Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Financial Crisis Related Abstracts

24 Volatility Switching between Two Regimes

Authors: Josip Visković, Josip Arnerić, Ante Rozga

Abstract:

Based on the fact that volatility is time varying in high frequency data and that periods of high volatility tend to cluster, the most successful and popular models in modelling time varying volatility are GARCH type models. When financial returns exhibit sudden jumps that are due to structural breaks, standard GARCH models show high volatility persistence, i.e. integrated behaviour of the conditional variance. In such situations models in which the parameters are allowed to change over time are more appropriate. This paper compares different GARCH models in terms of their ability to describe structural changes in returns caused by financial crisis at stock markets of six selected central and east European countries. The empirical analysis demonstrates that Markov regime switching GARCH model resolves the problem of excessive persistence and outperforms uni-regime GARCH models in forecasting volatility when sudden switching occurs in response to financial crisis.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, Transition Probabilities, central and east European countries, Markov switching GARCH model

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23 Measuring Banking Risk

Authors: Mike Tsionas

Abstract:

The paper develops new indices of financial stability based on an explicit model of expected utility maximization by financial institutions subject to the classical technology restrictions of neoclassical production theory. The model can be estimated using standard econometric techniques, like GMM for dynamic panel data and latent factor analysis for the estimation of co-variance matrices. An explicit functional form for the utility function is not needed and we show how measures of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion) can be derived and estimated from the model. The model is estimated using data for Eurozone countries and we focus particularly on (i) the use of the modeling approach as an “early warning mechanism”, (ii) the bank- and country-specific estimates of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion), and (iii) the derivation of a generalized measure of risk that relies on loan-price uncertainty.

Keywords: Banking, Financial Crisis, Financial Stability, expected utility maximization, sub-prime crisis, eurozone, PIIGS

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22 Corporate Governance in India: A Critical Analysis with Respect to Financial Market Crisis

Authors: Sonal Purohit, Animesh Dubey

Abstract:

Corporate governance deals with the entire network of formal and informal relationship with the management of the company and company’s stakeholders including employees, customers, creditors, local communities, and society in general. The recent financial crisis was truly a global crisis in its nature and effects. The Indian financial markets were not immune to this global financial crisis. It is believed that corporate governance also had a major role to play in staggering the effect of this crisis. The objective of this paper is to examine the failure of prevailing corporate governance practice in India during financial crisis. Lack of appropriate implementation of the corporate government norms was a reason behind the phenomenon of money being pulled-out by FIIs, which constitute major investors and influencers of the Indian financial market.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Financial Crisis, Financial Market, FII

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21 Implied Adjusted Volatility by Leland Option Pricing Models: Evidence from Australian Index Options

Authors: Mimi Hafizah Abdullah, Hanani Farhah Harun, Nik Ruzni Nik Idris

Abstract:

With the implied volatility as an important factor in financial decision-making, in particular in option pricing valuation, and also the given fact that the pricing biases of Leland option pricing models and the implied volatility structure for the options are related, this study considers examining the implied adjusted volatility smile patterns and term structures in the S&P/ASX 200 index options using the different Leland option pricing models. The examination of the implied adjusted volatility smiles and term structures in the Australian index options market covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007. The implied adjusted volatility was found to escalate approximately triple the rate prior the crisis.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, implied adjusted volatility, Leland option pricing models, Australian index options

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20 The Changes of the Relationship between Audit Quality and Earnings Management after Financial Crisis

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Yizhou E

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines the changes in the relationship between earnings management and audit quality before and after financial crisis in the context of American firms from 2005 to 2010. Based on a sample of 3584 firm year observations, we find that there are changes concerning the relation between accrual-based earnings management and audit quality during the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. However, the results do not provide enough evidence with regard to the variances in the association between real activities earnings management and audit quality during these two periods.

