Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Financial Performance Related Abstracts

21 Effect of Media Reputation on Financial Performance and Abnormal Returns of Corporate Social Responsibility Winner

Authors: Yu-Chen Wei, Dan-Leng Wang

Abstract:

This study examines whether the reputation from media press affect the financial performance and market abnormal returns around the announcement of corporate social responsibility (CSR) award in the Taiwan Stock Market. The differences between this study and prior literatures are that the media reputation of media coverage and net optimism are constructed by using content analyses. The empirical results show the corporation which won CSR awards could promote financial performance next year. The media coverage and net optimism related to CSR winner are higher than the non-CSR companies prior and after the CSR award is announced, and the differences are significant, but the difference would decrease when the day was closing to announcement. We propose that non-CSR companies may try to manipulate media press to increase the coverage and positive image received by investors compared to the CSR winners. The cumulative real returns and abnormal returns of CSR winners did not significantly higher than the non-CSR samples however the leading returns of CSR winners would higher after the award announcement two months. The comparisons of performances between CSR and non-CSR companies could be the consideration of portfolio management for mutual funds and investors.

Keywords: Media, Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation Management, Financial Performance, abnormal returns

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20 A Study of the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Financial Performance of Banks in Mauritius

Authors: Narvada Ramdhany, Reena Bhattu Babajee

Abstract:

The 2007-2008 Global Financial Crisis which initiated in the US had a global outreach, impacting the financial and banking sectors of several economies; such as European countries, developing and emerging countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. European countries represent one of the main sources of export earnings for Mauritius and given that Europe has been quite profoundly affected by the crisis, the Mauritian economy also could have been negatively affected. This study is being undertaken to see if the crisis had a spill-over effect on the Mauritian banking system. It will also enable to determine if the measures put in place to counteract the crisis by regulatory authorities have been effective. The study will be carried out on 17 banks and data will be collected over a time frame of seven years; with a pre-crisis period from 2005 to 2007 and a post-crisis period from 2009 to 2011. The impact of the crisis as such will be measured through the financial performance of the banks, using financial ratios and regression analysis. The results show that during the period concerned Mauritian banks have remained solvent and relatively stable. One of the main explanations put forward to explain the resilience of the banking sector to the crisis is that foreign exposure was relatively low. Another explanation put forward is that Mauritian banks normally transact mainly with prime borrowers unlike most the banks which were affected by the financial crisis.  

Keywords: Global Financial Crisis, Financial Performance, banking sector, Mauritian banks

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19 Corporate Governance Attributes and Financial Performance in Malaysian Listed Companies

Authors: Idris Adamu Alhaji, Wan Fauziahbt Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

This study was conducted to identify the relationship between Corporate Governance attributes and Firm Performance, various studies, had been carried out mostly in developed countries, in order to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Since, the value creation of corporate governance can be measured through the firm performance, corporate governance act as a mechanism to align management's goals with the stakeholders especially to increase firm performance. Despite extensive study of corporate governance there is still an inconsistence relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Five corporate governance element were used as independent variables which include: Independent director, board size, audit committee, leadership structure and board meeting. Meanwhile, the dependent variables are two firm performance measurements; return on equity (ROE) and earning per share (EPS). This study uses quantitative approaches whereby data were gathered from secondary source data were collected from Annual Reports of the companies, online journals etc. This study revealed that, there is a significant relationship between corporate governance attributes and firm performance. Therefore, the results show that good corporate governance practice influence firm performance. Finally, it's hoped that this study provides current corporate governance scenario in Malaysia that can be used to enhance the development of corporate governance of the country.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Financial Performance, return on equity, earning per share

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18 Correlation Analysis between the Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of Banking Sectors Using Parameter Estimation

Authors: Vishwa Nath Maurya, Rama Shanker Sharma, Saad Talib Hasson Aljebori, Avadhesh Kumar Maurya, Diwinder Kaur Arora

Abstract:

