Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

fine aggregate Related Abstracts

6 Effect of Iron Ore Tailings on the Properties of Fly-ash Cement Concrete

Authors: Sikiru F. Oritola, Abd Latif Saleh, Abd Rahman Mohd Sam, Rozana Zakaria, Mushairry Mustaffar


The strength of concrete varies with the types of material used; the material used within concrete can also result in different strength due to improper selection of the component. Each material brings a different aspect to the concrete. This work studied the effect of using Iron ore Tailings (IOTs) as partial replacement for sand on some properties of concrete using Fly ash Cement as the binder. The sieve analysis and some other basic properties of the materials used in producing concrete samples were first determined. Two brands of Fly ash Cement were studied. For each brand of Fly ash Cement, five different types of concrete samples denoted as HCT0, HCT10, HCT20, HCT30 and HCT40, for the first brand and PCT0, PCT10, PCT20, PCT30 and PCT40, for the second brand were produced. The percentage of Tailings as partial replacement for sand in the sample was varied from 0% to 40% at 10% interval. For each concrete sample, the average of three cubes, three cylinders and three prism specimen results was used for the determination of the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and the flexural strength respectively. Water/cement ratio of 0.54 with fly-ash cement content of 463 Kg/m3 was used in preparing the fresh concrete. The slump values for the HCT brand concrete ranges from 152mm – 75mm while that of PCT brand ranges from 149mm to 70mm. The concrete sample PCT30 recorded the highest 28 days compressive strength of 28.12 N/mm2, the highest splitting tensile strength of 2.99 N/mm2 as well as the highest flexural strength of 4.99 N/mm2. The texture of the iron-ore tailings is rough and angular and was therefore able to improve the strength of the fly ash cement concrete. Also, due to the fineness of the IOTs more void in the concrete can be filled, but this reaches the optimum at 30% replacement level, hence the drop in strength at 40% replacement

Keywords: concrete strength, fine aggregate, fly ash cement, iron ore tailings

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5 Use of Fine Recycled Aggregates in Normal Concrete Production

Authors: Vignesh Pechiappan Ayyathurai, Mukesh Limbachiya, Hsein Kew


There is a growing interest in using recycled, secondary use and industrial by product materials in high value commercial applications. Potential high volume applications include use of fine aggregate in flowable fill or as a component in manufactured aggregates. However, there is much scientific, as well as applied research needed in this area due to lack to availability of data on the mechanical and environmental properties of elements or products produced using fine recycled aggregates. The principle objectives of this research are to synthesize existing data on the beneficial reuse of fine recycled materials and to develop extensive testing programme for assessing and establishing engineering and long term durability properties of concrete and other construction products produced using such material for use in practical application widely. This paper is a research proposal for PhD admission. The proposed research aims to supply the necessary technical, as well as practical information on fine recycled aggregate concrete to the construction industry for promoting its wider use within the construction industry. Furthermore, to disseminate research outcomes to the local authorities for consideration of use of fine recycled aggregate concrete in various applications.

Keywords: Concrete, Recycling, fine aggregate, FRA

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4 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole


There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: palm kernel shell, fine aggregate, building walls, lightweight masonry mortar, wall thermal insulation efficacy

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3 Investigation of the Operational Principle and Flow Analysis of a Newly Developed Dry Separator

Authors: Sangmo Kang, Sung Uk Park, Young Su Kang, Young Kweon Suh


Mineral product, waste concrete (fine aggregates), waste in the optical field, industry, and construction employ separators to separate solids and classify them according to their size. Various sorting machines are used in the industrial field such as those operating under electrical properties, centrifugal force, wind power, vibration, and magnetic force. Study on separators has been carried out to contribute to the environmental industry. In this study, we perform CFD analysis for understanding the basic mechanism of the separation of waste concrete (fine aggregate) particles from air with a machine built with a rotor with blades. In CFD, we first performed two-dimensional particle tracking for various particle sizes for the model with 1 degree, 1.5 degree, and 2 degree angle between each blade to verify the boundary conditions and the method of rotating domain method to be used in 3D. Then we developed 3D numerical model with ANSYS CFX to calculate the air flow and track the particles. We judged the capability of particle separation for given size by counting the number of particles escaping from the domain toward the exit among 10 particles issued at the inlet. We confirm that particles experience stagnant behavior near the exit of the rotating blades where the centrifugal force acting on the particles is in balance with the air drag force. It was also found that the minimum particle size that can be separated by the machine with the rotor is determined by its capability to stay at the outlet of the rotor channels.

Keywords: CFD, fine aggregate, environmental industry, separator

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2 Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Ismail A. Yahya


In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.

Keywords: lightweight concrete, fine aggregate, crushed palm kernel shell, non-structural concrete

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1 A Study of Mortars with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Fine Aggregate and Its Influence on Properties of Burnt Clay Brick Masonry

Authors: Vibha Venkataramu, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy


Natural river sand is the most preferred choice as fine aggregate in masonry mortars. Uncontrolled mining of sand from riverbeds for several decades has had detrimental effects on the environment. Several countries across the world have put strict restrictions on sand mining from riverbeds. However, in countries like India, the huge infrastructural boom has made the local construction industry to look for alternative materials to sand. This study aims at understanding the suitability of granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) as fine aggregates in masonry mortars. Apart from characterising the material properties of GBS, such as particle size distribution, pH, chemical composition, etc., of GBS, tests were performed on the mortars with GBS as fine aggregate. Additionally, the properties of five brick tall, stack bonded masonry prisms with various types of GBS mortars were studied. The mortars with mix proportions 1: 0: 6 (cement: lime: fine aggregate), 1: 1: 6, and 1: 0: 3 were considered for the study. Fresh and hardened properties of mortar, such as flow and compressive strength, were studied. To understand the behaviour of GBS mortars on masonry, tests such as compressive strength and flexure bond strength were performed on masonry prisms made with a different type of GBS mortars. Furthermore, the elastic properties of masonry with GBS mortars were also studied under compression. For comparison purposes, the properties of corresponding control mortars with natural sand as fine aggregate and masonry prisms with sand mortars were also studied under similar testing conditions. From the study, it was observed the addition of GBS negatively influenced the flow of mortars and positively influenced the compressive strength. The GBS mortars showed 20 to 25 % higher compressive strength at 28 days of age, compared to corresponding control mortars. Furthermore, masonry made with GBS mortars showed nearly 10 % higher compressive strengths compared to control specimens. But, the impact of GBS on the flexural strength of masonry was marginal.

Keywords: Building materials, fine aggregate, granulated blast furnace slag in mortars, masonry properties

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