Keywords: Relationship, Earnings Management, Financial Crisis, audit quality

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19 Accountability Mechanisms of Leaders and Its Impact on Performance and Value Creation: Comparative Analysis (France, Germany, United Kingdom)

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

The responsibility has a big importance further to the financial crisis and the various pressures, which companies face their duties. The main objective of this study is to explain the variation of mechanisms of the responsibility of the manager in the company among the advanced capitalist economies. Then we study the impact of these mechanisms on the performance and the value creation in European companies. To reach our goal, we established a final sample composed on average of 284 French, British and German companies quoted in stock exchanges with 2272 annual reports examined during the period from 2005 to 2012. We examined at first the link of causalities between the determining-mechanisms bound to the company such as the characteristics of the board of directors, the composition of the shareholding and the ethics of the company on one side and the profitability of the company on the other side. The results show that the smooth running of the board of directors and its specialist committees are very important determinants of the responsibility of the managers who impact positively the performance and the value creation in the company. Furthermore, our results confirm that the presence of a solid ethical environment within the company will be effective to increase the probability that the managers realize ethical choices in the organizational decision-making. At the second time, we studied the impact of the determining mechanisms bound to the function and to the profile of manager to know its relational links, his remuneration, his training, his age and his experiences about the performance and the value creation in the company. Our results highlight the existence of a negative relation between the relational links of the manager, his very high remuneration and the general profitability of the company. This study is a contribution to the literature on the determining mechanisms of company director's responsibility (Accountability). It establishes an empirical and comparative analysis between three influential countries of Europe, to know France, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Financial Crisis, leaders, company’s performance, accountability mechanisms, value creation of firm

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18 Responsibility of Corporate Manager: To Synthesize of the Different Theories by Economic, Political, Social, and Behavioral Perspectives

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.

Keywords: Behavior, Accountability, Financial Crisis, Corporate Performance, manager

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17 Volatility Transmission among European Bank CDS

Authors: Aida Alemany, Laura Ballester, Ana González-Urteaga

Abstract:

From 2007 subprime crisis to the recent Eurozone debt crisis the European banking industry has experienced a terrible financial instability situation with increasing levels of CDS spreads (used as a proxy of credit risk). This paper investigates whether volatility transmission channels in European banking markets have changed after three significant crises’ events during the period January 2006 to March 2013. The global financial crisis is characterized by a unidirectional volatility shocks spillovers effect in credit risk from inside to outside the Eurozone. By contrast, the Eurozone debt crisis is revealed to be local in nature with the euro as the key element suggesting a market fragmentation between distressed peripheral and non-distressed core Eurozone countries, whereas retaining the local currency have acted as a firewall. With these findings we are able to shed light on the impact of the different crises on the European banking credit risk dynamics.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, credit risk, volatility spillovers, CDS spreads

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16 The Impact of the Interest Rates on Investments in the Context of Financial Crisis

Authors: Joanna Stawska

Abstract:

The main objective of this article is to examine the impact of interest rates on investments in Poland in the context of financial crisis. The paper also investigates the dependence of bank loans to enterprises on interbank market rates. The article studies the impact of interbank market rate on the level of investments in Poland. Besides, this article focuses on the research of the correlation between the level of corporate loans and the amount of investments in Poland in order to determine the indirect impact of central bank interest rates through the transmission mechanism of monetary policy on the real economy. To achieve the objective we have used econometric and statistical research methods like: econometric model and Pearson correlation coefficient. This analysis suggests that the central bank reference rate inversely proportionally affects the level of investments in Poland and this dependence is moderate. This is also important issue because it is related to preparing of Poland to accession to euro area. The research is important from both theoretical and empirical points of view. The formulated conclusions and recommendations determine the practical significance of the paper which may be used in the decision making process of monetary and economic authorities of the country.

Keywords: investments, Financial Crisis, interest rate, Central Bank

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15 Discouraged Borrowers: Evidence for Eurozone SMEs

Authors: Javier Sanchez Vidal, Ciarán Mac An Bhaird, Brian Lucey

Abstract:

This study examines the decision by firm owners not to apply for intermediated debt due to a perception that their application will be rejected. Based on a sample of SMEs in 9 European countries over the period 2009-2011, we examine potential explanatory factors for borrower discouragement, including firm, macroeconomic, regulatory and banking industry variables. Compared with firms that applied for bank loans, discouraged borrowers are smaller, younger, have declining turnover and an increasing debt/assets ratio. Perceived willingness of banks to lend rather than the company’s own credit history is more important to encourage applications. Perceptions of refusal are procyclical and may be self-perpetuating. Increased concentration in the banking sector reduces discouragement, indicating the importance of relationship banking. Transmission of macro effects through the banking system and economic environment may also lead to higher levels of discouragement. A good regulatory scheme is also advisable, either for the lenders or the borrowers (overall the good ones).