Present paper deals with problems of determining the relationship between the variables of corporate governance and financial performance of Islamic banks. Here, we dealt with the corporate governance in the banking sector, where increasing the importance of corporate governance, due to their special nature, as the bankruptcy of banks affects not only the relevant parties from customers, depositors and lenders, but also affect financial stability and then the economy as a whole. Through this paper we dealt to the specificity of governance in Islamic banks, which face double governance: Anglo-Saxon governance system and Islamic governance system. In addition, we focused our attention to measure the impact of corporate governance variables on financial performance through an empirical study on a sample of Islamic banks during the period 2005-2012 in the GCC region. Our present study implies that there is a very strong relationship between the variables of governance and financial performance of Islamic banks, where there is a positive relationship between return on assets and the composition of the Board of Directors, the size of the Board of Directors, the number of committees in the Council, as well as the number of members of the Sharia Supervisory Board, while it is clear that there is a negative relationship between return on assets and concentration ownership.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Correlation analysis, Financial Stability, Financial Performance, parametric estimation, conventional banks, bankruptcy, Islamic governance system

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17 The Impact of the Enron Scandal on the Reputation of Corporate Social Responsibility Rating Agencies

Authors: Jaballah Jamil

Abstract:

KLD (Peter Kinder, Steve Lydenberg and Amy Domini) research & analytics is an independent intermediary of social performance information that adopts an investor-pay model. KLD rating agency does not have an explicit monitoring on the rated firm which suggests that KLD ratings may not include private informations. Moreover, the incapacity of KLD to predict accurately the extra-financial rating of Enron casts doubt on the reliability of KLD ratings. Therefore, we first investigate whether KLD ratings affect investors' perception by studying the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances. Second, we study the impact of the Enron scandal on investors' perception of KLD rating changes by comparing the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances before and after the failure of Enron. We propose an empirical study that relates a number of equally-weighted portfolios returns, excess stock returns and book-to-market ratio to different dimensions of KLD social responsibility ratings. We first find that over the last two decades KLD rating changes influence significantly and negatively stock returns and book-to-market ratio of rated firms. This finding suggests that a raise in corporate social responsibility rating lowers the firm's risk. Second, to assess the Enron scandal's effect on the perception of KLD ratings, we compare the effect of KLD rating changes before and after the Enron scandal. We find that after the Enron scandal this significant effect disappears. This finding supports the view that the Enron scandal annihilates the KLD's effect on Socially Responsible Investors. Therefore, our findings may question results of recent studies that use KLD ratings as a proxy for Corporate Social Responsibility behavior.

Keywords: Financial Performance, investment decision, KLD social rating agency, investors' perception

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16 Accounting Performance of the Leading Companies in the Construction Sector in Brazil during the Period 2009-2012

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Thiago Luiz Mello Melato

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The construction industry has been demonstrating increased growth and importance in Brazil’s national economic development. This study aims to evaluate the financial performance of the leading companies in the construction sector in Brazil in the period from 2009 to 2012. An analysis is made of the capital structure, liquidity, and profitability of the six largest companies in the construction sector in Brazil: Brookfield, Cyrela, Gafisa, MRV, PDG and Rossi. The results are then compared with standard industry ratios. It was found that among the companies analyzed, MRV and Cyrela showed the best relative performance in the period under consideration.

Keywords: Construction, Financial Performance, Brazil, accounting ratios

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15 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

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We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Australia, Financial Performance, board of directors, credit unions, asset quality

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14 Growing Pains and Organizational Development in Growing Enterprises: Conceptual Model and Its Empirical Examination

