Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Filtration Related Abstracts

16 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel


Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Filtration, Phosphorus, ecretion

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
15 Engineering of Filtration Systems in Egyptian Cement Plants: Industrial Case Study

Authors: Mohamed. A. Saad


The paper represents a case study regarding the conversion of Electro-Static Precipitators (ESP`s) into Fabric Filters (FF). Seven cement production companies were established in Egypt during the period 1927 to 1980 and 6 new companies were established to cope with the increasing cement demand in 1980's. The cement production market shares in Egypt indicate that there are six multinational companies in the local market, they are interested in the environmental conditions improving and so decided to achieve emission reduction project. The experimental work in the present study is divided into two main parts: (I) Measuring Efficiency of Filter Fabrics with detailed description of a designed apparatus. The paper also reveals the factors that should be optimized in order to assist problem diagnosis, solving and increasing the life of bag filters. (II) Methods to mitigate dust emissions in Egyptian cement plants with a special focus on converting the Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP`s) into Fabric Filters (FF) using the same ESP casing, bottom hoppers, dust transportation system, and ESP ductwork. Only the fan system for the higher pressure drop with the fabric filter was replaced. The proper selection of bag material was a prime factor with regard to gas composition, temperature and particle size. Fiberglass with PTFE membrane coated bags was selected. This fabric is rated for a continuous temperature of 250 C and a surge temperature of 280C. The dust emission recorded was less than 20 mg/m3 from the production line fitted with fabric filters which is super compared with the ESP`s working lines stack.

Keywords: cement, Filtration, Engineering Electrostatic Precipitator, dust collectors

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14 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran


The discharge limits of industrial waste water effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. Thus, a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding activated carbon with different dosages to waste water, and for each group waste water was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. At the end of this paper, a comparison was made between the efficiency of using activated carbon and the efficiency of using limestone in the same circumstances.

Keywords: Adsorption, Filtration, COD removal, TDS removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
13 Uncontrollable Inaccuracy in Inverse Problems

Authors: Yu Menshikov


In this paper the influence of errors of function derivatives in initial time which have been obtained by experiment (uncontrollable inaccuracy) to the results of inverse problem solution was investigated. It was shown that these errors distort the inverse problem solution as a rule near the beginning of interval where the solution are analyzed. Several methods for remove the influence of uncontrollable inaccuracy have been suggested.

Keywords: Inverse Problems, Filtration, uncontrollable inaccuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
12 Synthesis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous-Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov


We have conducted the optimal synthesis of root-mean-squared objective filter to estimate the state vector in the case if within the observation channel with memory the anomalous noises with unknown mathematical expectation are complement in the function of the regular noises. The synthesis has been carried out for linear stochastic systems of continuous-time.

Keywords: Memory, Filtration, mathematical expectation, anomalous noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
11 Analysis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous- Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov


For optimal unbiased filter as mean-square and in the case of functioning anomalous noises in the observation memory channel, we have proved insensitivity of filter to inaccurate knowledge of the anomalous noise intensity matrix and its equivalence to truncated filter plotted only by non anomalous components of an observation vector.

Keywords: Memory, Filtration, mathematical expectation, anomalous noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran


The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.

Keywords: Adsorption, Filtration, COD removal, TDS removal, synthetic wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
9 Cold Flow Investigation of Silicon Carbide Cylindrical Filter Element

Authors: Mohammad Alhajeri


This paper reports a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of cylindrical filter. Silicon carbide cylindrical filter elements have proven to be an effective mean of removing particulates to levels exceeding the new source performance standard. The CFD code is used here to understand the deposition process and the factors that affect the particles distribution over the filter element surface. Different approach cross flow velocity to filter face velocity ratios and different face velocities (ranging from 2 to 5 cm/s) are used in this study. Particles in the diameter range 1 to 100 microns are tracked through the domain. The radius of convergence (or the critical trajectory) is compared and plotted as a function of many parameters.

Keywords: CFD, Filtration, CCF, hot gas filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
8 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed


Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Filtration, Ceramic Membranes, greywater

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7 Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Porous Cylinder Flow in In-Line Arrangement

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Abdulrahman Almutairi, Ayedh Alajmi, Hamad Alhajeri


The flow around three porous cylinders in inline arrangement is investigated in this paper computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. The arrangement generally operates with the dirty gases passing through the porous cylinders, the particulate material being deposited on the outside of the cylinders. However, in a combined cycle power plant, filtration is required to allow the hot exhaust gases to be fed to a turbine without causing any physical damage to the turbine blades. Three cylinder elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the cylinder.

