Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

finite difference method Related Abstracts

19 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff


A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, converting and storing solar energy as heat. In this paper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transfer behavior of salinity gradient solar pond. Matlab codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Solar energy, finite difference method, salt-gradient solar-pond, transient heat and mass transfer

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18 Stabilization of the Bernoulli-Euler Plate Equation: Numerical Analysis

Authors: Carla E. O. de Moraes, Gladson O. Antunes, Mauro A. Rincon


The aim of this paper is to study the internal stabilization of the Bernoulli-Euler equation numerically. For this, we consider a square plate subjected to a feedback/damping force distributed only in a subdomain. An algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution to this problem was proposed and implemented. The numerical method used was the Finite Difference Method. Numerical simulations were performed and showed the behavior of the solution, confirming the theoretical results that have already been proved in the literature. In addition, we studied the validation of the numerical scheme proposed, followed by an analysis of the numerical error; and we conducted a study on the decay of the energy associated.

Keywords: Stability, Numerical Simulations, finite difference method, Bernoulli-Euler plate equation, energy decay

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17 Analysis of a Self-Acting Air Journal Bearing: Effect of Dynamic Deformation of Bump Foil

Authors: H. Bensouilah, H. Boucherit, M. Lahmar


A theoretical investigation on the effects of both steady-state and dynamic deformations of the foils on the dynamic performance characteristics of a self-acting air foil journal bearing operating under small harmonic vibrations is proposed. To take into account the dynamic deformations of foils, the perturbation method is used for determining the gas-film stiffness and damping coefficients for given values of excitation frequency, compressibility number, and compliance factor of the bump foil. The nonlinear stationary Reynolds’ equation is solved by means of the Galerkins’ finite element formulation while the finite differences method are used to solve the first order complex dynamic equations resulting from the perturbation of the nonlinear transient compressible Reynolds’ equation. The stiffness of a bump is uniformly distributed throughout the bearing surface (generation I bearing). It was found that the dynamic properties of the compliant finite length journal bearing are significantly affected by the compliance of foils especially when the dynamic deformation of foils is considered in addition to the static one by applying the principle of superposition.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, finite difference method, elasto-aerodynamic lubrication, air foil bearing, steady-state deformation, dynamic deformation, stiffness and damping coefficients, perturbation method, Galerk infinite element method

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16 A Boundary-Fitted Nested Grid Model for Modeling Tsunami Propagation of 2004 Indonesian Tsunami along Southern Thailand

Authors: Fazlul Karim, Esa Al-Islam


Many problems in oceanography and environmental sciences require the solution of shallow water equations on physical domains having curvilinear coastlines and abrupt changes of ocean depth near the shore. Finite-difference technique for the shallow water equations representing the boundary as stair step may give inaccurate results near the coastline where results are of greatest interest for various applications. This suggests the use of methods which are capable of incorporating the irregular boundary in coastal belts. At the same time, large velocity gradient is expected near the beach and islands as water depth vary abruptly near the coast. A nested numerical scheme with fine resolution is the best resort to enhance the numerical accuracy with the least grid numbers for the region of interests where the velocity changes rapidly and which is unnecessary for the away of the region. This paper describes the development of a boundary fitted nested grid (BFNG) model to compute tsunami propagation of 2004 Indonesian tsunami in Southern Thailand coastal waters. In this paper, we develop a numerical model employing the shallow water nested model and an orthogonal boundary fitted grid to investigate the tsunami impact on the Southern Thailand due to the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. Comparisons of water surface elevation obtained from numerical simulations and field measurements are made.

Keywords: finite difference method, Southern Thailand, Indonesian tsunami of 2004, Boundary-fitted nested grid model

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15 Numerical Analysis for Soil Compaction and Plastic Points Extension in Pile Drivability