Authors: Maciej Czarnecki

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Even though growth is one of the most important strategic objectives for many enterprises, we know relatively little about this phenomenon. This research contributes to broaden our knowledge of managerial consequences of growth. Scales for measuring organizational development and growing pains were developed. Conceptual model of connections among growth, organizational development, growing pains, selected development factors and financial performance were examined. The research process contained literature review, 20 interviews with managers, examination of 12 raters’ opinions, pilot research and 7 point Likert scale questionnaire research on 138 Polish enterprises employing 50-249 people which increased their employment at least by 50% within last three years. Factor analysis, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, student’s t-test and chi-squared test were used to develop scales. High Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were obtained. The verification of correlations among the constructs was carried out with factor correlations, multiple regressions and path analysis. When the enterprise grows, it is necessary to implement changes in its structure, management practices etc. (organizational development) to meet challenges of growing complexity. In this paper, organizational development was defined as internal changes aiming to improve the quality of existing or to introduce new elements in the areas of processes, organizational structure and culture, operational and management systems. Thus; H1: Growth has positive effects on organizational development. The main thesis of the research is that if organizational development does not catch up with growing complexity of growing enterprise, growing pains will arise (lower work comfort, conflicts, lack of control etc.). They will exert a negative influence on the financial performance and may result in serious organizational crisis or even bankruptcy. Thus; H2: Growth has positive effects on growing pains, H3: Organizational development has negative effects on growing pains, H4: Growing pains have negative effects on financial performance, H5: Organizational development has positive effects on financial performance. Scholars considered long lists of factors having potential influence on organizational development. The development of comprehensive model taking into account all possible variables may be beyond the capacity of any researcher or even statistical software used. After literature review, it was decided to increase the level of abstraction and to include following constructs in the conceptual model: organizational learning (OL), positive organization (PO) and high performance factors (HPF). H1a/b/c: OL/PO/HPF has positive effect on organizational development, H2a/b/c: OL/PO/HPF has negative effect on growing pains. The results of hypothesis testing: H1: partly supported, H1a/b/c: supported/not supported/supported, H2: not supported, H2a/b/c: not supported/partly supported/not supported, H3: supported, H4: partly supported, H5: supported. The research seems to be of a great value for both scholars and practitioners. It proved that OL and HPO matter for organizational development. Scales for measuring organizational development and growing pains were developed. Its main finding, though, is that organizational development is a good way of improving financial performance.

Keywords: Growth, Organizational Development, Financial Performance, growing pains

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13 Financial Performance Model of Local Economic Enterprises in Matalam, Cotabato

Authors: Kristel Faye Tandog

Abstract:

The State Owned Enterprise (SOE) or also called Public Enterprise (PE) has been playing a vital role in a country’s social and economic development. Following this idea, this study focused on the Factor Structures of Financial Performance of the Local Economic Enterprises (LEEs) namely: Food Court, Market, Slaughterhouse, and Terminal in Matalam, Cotabato. It aimed to determine the profile of the LEEs in terms of organizational structure, manner of creation, years in operation, source of initial operating requirements, annual operating budget, geographical location, and size or description of the facility. This study also included the different financial ratios of LEE that covered a five year period from Calendar Year 2009 to 2013. Primary data using survey questionnaire was administered to 468 respondents and secondary data were sourced out from the government archives and financial documents of the said LGU. There were 12 dominant factors identified namely: “management”, “enforcement of laws”, “strategic location”, “existence of non-formal competitors”, “proper maintenance”, “pricing”, “customer service”, “collection process”, “rentals and services”, “efficient use of resources”, “staffing”, and “timeliness and accuracy”. On the other hand, the financial performance of the LEE of Matalam, Cotabato using financial ratios needs reformatting. This denotes that refinement as to the following ratios: Cash Flow Indicator, Activity, Profitability and Growth is necessary. The cash flow indicator ratio showed difficulty in covering its debts in successive years. Likewise, the activity ratios showed that the LEE had not been effective in putting its investment at work. Moreover, profitability ratios revealed that it had operated in minimum capacity and had incurred net losses and thus, it had a weak profit performance. Furthermore, growth ratios showed that LEE had a declining growth trend particularly in net income.