Keywords: CFD, fluid flow, Filtration, porous cylinders

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
6 Assessment and Control for Oil Aerosol

Authors: Chane-Yu Lai, Xiang-Yu Huang


This study conducted an assessment of sampling result by using the new development rotation filtration device (RFD) filled with porous media filters integrating the method of cyclone centrifugal spins. The testing system established for the experiment used corn oil and potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate (PST) as challenge aerosols and were produced by using an Ultrasonic Atomizing Nozzle, a Syringe Pump, and a Collison nebulizer. The collection efficiency of RFD for oil aerosol was assessed by using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Fidas® Frog. The results of RFD for the liquid particles condition indicated the cutoff size was 1.65 µm and 1.02 µm for rotation of 0 rpm and 9000 rpm, respectively, under an 80 PPI (pores per inch)foam with a thickness of 80 mm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. As the experiment increased the foam thickness of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.62 µm to 1.02 µm. However, when increased the foam porosity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.26 µm to 0.96 µm. Moreover, as increased the sampling velocity of RFD, the cutoff size reduced from 1.02 µm to 0.76 µm. These discrepancies of above cutoff sizes of RFD all had statistical significance (P < 0.05). The cutoff size of RFD for three experimental conditions of generated liquid oil particles, solid PST particles or both liquid oil and solid PST particles was 1.03 µm, 1.02 µm, or 0.99 µm, respectively, under a 80 PPI foam with thickness of 80 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 13.5 cm/s. In addition, under the best condition of the experiment, two hours of sampling loading, the RFD had better collection efficiency for particle diameter greater than 0.45 µm, under a 94 PPI nickel mesh with a thickness of 68 mm, rotation of 9000 rpm, and sampling velocity of 108.3 cm/s. The experiment concluded that increased the thickness of porous media, face velocity, and porosity of porous media of RFD could increase the collection efficiency of porous media for sampling oil particles. Moreover, increased the rotation speed of RFD also increased the collection efficiency for sampling oil particles. Further investigation is required for those above operation parameters for RFD in this study in the future.

Keywords: Rotation, Filtration, oil aerosol, porous media filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
5 Iron Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Fabricated Calcite Ooids

Authors: Al-Sayed A. Bakr, W. A. Makled


The precipitated low magnesium calcite ooids in assembled softening unit from natural Mediterranean seawater samples were used as adsorbent media in a comparative study with granular activated carbon media in a two separated single-media filtration vessels (operating in parallel) for removal of iron from aqueous solutions. In each vessel, the maximum bed capacity, which required to be filled, was 13.2 l and the bed filled in the vessels of ooids and GAC were 8.6, and 6.6 l, respectively. The operating conditions applied to the semi-pilot filtration unit were constant pH (7.5), different temperatures (293, 303 and 313 k), different flow rates (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 l/min), different initial Fe(II) concentrations (15–105 mg/ l) and the calculated adsorbent masses were 34.1 and 123 g/l for GAC and calcite ooids, respectively. At higher temperature (313 k) and higher flow rate (60 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities for ferrous ions by GAC and calcite ooids filters were 3.87 and 1.29 mg/g and at lower flow rate (20 l/min), the maximum adsorption capacities were 2.21 and 3.95 mg/g, respectively. From the experimental data, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to verify the adsorption performance. Therefore, the calcite ooids could act as new highly effective materials in iron removal from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Filtration, activated carbon, calcite ooids, Fe(II) removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
4 Inertial Particle Focusing Dynamics in Trapezoid Straight Microchannels: Application to Continuous Particle Filtration

Authors: Reza Moloudi, Steve Oh, Charles Chun Yang, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani, May Win Naing