Keywords: Banking, Entrepreneurial Finance, Financial Crisis, eurozone, discouraged borrowers

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14 Moral Hazard under the Effect of Bailout and Bailin Events: A Markov Switching Model

Authors: Amira Kaddour

Abstract:

To curb the problem of liquidity in times of financial crises, two cases arise; the Bailout or Bailin, two opposite choices that elicit the analysis of their effect on moral hazard. This paper attempts to empirically analyze the effect of these two types of events on the behavior of investors. For this end, we use the Emerging Market Bonds Index (EMBI-JP Morgan), and its excess of return, to detect the change in the risk premia through a Markov switching model. The results showed the transition to two types of regime and an effect on moral hazard; Bailout is an incentive of moral hazard, Bailin effectiveness remains subject of credibility.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, moral hazard, Markov switching, Bailout, Bailin

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13 Relationship between Independence Directors and Performance of Firms During Financial Crisis

Authors: Gladie Lui

Abstract:

The global credit crisis of 2008 aroused renewed interest in the effectiveness of corporate governance mechanisms to safeguard investor interests. In this paper, we measure the effect of the crisis from 2008 to 2009 on the stock performance of 976 Hong Kong-listed companies and examine its link to corporate governance mechanisms. It is evident that the crisis and the economic downturn affected different industries. Empirical results show that firms with an independent board and a high concentration of ownership and management ownership had lower abnormal stock returns, but a lower price volatility during the global financial crisis. These results highlight that no single corporate governance mechanism is fit for all types of financial crises and time frames. To strengthen investors’ confidence in the ability of companies to deal with such swift financial catastrophes, companies should enhance the dynamism and responsiveness of their governance mechanisms in times of turbulence.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, capital market, Financial Crisis, board of directors

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12 EarlyWarning for Financial Stress Events:A Credit-Regime Switching Approach

Authors: Fuchun Li, Hong Xiao

Abstract:

We propose a new early warning model for predicting financial stress events for a given future time. In this model, we examine whether credit conditions play an important role as a nonlinear propagator of shocks when predicting the likelihood of occurrence of financial stress events for a given future time. This propagation takes the form of a threshold regression in which a regime change occurs if credit conditions cross a critical threshold. Given the new early warning model for financial stress events, we evaluate the performance of this model and currently available alternatives, such as the model from signal extraction approach, and linear regression model. In-sample forecasting results indicate that the three types of models are useful tools for predicting financial stress events while none of them outperforms others across all criteria considered. The out-of-sample forecasting results suggest that the credit-regime switching model performs better than the two others across all criteria and all forecasting horizons considered.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, cut-off probability, early warning model, financial stress, regime-switching model, forecasting horizons

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11 Bank Failures: A Question of Leadership

Authors: Alison L. Miles

Abstract:

Almost all major financial institutions in the world suffered losses due to the financial crisis of 2007, but the extent varied widely. The causes of the crash of 2007 are well documented and predominately focus on the role and complexity of the financial markets. The dominant theme of the literature suggests the causes of the crash were a combination of globalization, financial sector innovation, moribund regulation and short termism. While these arguments are undoubtedly true, they do not tell the whole story. A key weakness in the current analysis is the lack of consideration of those leading the banks pre and during times of crisis. This purpose of this study is to examine the possible link between the leadership styles and characteristics of the CEO, CFO and chairman and the financial institutions that failed or needed recapitalization. As such, it contributes to the literature and debate on international financial crises and systemic risk and also to the debate on risk management and regulatory reform in the banking sector. In order to first test the proposition (p1) that there are prevalent leadership characteristics or traits in financial institutions, an initial study was conducted using a sample of the top 65 largest global banks and financial institutions according to the Banker Top 1000 banks 2014. Secondary data from publically available and official documents, annual reports, treasury and parliamentary reports together with a selection of press articles and analyst meeting transcripts was collected longitudinally from the period 1998 to 2013. A computer aided key word search was used in order to identify the leadership styles and characteristics of the chairman, CEO and CFO. The results were then compared with the leadership models to form a picture of leadership in the sector during the research period. As this resulted in separate results that needed combining, SPSS data editor was used to aggregate the results across the studies using the variables ‘leadership style’ and ‘company financial performance’ together with the size of the company. In order to test the proposition (p2) that there was a prevalent leadership style in the banks that failed and the proposition (P3) that this was different to those that did not, further quantitative analysis was carried out on the leadership styles of the chair, CEO and CFO of banks that needed recapitalization, were taken over, or required government bail-out assistance during 2007-8. These included: Lehman Bros, Merrill Lynch, Royal Bank of Scotland, HBOS, Barclays, Northern Rock, Fortis and Allied Irish. The findings show that although regulatory reform has been a key mechanism of control of behavior in the banking sector, consideration of the leadership characteristics of those running the board are a key factor. They add weight to the argument that if each crisis is met with the same pattern of popular fury with the financier, increased regulation, followed by back to business as usual, the cycle of failure will always be repeated and show that through a different lens, new paradigms can be formed and future clashes avoided.

Keywords: Leadership, Banking, Risk, Financial Crisis

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10 Averting a Financial Crisis through Regulation, Including Legislation

Authors: Maria Krambia-Kapardis, Andreas Kapardis

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The paper discusses regulatory and legislative measures implemented by various nations in an effort to avert another financial crisis. More specifically, to address the financial crisis, the European Commission followed the practice of other developed countries and implemented a European Economic Recovery Plan in an attempt to overhaul the regulatory and supervisory framework of the financial sector. In 2010 the Commission introduced the European Systemic Risk Board and in 2011 the European System of Financial Supervision. Some experts advocated that the type and extent of financial regulation introduced in the European crisis in the wake of the 2008 crisis has been excessive and counterproductive. In considering how different countries responded to the financial crisis, global regulators have shown a more focused commitment to combat industry misconduct and to pre-empt abusive behavior. Regulators have also increased funding and resources at their disposal; have increased regulatory fines, with an increasing trend towards action against individuals; and, finally, have focused on market abuse and market conduct issues. Financial regulation can be effected, first of all, through legislation. However, neither ex ante or ex post regulation is by itself effective in reducing systemic risk. Consequently, to avert a financial crisis, in their endeavor to achieve both economic efficiency and financial stability, governments need to balance the two approaches to financial regulation. Fiduciary duty is another means by which the behavior of actors in the financial world is constrained and, thus, regulated. Furthermore, fiduciary duties extend over and above other existing requirements set out by statute and/or common law and cover allegations of breach of fiduciary duty, negligence or fraud. Careful analysis of the etiology of the 2008 financial crisis demonstrates the great importance of corporate governance as a way of regulating boardroom behavior. In addition, the regulation of professions including accountants and auditors plays a crucial role as far as the financial management of companies is concerned. In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board in order to protect investors from financial accounting fraud. In most countries around the world, however, accounting regulation consists of a legal framework, international standards, education, and licensure. Accounting regulation is necessary because of the information asymmetry and the conflict of interest that exists between managers and users of financial information. If a holistic approach is to be taken then one cannot ignore the regulation of legislators themselves which can take the form of hard or soft legislation. The science of averting a financial crisis is yet to be perfected and this, as shown by the preceding discussion, is unlikely to be achieved in the foreseeable future as ‘disaster myopia’ may be reduced but will not be eliminated. It is easier, of course, to be wise in hindsight and regulating unreasonably risky decisions and unethical or outright criminal behavior in the financial world remains major challenges for governments, corporations, and professions alike.