Keywords: Financial Performance, factor structures, financial ratios, state owned enterprises

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12 Assesment of Financial Performance: An Empirical Study of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Palash Bandyopadhyay

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Background and significance of the study: Crude oil and natural gas is of crucial importance due to its increasing demand in India. The demand has been increased because of change of lifestyle overtime. Since India has poor utilization of oil production capacity, constantly the import of it has been increased progressively day by day. This ultimately hit the foreign exchange reserves of India, however it negatively affect the Indian economy as well. The financial performance of crude oil and natural gas companies in India has been trimmed down year after year because of underutilization of production capacity, enhancement of demand, change in life style, and change in import bill and outflows of foreign currencies. In this background, the current study seeks to measure the financial performance of crude oil and natural gas companies of India in the post liberalization period. Keeping in view of this, this study assesses the financial performance in terms of liquidity management, solvency, efficiency, financial stability, and profitability of the companies under study. Methodology: This research work is encircled on yearly ratio data collected from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) Prowess database for the periods between 1993-94 and 2012-13 with 20 observations using liquidity, solvency and efficiency indicators, profitability indicators and financial stability indicators of all the major crude oil and natural gas companies in India. In the course of analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation statistics, and linear regression test have been utilized. Major findings: Descriptive statistics indicate that liquidity position is satisfactory in case of three crude oil and natural gas companies (Oil and Natural Gas Companies Videsh Limited, Oil India Limited and Selan exploration and transportation Limited) out of selected companies under study but solvency position is satisfactory only for one company (Oil and Natural Gas Companies Videsh Limited). However, efficiency analysis points out that Oil and Natural Gas Companies Videsh Limited performs effectively the management of inventory, receivables, and payables, but the overall liquidity management is not well. Profitability position is very much satisfactory in case of all the companies except Tata Petrodyne Limited, but profitability management is not satisfactory for all the companies under study. Financial stability analysis shows that all the companies are more dependent on debt capital, which bears a financial risk. Correlation and regression test results illustrates that profitability is positively and negatively associated with liquidity, solvency, efficiency, and financial stability indicators. Concluding statement: Management of liquidity and profitability of crude oil and natural gas companies in India should have been improved through controlling unnecessary imports in spite of the heavy demand of crude oil and natural gas in India and proper utilization of domestic oil reserves. At the same time, Indian government has to concern about rupee depreciation and interest rates.

Keywords: India, Linear Regression, Financial Performance, crude oil and natural gas companies

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11 The Effect of Environmental Consciousness on Firm Performance

Authors: Hossein Emari, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Hashem Nikoo Maram

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This study aims to develop an original framework of Environmental Consciousness (EC) to explore the positive effect of environmental consciousness on financial performance through the partial mediator - green intellectual capital. A questionnaire survey on the environmental consciousness, intellectual capital, and financial performance of Iran’s manufacturing firms was conducted, and 324 samples were analyzed. This study utilizes structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect influences of EC on financial performance. Research results reveal that environmental consciousness had an indirect impact on financial performance through investment in green intellectual capital. It was thus known that green intellectual capital is a mediator of the relationship between environmental consciousness and financial performance. This paper may serve as a reference for firms mapping out future environmental policies and provide an input of various perspectives and arguments into the discipline of green management.

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Financial Performance, environmental consciousness, green intellectual capital

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10 The Effects of Relationship Banking on the Financial Performance of SMEs in Kenya

Authors: Abraham Rotich

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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of relationship banking on the financial performance of SMEs. The paper attempted to establish the link between the constructs of relationship banking and SME performance. The study was guided by relationship lending, relationship monitoring, relationship risk sharing and bundle of products as independent variables while financial performance will be the dependent variable. The study used a quasi experimental design with population being the 620 SMEs who have a relationship banking arrangement with banks in Nairobi. The study used stratified sampling to pick a sample of 235. The population of interest will be the CEOs of the respective companies. The basis of stratification is the sectors in which the SMEs operate in. The study will use a questionnaire to collect data. The questionnaire will have both open and close ended questions. A pilot study will be conducted to test reliability and validity of questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Regression analysis was employed to test if there is a relationship between the dependent and the independent variable. The study found evidence that relationship banking positively impacts on financial performance of SMEs. Specifically, the study established that each component of relationship banking in this study i.e relationship lending, monitoring, bundle of products and risk sharing positively affects financial performance.

