studies to help engineers understand the punching shear behavior in prestressed and non-prestressed reinforced concrete slabs.

Keywords: finite element model, punching shear, differential settlement, prestressed reinforced concrete slab

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2 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu


This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: finite element model, shake table test, equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping

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1 Non-Linear Finite Element Investigation on the Behavior of CFRP Strengthened Steel Square HSS Columns under Eccentric Loading

Authors: Tasnuba Binte Jamal, Khan Mahmud Amanat


Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite materials have proven to have valuable properties and suitability to be used in the construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones due to its effectiveness, ease of implementation and many more. In the present study, a numerical finite element investigation has been conducted using ANSYS 18.1 to study the behavior of square HSS AISC sections under eccentric compressive loading strengthened with CFRP materials. A three-dimensional finite element model for square HSS section using shell element was developed. Application of CFRP strengthening was incorporated in the finite element model by adding an additional layer of shell elements. Both material and geometric nonlinearities were incorporated in the model. The developed finite element model was applied to simulate experimental studies done by past researchers and it was found that good agreement exists between the current analysis and past experimental results, which established the acceptability and validity of the developed finite element model to carry out further investigation. Study was then focused on some selected non-compact AISC square HSS columns and the effects of number of CFRP layers, amount of eccentricities and cross-sectional geometry on the strength gain of those columns were observed. Load was applied at a distance equal to the column dimension and twice that of column dimension. It was observed that CFRP strengthening is comparatively effective for smaller eccentricities. For medium sized sections, strengthening tends to be effective at smaller eccentricities as well. For relatively large AISC square HSS columns, with increasing number of CFRP layers (from 1 to 3 layers) the gain in strength is approximately 1 to 38% to that of unstrengthened section for smaller eccentricities and slenderness ratio ranging from 27 to 54. For medium sized square HSS sections, effectiveness of CFRP strengthening increases approximately by about 12 to 162%. The findings of the present study provide a better understanding of the behavior of HSS sections strengthened with CFRP subjected to eccentric compressive load.

Keywords: finite element model, square hollow section, eccentricity, CFRP strengthening

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