Keywords: Regulation, Legislation, Financial Crisis, Financial Regulation

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9 Estimating the Volatilite of Stock Markets in Case of Financial Crisis

Authors: Gultekin Gurcay

Abstract:

In this paper, effects and responses of stock were analyzed. This analysis was done periodically. The dimensions of the financial crisis impact on the stock market were investigated by GARCH model. In this context, S&P 500 stock market is modeled with DAX, NIKKEI and BIST100. In this way, The effects of the changing in S&P 500 stock market were examined on European and Asian stock markets. Conditional variance coefficient will be calculated through garch model. The scope of the crisis period, the conditional covariance coefficient will be analyzed comparatively.

Keywords: stock market, Financial Crisis, GARCH model, conditional variance coefficient

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8 How Rational Decision-Making Mechanisms of Individuals Are Corrupted under the Presence of Others and the Reflection of This on Financial Crisis Management Situations

Authors: Gultekin Gurcay

Abstract:

It is known that the most crucial influence of the psychological, social and emotional factors that affect any human behavior is to corrupt the rational decision making mechanism of the individuals and cause them to display irrational behaviors. In this regard, the social context of human beings influences the rationality of our decisions, and people tend to display different behaviors when they were alone compared to when they were surrounded by others. At this point, the interaction and interdependence of the behavioral finance and economics with the area of social psychology comes, where intentions and the behaviors of the individuals are being analyzed in the actual or implied presence of others comes into prominence. Within the context of this study, the prevalent theories of behavioral finance, which are The Prospect Theory, The Utility Theory Given Uncertainty and the Five Axioms of Choice under Uncertainty, Veblen’s Hidden Utility Theory, and the concept of ‘Overreaction’ has been examined and demonstrated; and the meaning, existence and validity of these theories together with the social context has been assessed. Finally, in this study the behavior of the individuals in financial crisis situations where the majority of the society is being affected from the same negative conditions at the same time has been analyzed, by taking into account how individual behavior will change according to the presence of the others.

Keywords: stock market, Financial Crisis, GARCH model, conditional variance coefficient

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7 The Impact of the Global Financial Crises on MILA Stock Markets

Authors: Miriam Sosa, Edgar Ortiz, Alejandra Cabello

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This paper examines the volatility changes and leverage effects of the MILA stock markets and their changes since the 2007 global financial crisis. This group integrates the stock markets from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Volatility changes and leverage effects are tested with a symmetric GARCH (1,1) and asymmetric TARCH (1,1) models with a dummy variable in the variance equation. Daily closing prices of the stock indexes of Chile (IPSA), Colombia (COLCAP), Mexico (IPC) and Peru (IGBVL) are examined for the period 2003:01 to 2015:02. The evidence confirms the presence of an overall increase in asymmetric market volatility in the Peruvian share market since the 2007 crisis.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, Latin American Integrated Market, TARCH, GARCH

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6 Family Firms and Investment–Cash Flow Sensitivity: Empirical Evidence from Canada

Authors: Imen Latrous

Abstract:

Family firm is the most common form of business organization in the world. Many family businesses rely heavily on their own capital to finance their expansion. This dependence on internal funds for their investment may be deliberate to maintain the family dominant position or involuntary as family firms have limited access to external funds. Our understanding of family firm’s choice to fund their own growth using existing capital is somewhat limited. The aim of this paper is to study whether the presence of a controlling family in the company either mitigates or exacerbates external financing constraints. The impact of family ownership on investment–cash flow sensitivity is ultimately an empirical question. We use a sample of 406 Canadian firms listed in Toronto Stock exchange (TSX) over the period 2005–2014 in order to explore this relationship. We distinguish between three elements in the definition of family firms, specifically ownership, control and management, to explore the issue whether family firms are more efficient organisational form. Our research contributes to the extant literature on family ownership in several ways. First, as our understanding of family firm’s investment cash flow sensitivity is somewhat limited in recession times, we explore the effect of family firms on the relation between investment and cash flow during the recent 2007-2009 financial crisis. We also analyse this relationship difference between family firms and non family firms before and during financial crisis. Finally, our paper addresses the endogeneity problem of family ownership and investment-cash flow sensitivity.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Financial Crisis, Family Firms, investment–cash flow sensitivity