Keywords: SMEs, Financial Performance, entrepreneurial orientation, relationship banking

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9 Board of Directors Gender Diversity, Board Committees and Financial Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba, Yahaya Danjuma, Ahmad Sule Liman-Katagum

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This paper examines the effects of the board of directors’ diversity on firm performance. We investigate the relationship between the number of women directors on the board and important board committees and financial performance measured as return on assets. Our statistical analysis supports the theoretical position of the effect diversity on financial performance. These studies enhanced the previous studies on the board of director’s gender diversity, board committees, and its impacts on firm financial performance. The study uses data from eighteen (18) Nigerian commercial banks. The study finds that banks with a higher number of females directors on board and board committees have higher Earning per share(EPS)) and Return on Assets (ROA). It also finds that some banks did not even have a single female on its corporate board. Evidence imply that decisions concerning the appointment of women to corporate boards should be on criteria and financial performance. It is recommended that banks can enhance their financial performance by having more female directors on their corporate board.

Keywords: gender diversity, Financial Performance, board of directors, board committees

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8 Corporate Governance and Bank Performance: A Study on Indian Banks

Authors: Arjun S.

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This study examines the impact of corporate governance on financial performance of Indian banks during five years (from 2010 to 2015). Based on 218 observations, a quantitative method of data analysis was employed to investigate the relevance of corporate governance mechanisms. The first finding reveals a significant and negative impact of board size on the performance of Indian banks. The research also finds a significant and negative relationship between CEO duality and bank performance. Finally, the correlation results reveal that there is a significant and negative correlation of Bank size and bank performance.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Financial Performance, Indian banks, banksize

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7 Effect of Inventory Management on Financial Performance: Evidence from Nigerian Conglomerate Companies

Authors: Adamu Danlami Ahmed

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Inventory management is the determinant of effective and efficient work for any manager. This study looked at the relationship between inventory management and financial performance. The population of the study comprises all conglomerate quoted companies in the Nigerian Stock Exchange market as at 31st December 2010. The scope of the study covered the period from 2010 to 2014. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regressions are used to analyze the data. It was found that inventory management is significantly related to the profitability of the company. This entails that an efficient management of the inventory cycle will enhance the profitability of the company. Also, lack of proper management of it will hinder the financial performance of organizations. Based on the results, it was recommended that a conglomerate company should try to see that inventories are kept to a minimum, as well as make sure the proper checks are maintained to make sure only needed inventories are in the store. As well as to keep track of the movement of goods, in order to avoid unnecessary delay of finished and work in progress (WIP) goods in the store and warehouse.

Keywords: Inventory, Financial Performance, finished goods, work in progress

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6 Green Supply Chain Management: A Revolutionary and Robust Innovation in the Field of Efficient Environmental Development and Regulation

Authors: Jinesh Kumar Jain, Faishal Pathan

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The concept of sustainable development and effective environmental regulation has led to the emergence of a new field of study and practise that is the Green Supply Chain Management. GSCM has become a subject of great importance for both the developed and developing countries to achieve the desired and much-awaited goals of the firm within the environmental and sustainable framework. Its merits are comprised of good financial pay off and competitiveness to the firms in a long lasting and sustainable manner. The purpose of the paper is to briefly review the recent literature of the GSCM and also determines the new direction area of this emerging field. A detailed study has helped to enlighten the minute details and develop the research direction of the study. The GSCM has gained popularity with both academic and practitioners. The items for the study were developed based on the extent literature. Here we found that the state of adoption of GSCM practices by Indian Firms was still in its infancy, the awareness of environmental sustainability was quite low among consumers and the regulatory frameworks were also lacking in terms promoting environmental sustainability. The present paper is an attempt to emphasize much attention on the above-mentioned issues and present a conclusive summary to make its use widespread and for reaching.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Environmental Performance, Financial Performance, green supply chain management