Authors: Omid Tavasoli, Mahmoud Ghazavi


A numerical analysis of drivability of piles in different geometry is presented. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite difference analysis for plastic point extension and soil compaction in the effect of pile driving is analyzed. Four pile configurations such as cylindrical pile, fully tapered pile, T-C pile consists of a top tapered segment and a lower cylindrical segment and C-T pile has a top cylindrical part followed by a tapered part are investigated. All piles which driven up to a total penetration depth of 16 m have the same length with equivalent surface area and approximately with identical material volumes. An idealization for pile-soil system in pile driving is considered for this approach. A linear elastic material is assumed to model the vertical pile behaviors and the soil obeys the elasto-plastic constitutive low and its failure is controlled by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. A slip which occurred at the pile-soil contact surfaces along the shaft and the toe in pile driving procedures is simulated with interface elements. All initial and boundary conditions are the same in all analyses. Quiet boundaries are used to prevent wave reflection in the lateral and vertical directions for the soil. The results obtained from numerical analyses were compared with available other numerical data and laboratory tests, indicating a satisfactory agreement. It will be shown that with increasing the angle of taper, the permanent piles toe settlement increase and therefore, the extension of plastic points increase. These are interesting phenomena in pile driving and are on the safe side for driven piles.

Keywords: Soil Compaction, finite difference method, pile driving, non-uniform piles, pile geometry, pile set, plastic points

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14 Using Scilab® as New Introductory Method in Numerical Calculations and Programming for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Authors: Nicoly Coelho, Eduardo Vieira Vilas Boas, Paulo Orestes Formigoni


Faced with the remarkable developments in the various segments of modern engineering, provided by the increasing technological development, professionals of all educational areas need to overcome the difficulties generated due to the good understanding of those who are starting their academic journey. Aiming to overcome these difficulties, this article aims at an introduction to the basic study of numerical methods applied to fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, demonstrating the modeling and simulations with its substance, and a detailed explanation of the fundamental numerical solution for the use of finite difference method, using SCILAB, a free software easily accessible as it is free and can be used for any research center or university, anywhere, both in developed and developing countries. It is known that the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a necessary tool for engineers and professionals who study fluid mechanics, however, the teaching of this area of knowledge in undergraduate programs faced some difficulties due to software costs and the degree of difficulty of mathematical problems involved in this way the matter is treated only in postgraduate courses. This work aims to bring the use of DFC low cost in teaching Transport Phenomena for graduation analyzing a small classic case of fundamental thermodynamics with Scilab® program. The study starts from the basic theory involving the equation the partial differential equation governing heat transfer problem, implies the need for mastery of students, discretization processes that include the basic principles of series expansion Taylor responsible for generating a system capable of convergence check equations using the concepts of Sassenfeld, finally coming to be solved by Gauss-Seidel method. In this work we demonstrated processes involving both simple problems solved manually, as well as the complex problems that required computer implementation, for which we use a small algorithm with less than 200 lines in Scilab® in heat transfer study of a heated plate in rectangular shape on four sides with different temperatures on either side, producing a two-dimensional transport with colored graphic simulation. With the spread of computer technology, numerous programs have emerged requiring great researcher programming skills. Thinking that this ability to program DFC is the main problem to be overcome, both by students and by researchers, we present in this article a hint of use of programs with less complex interface, thus enabling less difficulty in producing graphical modeling and simulation for DFC with an extension of the programming area of experience for undergraduates.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Methods, SCILAB, finite difference method

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13 Large Amplitude Vibration of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Youssef Abdelli, Rachid Nasri


The large amplitude free vibration analysis of three-layered symmetric sandwich beams is carried out using two different approaches. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of motion in free natural vibration are derived using Hamilton's principle. The formulation leads to two nonlinear partial differential equations that are coupled both in axial and binding deformations. In the first approach, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the governing equation that is a nonlinear partial differential equation. In the second approach, we discretize the governing equation by using Galerkin's procedure and then apply the shooting method to the obtained ordinary differential equations. In order to check the validity of the solutions obtained by the two approaches, they are compared with the solutions obtained by two approaches; they are compared with the solutions obtained numerically by the finite difference method.