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5 The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Financial Deepening in the Nigerian Banking Sector

Authors: Onyinyechi Joy Kingdom

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Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) have been proposed as a mechanism through which, problems associated with inefficiency or poor performance in financial institution could be addressed. The aim of this study is to examine the proposition that recapitalization of banks, which encouraged Mergers and Acquisitions in Nigeria banking system, would strengthen the domestic banks, improve financial deepening and the confidence of depositors. Hence, this study examines the impact of the 2005 M&A in the Nigerian-banking sector on financial deepening using mixed method (quantitative and qualitative approach). The quantitative process of this study utilised annual time series for financial deepening indicator for the period of 1997 to 2012. While, the qualitative aspect adopted semi-structured interview to collate data from three merged banks and three stand-alone banks to explore, understand and complement the quantitative results. Furthermore, a framework thematic analysis is employed to analyse the themes developed using NVivo 11 software. Using the quantitative approach, findings from the equality of mean test (EMT) used suggests that M&A have significant impact on financial deepening. However, this method is not robust enough given its weak validity as it does not control for other potential factors that may determine financial deepening. Thus, to control for other factors that may affect the level of financial deepening, a Multiple Regression Model (MRM) and Interrupted Times Series Analysis (ITSA) were applied. The coefficient for M&A dummy turned negative and insignificant using MRM. In addition, the estimated linear trend of the post intervention when ITSA was applied suggests that after M&A, the level of financial deepening decreased annually; however, this was statistically insignificant. Similarly, using the qualitative approach, the results from the interview supported the quantitative results from ITSA and MRM. The result suggests that interest rate should fall when capital base is increased to improve financial deepening. Hence, this study contributes to the existing literature the importance of other factors that may affect financial deepening and the economy when policies that will enhance bank performance and the economy are made. In addition, this study will enable the use of valuable policy instruments relevant to monetary authorities when formulating policies that will strengthen the Nigerian banking sector and the economy.

Keywords: Efficiency, mergers and acquisitions, Financial Crisis, recapitalization, financial deepening

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4 Constraining Bank Risk: International Evidence on the Role of Bank Capital and Charter Value

Authors: Mamiza Haq

Abstract:

This paper examines the relevance of bank capital and charter value on bank insolvency and liquidity risks. Using an unbalanced panel of 2,111 unique local banks across 22 countries over 1998-2012, we find that both bank capital and charter value lower insolvency and liquidity risks, but this effect varies among conventional, Islamic, and Islamic-window banks. The risk constraining effect of bank capital becomes more prominent in the post 2007-2008 global financial crisis. Moreover, the relationships vary when conditioned upon other key bank-specific characteristics. For instance, the effect of capital on risk-reduction diminishes in the presence of high charter value for conventional-G7 and Islamic-window banks, during-GFC and pre-GFC period; respectively. Our findings have important policy implications related to bank safety. The results are robust to a range of robustness tests.

Keywords: Risk, Financial Crisis, bank capital, charter value

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3 The Valuation of Equity Book Value and Net Income of Financial Firms in Times of Financial Crisis

Authors: Sami Adwan, Alaa Alhaj Ismail, Claudia Girardone

Abstract:

This paper examines the changes in the value relevance of book value of equity and net income of financial firms over the crisis period. It also examines how these changes vary with three variables, namely, fair value exposure, ownership concentration, and regulatory capital ratios. Using a sample of financial firms operating in the European Economic Area over 2005-2011, our findings suggest that the value relevance of book value of equity increases while that of net income decreases during the financial crisis. We find that more exposure to fair value accounting mitigates the impact of the crisis on the value relevance of book value of equity and net income. We also find that more concentrated ownership appears to have a mitigating impact on the changes in the value relevance of both book value of equity and net income in times of financial crisis. Finally, we find evidence that the level of regulatory capital ratios tends to have an attenuating effect on the changes in the value relevance of net income (but not book value of equity) in times of financial crisis.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, value relevance, fair value, financial firms, ownership concentration, regulatory capital