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5 Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance Complementarity in Multinational Enterprises of the EU and India: A Socio-Political Approach

Authors: Ana Paula Monte, Moses Pinto

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The present research analyses the interactions between various categories of corporate social responsibility (CSR) that mediate the relationship between CSR and financial performance in Multinational Enterprises (MNE) in light of the present socio-political factors prevalent in the countries under observation. In the research it has been hypothesized that the absence of consensus in the empirical literature on the CSR–financial performance relationship may be explained by the existence of synergies (Complementarities) between the different CSR components. Upon investigation about whether such relationships exist, a final unbalanced panel sample of 1000 observations taken from 100 Multinational Enterprises per year functioning in the Schengen countries and one south east Asian country namely: India, over the span of 10 years i.e. from the year 2008 to 2018 has been analyzed. The empirical analysis used in the research methodology employs dynamic Panel Data in time series specifically, the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) which had been used to detect the varying degrees of relationships between the CSR and financial performance parameters in the background of the socio-political factors prevailing in the countries at the time and also taking into account the bilateral treaty obligations between the countries under observation. The econometric model has employed the financial ratio namely the Return on Assets (ROA) as an indicator of financial performance in order to gauge the internal performance and valuation of a firm as opposed to the Tobin’s Q that provides for the external evaluation of a firm’s financial performance which may not always be accurate. The various CSR dimensions have demonstrated significant correlations to the ‘ROA’ which include some negatively associated correlations and one positively associated correlation that is highly significant throughout the analysis of the observations, namely the correlation between the ‘ROA’ and the CSR dimension: ‘Environment’. The results provide a deeper insight in the synergistic CSR activities that managers could adapt into their Firm’s CSR strategy in order to enhance the ‘ROA’ and also to understand which interactions between the CSR dimensions can be adapted together due to their positively correlated association with each other and the ROA. The future lines of research would be inclined to investigate the effects of socio-political factors on the ROA of the MNEs through better designed econometric models.

Keywords: CSR, Complementarity, Financial Performance, sociopolitical factors

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4 A Case Study on the Value of Corporate Social Responsibility Systems

Authors: José M. Brotons, Manuel E. Sansalvador

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The relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and financial performance (FP) is a subject of great interest that has not yet been resolved. In this work, we have developed a new and original tool to measure this relation. The tool quantifies the value contributed to companies that are committed to CSR. The theoretical model used is the fuzzy discounted cash flow method. Two assumptions have been considered, the first, the company has implemented the IQNet SR10 certification, and the second, the company has not implemented that certification. For the first one, the growth rate used for the time horizon is the rate maintained by the company after obtaining the IQNet SR10 certificate. For the second one, both, the growth rates company prior to the implementation of the certification, and the evolution of the sector will be taken into account. By using triangular fuzzy numbers, it is possible to deal adequately with each company’s forecasts as well as the information corresponding to the sector. Once the annual growth rate of the sales is obtained, the profit and loss accounts are generated from the annual estimate sales. For the remaining elements of this account, their regression with the nets sales has been considered. The difference between these two valuations, made in a fuzzy environment, allows obtaining the value of the IQNet SR10 certification. Although this study presents an innovative methodology to quantify the relation between CSR and FP, the authors are aware that only one company has been analyzed. This is precisely the main limitation of this study which in turn opens up an interesting line for future research: to broaden the sample of companies.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Case study, Financial Performance, company valuation

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3 Human Resource Management Practices, Person-Environment Fit and Financial Performance in Brazilian Publicly Traded Companies