Keywords: Nonlinear Vibration, finite difference method, large amplitude vibration, multiple scales

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12 Numerical Solution of Momentum Equations Using Finite Difference Method for Newtonian Flows in Two-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System

Authors: Ali Ateş, Ansar B. Mwimbo, Ali H. Abdulkarim


General transport equation has a wide range of application in Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer problems. In this equation, generally when φ variable which represents a flow property is used to represent fluid velocity component, general transport equation turns into momentum equations or with its well known name Navier-Stokes equations. In these non-linear differential equations instead of seeking for analytic solutions, preferring numerical solutions is a more frequently used procedure. Finite difference method is a commonly used numerical solution method. In these equations using velocity and pressure gradients instead of stress tensors decreases the number of unknowns. Also, continuity equation, by integrating the system, number of equations is obtained as number of unknowns. In this situation, velocity and pressure components emerge as two important parameters. In the solution of differential equation system, velocities and pressures must be solved together. However, in the considered grid system, when pressure and velocity values are jointly solved for the same nodal points some problems confront us. To overcome this problem, using staggered grid system is a referred solution method. For the computerized solutions of the staggered grid system various algorithms were developed. From these, two most commonly used are SIMPLE and SIMPLER algorithms. In this study Navier-Stokes equations were numerically solved for Newtonian flow, whose mass or gravitational forces were neglected, for incompressible and laminar fluid, as a hydro dynamically fully developed region and in two dimensional cartesian coordinate system. Finite difference method was chosen as the solution method. This is a parametric study in which varying values of velocity components, pressure and Reynolds numbers were used. Differential equations were discritized using central difference and hybrid scheme. The discritized equation system was solved by Gauss-Siedel iteration method. SIMPLE and SIMPLER were used as solution algorithms. The obtained results, were compared for central difference and hybrid as discritization methods. Also, as solution algorithm, SIMPLE algorithm and SIMPLER algorithm were compared to each other. As a result, it was observed that hybrid discritization method gave better results over a larger area. Furthermore, as computer solution algorithm, besides some disadvantages, it can be said that SIMPLER algorithm is more practical and gave result in short time. For this study, a code was developed in DELPHI programming language. The values obtained in a computer program were converted into graphs and discussed. During sketching, the quality of the graph was increased by adding intermediate values to the obtained result values using Lagrange interpolation formula. For the solution of the system, number of grid and node was found as an estimated. At the same time, to indicate that the obtained results are satisfactory enough, by doing independent analysis from the grid (GCI analysis) for coarse, medium and fine grid system solution domain was obtained. It was observed that when graphs and program outputs were compared with similar studies highly satisfactory results were achieved.

Keywords: finite difference method, GCI analysis, numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, SIMPLE and SIMPLER algoritms

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11 Probabilistic Simulation of Triaxial Undrained Cyclic Behavior of Soils

Authors: Arezoo Sadrinezhad, Kallol Sett, S. I. Hariharan


In this paper, a probabilistic framework based on Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) approach has been applied to simulate triaxial cyclic constitutive behavior of uncertain soils. The framework builds upon previous work of the writers, and it has been extended for cyclic probabilistic simulation of triaxial undrained behavior of soils. von Mises elastic-perfectly plastic material model is considered. It is shown that by using probabilistic framework, some of the most important aspects of soil behavior under cyclic loading can be captured even with a simple elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Soils, finite difference method, elasto-plasticity, fokker-planck equation, fourier spectral method

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10 Free Convection in a Darcy Thermally Stratified Porous Medium That Embeds a Vertical Wall of Constant Heat Flux and Concentration

Authors: Maria Neagu


This paper presents the heat and mass driven natural convection succession in a Darcy thermally stratified porous medium that embeds a vertical semi-infinite impermeable wall of constant heat flux and concentration. The scale analysis of the system determines the two possible maps of the heat and mass driven natural convection sequence along the wall as a function of the process parameters. These results are verified using the finite differences method applied to the conservation equations.

Keywords: natural convection, porous medium, finite difference method, scale analysis, thermal stratification

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9 Modal FDTD Method for Wave Propagation Modeling Customized for Parallel Computing

Authors: H. Samadiyeh, R. Khajavi


A new FD-based procedure, modal finite difference method (MFDM), is proposed for seismic wave propagation modeling, in which simulation is dealt with in the modal space. The method employs eigenvalues of a characteristic matrix formed by appropriate time-space FD stencils. Since MFD runs for different modes are totally independent of each other, MFDM can easily be parallelized while considerable simplicity in parallel-algorithm is also achieved. There is no requirement to any domain-decomposition procedure and inter-core data exchange. More important is the possibility to skip processing of less-significant modes, which enables one to adjust the procedure up to the level of accuracy needed. Thus, in addition to considerable ease of parallel programming, computation and storage costs are significantly reduced. The method is qualified for its efficiency by some numerical examples.