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2 Econophysical Approach on Predictability of Financial Crisis: The 2001 Crisis of Turkey and Argentina Case

Authors: Arzu K. Kamberli, Tolga Ulusoy

Abstract:

Technological developments and the resulting global communication have made the 21st century when large capitals are moved from one end to the other via a button. As a result, the flow of capital inflows has accelerated, and capital inflow has brought with it crisis-related infectiousness. Considering the irrational human behavior, the financial crisis in the world under the influence of the whole world has turned into the basic problem of the countries and increased the interest of the researchers in the reasons of the crisis and the period in which they lived. Therefore, the complex nature of the financial crises and its linearly unexplained structure have also been included in the new discipline, econophysics. As it is known, although financial crises have prediction mechanisms, there is no definite information. In this context, in this study, using the concept of electric field from the electrostatic part of physics, an early econophysical approach for global financial crises was studied. The aim is to define a model that can take place before the financial crises, identify financial fragility at an earlier stage and help public and private sector members, policy makers and economists with an econophysical approach. 2001 Turkey crisis has been assessed with data from Turkish Central Bank which is covered between 1992 to 2007, and for 2001 Argentina crisis, data was taken from IMF and the Central Bank of Argentina from 1997 to 2007. As an econophysical method, an analogy is used between the Gauss's law used in the calculation of the electric field and the forecasting of the financial crisis. The concept of Φ (Financial Flux) has been adopted for the pre-warning of the crisis by taking advantage of this analogy, which is based on currency movements and money mobility. For the first time used in this study Φ (Financial Flux) calculations obtained by the formula were analyzed by Matlab software, and in this context, in 2001 Turkey and Argentina Crisis for Φ (Financial Flux) crisis of values has been confirmed to give pre-warning.

Keywords: Physics, Financial Crisis, Econophysics, Gauss's Law

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1 The Structure of Financial Regulation: The Regulators Perspective

Authors: Mohamed Aljarallah, Mohamed Nurullah, George Saridakis

Abstract:

This paper aims and objectives are to investigate how the structural change of the financial regulatory bodies affect the financial supervision and how the regulators can design such a structure with taking into account; the Central Bank, the conduct of business and the prudential regulators, it will also consider looking at the structure of the international regulatory bodies and what barriers are found. There will be five questions to be answered; should conduct of business and prudential regulation be separated? Should the financial supervision and financial stability be separated? Should the financial supervision be under the Central Bank? To what extent the politician should intervene in changing the regulatory and supervisory structure? What should be the regulatory and supervisory structure when there is financial conglomerate? Semi structure interview design will be applied. This research sample selection contains a collective of financial regulators and supervisors from the emerged and emerging countries. Moreover, financial regulators and supervisors must be at a senior level at their organisations. Additionally, senior financial regulators and supervisors would come from different authorities and from around the world. For instance, one of the participants comes from the International Bank Settlements, others come from European Central Bank, and an additional one will come from Hong Kong Monetary Authority and others. Such a variety aims to fulfil the aims and objectives of the research and cover the research questions. The analysis process starts with transcription of the interview, using Nvivo software for coding, applying thematic interview to generate the main themes. The major findings of the study are as follow. First, organisational structure changes quite frequently if the mandates are not clear. Second, measuring structural change is difficult, which makes the whole process unclear. Third, effective coordination and communication are what regulators looking for when they change the structure and that requires; openness, trust, and incentive. In addition to that, issues appear during the event of crisis tend to be the reason why the structure change. Also, the development of the market sometime causes a change in the regulatory structure. And, some structural change occurs simply because of the international trend, fashion, or other countries' experiences. Furthermore, when the top management change the structure tends to change. Moreover, the structure change due to the political change, or politicians try to show they are doing something. Finally, fear of being blamed can be a driver of structural change. In conclusion, this research aims to provide an insight from the senior regulators and supervisors from fifty different countries to have a clear understanding of why the regulatory structure keeps changing from time to time through a qualitative approach, namely, semi-structure interview.

Keywords: Financial Crisis, financial regulation bodies, financial regulatory structure, global financial regulation

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