Authors: Bruno Henrique Rocha Fernandes, Amir Rezaee, Jucelia Appio

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The relation between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and organizational performance remains the subject of substantial literature. Though many studies demonstrated positive relationship, still major influencing variables are not yet clear. This study considers the Person-Environment Fit (PE Fit) and its components, Person-Supervisor (PS), Person-Group (PG), Person-Organization (PO) and Person-Job (PJ) Fit, as possible explanatory variables. We analyzed PE Fit as a moderator between HRM practices and financial performance in the “best companies to work” in Brazil. Data from HRM practices were classified through the High Performance Working Systems (HPWS) construct and data on PE-Fit were obtained through surveys among employees. Financial data, consisting of return on invested capital (ROIC) and price earnings ratio (PER) were collected for publicly traded best companies to work. Findings show that PO Fit and PJ Fit play a significant moderator role for PER but not for ROIC.

Keywords: Human resource management, Financial Performance, high performance working systems, person-environment fit

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2 Effect of Underwater Antiquities as a Hidden Competitive Advantage of Hotels on Their Financial Performance: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Iman Shawky, Mohamed Elsayed

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Every hotel works in the hospitality market tends to have its own merit and character in its products marketing in order to maintain both its brand's identity and image among guests. According to the growth of global competition in the hospitality industry; the concept of competitive advantage is becoming increasingly important in hotels' marketing world as it examines reasons for outweighing hotels in their dimensions of strategic and marketing plans. In fact, Egypt is the land of appeared and submerged secrets as a result of its ancient civilization ongoing explorations. Although underwater antiquities represent ambiguous treasures, they have auspicious future in it, particularly in Alexandria. The study aims at examining to what extent underwater antiquities represent a competitive advantage of four and five-star hotels in Alexandria. For achieving this aim, an exploratory study conducted by currying out the investigation and comparison of the closest and most popular landmarks mentioned on both hotels' official websites and on common used reservations' websites. In addition to that, two different questionnaire forms designed; one for both revenue and sales and marketing hotels' managers while the other for their guests. The results indicate that both official hotels' websites and the most common used reservations' websites totally ignore mentioning underwater antiquities as attractive landmarks surrounding Alexandria hotels. Furthermore, most managers expect that underwater antiquities can furnish distinguished competitive advantage to their hotels. Also, they can help exceeding guests' expectations during their accommodation as long as they included on both official hotels' and reservations' websites as the most surrounding famous landmarks. Moreover, most managers foresee that high awareness of underwater antiquities can enhance the guests' accommodation frequencies and improve the financial performance of their hotels.

Keywords: competitive advantage, Financial Performance, hotels' websites, underwater antiquities

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1 Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Reputation

Authors: Yosra Makni, Mariam Dammak, Dhouha Abed

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Purpose: This paper investigates the mediating role of corporate reputation on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on a sample of 4329 drawn from 33 developed and developing countries and over a period of eight-year ranging from 2009 to 2016, we apply an Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS) regressions to test our hypotheses. Findings: The authors find that there is a positive association between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) engagement and the financial performance of a company. They also document that there is a positive association between CSR engagement and a company's reputation and the company's reputation mediates the relationship between engagement in CSR activities and financial performance. Originality Value: This study contributes to the literature in the following ways. First, our research advances the understanding of the link between corporate social responsibility and financial performance by responding to the requests of several researchers to study the mechanisms of mediation between these two concepts given the scarcity relative to currently available research. So we include the most important predicted advantage of CSR, namely reputation, by developing and testing a more complex relationship. Secondly, these relationships have been investigated using an international sample drawn from a large number of countries with a high reputation. Using Judy and Kenny's method, we have confirmed that the company's reputation can play the role of a mediating variable on the relationship between CSR's commitment to operations and the financial performance of the company. More specifically, the more the company is engaged in the activities of CSR, the more it can have a good reputation, more than it has a good financial performance.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Performance, company's reputation, mediating variable

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