Keywords: Wave propagation, finite difference method, modal, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), Message Passing Interface (MPI)

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8 Quality Evaluation of Backfill Grout in Tunnel Boring Machine Tail Void Using Impact-Echo (IE): Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) Numerical Analysis

Authors: Ju-Young Choi, Ki-Il Song, Kyoung-Yul Kim


During Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) tunnel excavation, backfill grout should be injected after the installation of segment lining to ensure the stability of the tunnel and to minimize ground deformation. If grouting is not sufficient to fill the gap between the segments and rock mass, hydraulic pressures occur in the void, which can negatively influence the stability of the tunnel. Recently the tendency to use TBM tunnelling method to replace the drill and blast(NATM) method is increasing. However, there are only a few studies of evaluation of backfill grout. This study evaluates the TBM tunnel backfill state using Impact-Echo(IE). 3-layers, segment-grout-rock mass, are simulated by FLAC 2D, FDM-based software. The signals obtained from numerical analysis and IE test are analyzed by Short-Time Fourier Transform(STFT) in time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain. The result of this study can be used to evaluate the quality of backfill grouting in tail void.

Keywords: finite difference method, tunnel boring machine, backfill grout, impact-echo method, time-frequency domain analysis

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7 Numerical Model to Study Calcium and Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Dynamics in a Myocyte Cell

Authors: Nisha Singh, Neeru Adlakha


Calcium signalling is one of the most important intracellular signalling mechanisms. A lot of approaches and investigators have been made in the study of calcium signalling in various cells to understand its mechanisms over recent decades. However, most of existing investigators have mainly focussed on the study of calcium signalling in various cells without paying attention to the dependence of calcium signalling on other chemical ions like inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate ions, etc. Some models for the independent study of calcium signalling and inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate signalling in various cells are present but very little attention has been paid by the researchers to study the interdependence of these two signalling processes in a cell. In this paper, we propose a coupled mathematical model to understand the interdependence of inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate dynamics and calcium dynamics in a myocyte cell. Such studies will provide the deeper understanding of various factors involved in calcium signalling in myocytes, which may be of great use to biomedical scientists for various medical applications.

Keywords: finite difference method, coupling, calcium signalling, inositol 1

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6 A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: M. G. Murtaza, E. E. Tzirtzilakis, M. Ferdows


The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.

Keywords: MHD, finite difference method, variable thermal conductivity, curved stretching sheet

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5 Improvement Performances of the Supersonic Nozzles at High Temperature Type Minimum Length Nozzle

Authors: W. Hamaidia, T. Zebbiche


This paper presents the design of axisymmetric supersonic nozzles, in order to accelerate a supersonic flow to the desired Mach number and that having a small weight, in the same time gives a high thrust. The concerned nozzle gives a parallel and uniform flow at the exit section. The nozzle is divided into subsonic and supersonic regions. The supersonic portion is independent to the upstream conditions of the sonic line. The subsonic portion is used to give a sonic flow at the throat. In this case, nozzle gives a uniform and parallel flow at the exit section. It’s named by minimum length Nozzle. The study is done at high temperature, lower than the dissociation threshold of the molecules, in order to improve the aerodynamic performances. Our aim consists of improving the performances both by the increase of exit Mach number and the thrust coefficient and by reduction of the nozzle's mass. The variation of the specific heats with the temperature is considered. The design is made by the Method of Characteristics. The finite differences method with predictor-corrector algorithm is used to make the numerical resolution of the obtained nonlinear algebraic equations. The application is for air. All the obtained results depend on three parameters which are exit Mach number, the stagnation temperature, the chosen mesh in characteristics. A numerical simulation of nozzle through Computational Fluid Dynamics-FASTRAN was done to determine and to confirm the necessary design parameters.