Inertial microfluidics has emerged recently as a promising tool for high-throughput manipulation of particles and cells for a wide range of flow cytometric tasks including cell separation/filtration, cell counting, and mechanical phenotyping. Inertial focusing is profoundly reliant on the cross-sectional shape of the channel and its impacts not only on the shear field but also the wall-effect lift force near the wall region. Despite comprehensive experiments and numerical analysis of the lift forces for rectangular and non-rectangular microchannels (half-circular and triangular cross-section), which all possess planes of symmetry, less effort has been made on the 'flow field structure' of trapezoidal straight microchannels and its effects on inertial focusing. On the other hand, a rectilinear channel with trapezoidal cross-sections breaks down all planes of symmetry. In this study, particle focusing dynamics inside trapezoid straight microchannels was first studied systematically for a broad range of channel Re number (20 < Re < 800). The altered axial velocity profile and consequently new shear force arrangement led to a cross-laterally movement of equilibration toward the longer side wall when the rectangular straight channel was changed to a trapezoid; however, the main lateral focusing started to move backward toward the middle and the shorter side wall, depending on particle clogging ratio (K=a/Hmin, a is particle size), channel aspect ratio (AR=W/Hmin, W is channel width, and Hmin is smaller channel height), and slope of slanted wall, as the channel Reynolds number further increased (Re > 50). Increasing the channel aspect ratio (AR) from 2 to 4 and the slope of slanted wall up to Tan(α)≈0.4 (Tan(α)=(Hlonger-sidewall-Hshorter-sidewall)/W) enhanced the off-center lateral focusing position from the middle of channel cross-section, up to ~20 percent of the channel width. It was found that the focusing point was spoiled near the slanted wall due to the dissymmetry; it mainly focused near the bottom wall or fluctuated between the channel center and the bottom wall, depending on the slanted wall and Re (Re < 100, channel aspect ratio 4:1). Eventually, as a proof of principle, a trapezoidal straight microchannel along with a bifurcation was designed and utilized for continuous filtration of a broader range of particle clogging ratio (0.3 < K < 1) exiting through the longer wall outlet with ~99% efficiency (Re < 100) in comparison to the rectangular straight microchannels (W > H, 0.3 ≤ K < 0.5).

Keywords: Filtration, cell/particle sorting, inertial microfluidics, straight microchannel, trapezoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
3 A Sustainable and Low-Cost Filter to Treat Pesticides in Water

Authors: T. Abbas, J. McEvoy, E. Khan


Pesticide contamination in water supply is a common environmental problem in rural agricultural communities. Advanced water treatment processes such as membrane filtration and adsorption on activated carbon only remove pesticides from water without degrading them into less toxic/easily degradable compounds leaving behind contaminated brine and activated carbon that need to be managed. Rural communities which normally cannot afford expensive water treatment technologies need an economical and sustainable filter which not only treats pesticides from water but also degrades them into benign products. In this study, iron turning waste experimented as potential point-of-use filtration media for the removal/degradation of a mixture of six chlorinated pesticides (lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT) in water. As a common and traditional medium for water filtration, sand was also tested along with iron turning waste. Iron turning waste was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer. Four glass columns with different filter media layer configurations were set up: (1) only sand, (2) only iron turning, (3) sand and iron turning (two separate layers), and (4) sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers). The initial pesticide concentration and flow rate were 2 μg/L and 10 mL/min. Results indicate that sand filtration was effective only for the removal of DDT (100%) and endosulfan (94-96%). Iron turning filtration column effectively removed endosulfan, endrin, and dieldrin (85-95%) whereas the lindane and DDT removal were 79-85% and 39-56%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for heptachlor, endosulfan, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT were 90-100% when sand and iron turning waste (two separate layers) were used. However, better removal efficiencies (93-100%) for five out of six pesticides were achieved, when sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers) were used as filtration media. Moreover, the effects of water pH, amounts of media, and minerals present in water such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, and nitrate on the removal of pesticides were examined. Results demonstrate that iron turning waste efficiently removed all the pesticides under studied parameters. Also, it completely de-chlorinated all the pesticides studied and based on the detection of by-products, the degradation mechanisms for all six pesticides were proposed.

Keywords: Filtration, rural communities, pesticide contamination, iron turning waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh


This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Filtration, two-phase, olive oil, advanced oxidation, three-phase, olive mill, waste plastic bottles

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
1 Computational Investigation of Gas-Solid Flow in High Pressure High Temperature Filter

Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi, Hamad M. Alhajeri


This paper reports a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation for a high-temperature high-pressure filtration (ceramic candle filter). However, parallel flow to the filter is considered in this study. Different face (filtration) velocities are examined using the CFD code, FLUENT. Different sizes of particles are tracked through the domain to find the height at which the particles will impinge on the filter surface. Furthermore, particle distribution around the filter (or filter cake) is studied to design efficient cleaning mechanisms. Gravity effect to the particles with various inlet velocities and pressure drop are both considered. In the CFD study, it is found that the gravity influence should not be ignored if the particle sizes exceed 1 micron.

Keywords: CFD, fluid flow, Filtration, HTHP

Procedia PDF Downloads 11