Keywords: Air, High Temperature, finite difference method, method of characteristics, error, flux supersonic flow, axisymmetric minimum length nozzle, calorically imperfect gas, trust coefficient, mass of the nozzle, specific heat at constant pressure

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4 Study of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Acceleration by Cylindrical TE₀₁₁ Mode

Authors: Oswaldo Otero, Eduardo A. Orozco, Ana M. Herrera


In this work, we present results from analytical and numerical studies of the electron acceleration by a TE₀₁₁ cylindrical microwave mode in a static homogeneous magnetic field under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition. The stability of the orbits is analyzed using the particle orbit theory. In order to get a better understanding of the interaction wave-particle, we decompose the azimuthally electric field component as the superposition of right and left-hand circular polarization standing waves. The trajectory, energy and phase-shift of the electron are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation in a finite difference method by the Boris method. It is shown that an electron longitudinally injected with an energy of 7 keV in a radial position r=Rc/2, being Rc the cavity radius, is accelerated up to energy of 90 keV by an electric field strength of 14 kV/cm and frequency of 2.45 GHz. This energy can be used to produce X-ray for medical imaging. These results can be used as a starting point for study the acceleration of electrons in a magnetic field changing slowly in time (GYRAC), which has some important applications as the electron cyclotron resonance ion proton accelerator (ECR-IPAC) for cancer therapy and to control plasma bunches with relativistic electrons.

Keywords: X-Ray, finite difference method, Boris method, electron cyclotron resonance, particle orbit theory

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3 On the Grid Technique by Approximating the Derivatives of the Solution of the Dirichlet Problems for (1+1) Dimensional Linear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Lawrence A. Farinola


Four point implicit schemes for the approximation of the first and pure second order derivatives for the solution of the Dirichlet problem for one dimensional Schrodinger equation with respect to the time variable t were constructed. Also, special four-point implicit difference boundary value problems are proposed for the first and pure second derivatives of the solution with respect to the spatial variable x. The Grid method is also applied to the mixed second derivative of the solution of the Linear Schrodinger time-dependent equation. It is assumed that the initial function belongs to the Holder space C⁸⁺ᵃ, 0 < α < 1, the Schrodinger wave function given in the Schrodinger equation is from the Holder space Cₓ,ₜ⁶⁺ᵃ, ³⁺ᵃ/², the boundary functions are from C⁴⁺ᵃ, and between the initial and the boundary functions the conjugation conditions of orders q = 0,1,2,3,4 are satisfied. It is proven that the solution of the proposed difference schemes converges uniformly on the grids of the order O(h²+ k) where h is the step size in x and k is the step size in time. Numerical experiments are illustrated to support the analysis made.

Keywords: Schrödinger Equation, finite difference method, approximation of derivatives, uniform error

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2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller


In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: Symbolic Computation, Finite Element Method, finite difference method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, wave propagation equations

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1 Conduction Transfer Functions for the Calculation of Heat Demands in Heavyweight Facade Systems

Authors: Mergim Gasia, Bojan Milovanovica, Sanjin Gumbarevic


Better energy performance of the building envelope is one of the most important aspects of energy savings if the goals set by the European Union are to be achieved in the future. Dynamic heat transfer simulations are being used for the calculation of building energy consumption because they give more realistic energy demands compared to the stationary calculations that do not take the building’s thermal mass into account. Software used for these dynamic simulation use methods that are based on the analytical models since numerical models are insufficient for longer periods. The analytical models used in this research fall in the category of the conduction transfer functions (CTFs). Two methods for calculating the CTFs covered by this research are the Laplace method and the State-Space method. The literature review showed that the main disadvantage of these methods is that they are inadequate for heavyweight façade elements and shorter time periods used for the calculation. The algorithms for both the Laplace and State-Space methods are implemented in Mathematica, and the results are compared to the results from EnergyPlus and TRNSYS since these software use similar algorithms for the calculation of the building’s energy demand. This research aims to check the efficiency of the Laplace and the State-Space method for calculating the building’s energy demand for heavyweight building elements and shorter sampling time, and it also gives the means for the improvement of the algorithms used by these methods. As the reference point for the boundary heat flux density, the finite difference method (FDM) is used. Even though the dynamic heat transfer simulations are superior to the calculation based on the stationary boundary conditions, they have their limitations and will give unsatisfactory results if not properly used.

Keywords: finite difference method, Laplace method, state-space method, conduction transfer functions

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