Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Filtering Related Abstracts

12 REDUCER: An Architectural Design Pattern for Reducing Large and Noisy Data Sets

Authors: Apkar Salatian


To relieve the burden of reasoning on a point to point basis, in many domains there is a need to reduce large and noisy data sets into trends for qualitative reasoning. In this paper we propose and describe a new architectural design pattern called REDUCER for reducing large and noisy data sets that can be tailored for particular situations. REDUCER consists of 2 consecutive processes: Filter which takes the original data and removes outliers, inconsistencies or noise; and Compression which takes the filtered data and derives trends in the data. In this seminal article, we also show how REDUCER has successfully been applied to 3 different case studies.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Compression, Filtering, design pattern

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11 Grid Pattern Recognition and Suppression in Computed Radiographic Images

Authors: Igor Belykh


Anti-scatter grids used in radiographic imaging for the contrast enhancement leave specific artifacts. Those artifacts may be visible or may cause Moiré effect when a digital image is resized on a diagnostic monitor. In this paper, we propose an automated grid artifacts detection and suppression algorithm which is still an actual problem. Grid artifacts detection is based on statistical approach in spatial domain. Grid artifacts suppression is based on Kaiser bandstop filter transfer function design and application avoiding ringing artifacts. Experimental results are discussed and concluded with description of advantages over existing approaches.

Keywords: Image Processing, Pattern Recognition, Grid, Filtering, computed radiography

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10 Real-Time Visualization Using GPU-Accelerated Filtering of LiDAR Data

Authors: Sašo Pečnik, Borut Žalik


This paper presents a real-time visualization technique and filtering of classified LiDAR point clouds. The visualization is capable of displaying filtered information organized in layers by the classification attribute saved within LiDAR data sets. We explain the used data structure and data management, which enables real-time presentation of layered LiDAR data. Real-time visualization is achieved with LOD optimization based on the distance from the observer without loss of quality. The filtering process is done in two steps and is entirely executed on the GPU and implemented using programmable shaders.

Keywords: Graphics, Lidar, Filtering, level-of-details, real-time visualization

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9 Analyzing On-Line Process Data for Industrial Production Quality Control

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho


The monitoring of industrial production quality has to be implemented to alarm early warning for unusual operating conditions. Furthermore, identification of their assignable causes is necessary for a quality control purpose. For such tasks many multivariate statistical techniques have been applied and shown to be quite effective tools. This work presents a process data-based monitoring scheme for production processes. For more reliable results some additional steps of noise filtering and preprocessing are considered. It may lead to enhanced performance by eliminating unwanted variation of the data. The performance evaluation is executed using data sets from test processes. The proposed method is shown to provide reliable quality control results, and thus is more effective in quality monitoring in the example. For practical implementation of the method, an on-line data system must be available to gather historical and on-line data. Recently large amounts of data are collected on-line in most processes and implementation of the current scheme is feasible and does not give additional burdens to users.

Keywords: monitoring, Detection, Filtering, process data

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8 Non-Invasive Imaging of Tissue Using Near Infrared Radiations

Authors: Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal


NIR Light is non-ionizing and can pass easily through living tissues such as breast without any harmful effects. Therefore, use of NIR light for imaging the biological tissue and to quantify its optical properties is a good choice over other invasive methods. Optical tomography involves two steps. One is the forward problem and the other is the reconstruction problem. The forward problem consists of finding the measurements of transmitted light through the tissue from source to detector, given the spatial distribution of absorption and scattering properties. The second step is the reconstruction problem. In X-ray tomography, there is standard method for reconstruction called filtered back projection method or the algebraic reconstruction methods. But this method cannot be applied as such, in optical tomography due to highly scattering nature of biological tissue. A hybrid algorithm for reconstruction has been implemented in this work which takes into account the highly scattered path taken by photons while back projecting the forward data obtained during Monte Carlo simulation. The reconstructed image suffers from blurring due to point spread function. This blurred reconstructed image has been enhanced using a digital filter which is optimal in mean square sense.

Keywords: Tomography, Filtering, Laser Interaction, light scattering, least-squares optimization

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7 The Use of Image Processing Responses Tools Applied to Analysing Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map (Tangier-Tetuan's Area-Morocco)

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Image processing is a powerful tool for the enhancement of edges in images used in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Arial and terrestrial gravimetric surveys were carried out in the region of Tangier-Tetuan. From the observed and measured data of gravity Bouguer gravity anomalies map was prepared. This paper reports the results and interpretations of the transformed maps of Bouguer gravity anomaly of the Tangier-Tetuan area using image processing. Filtering analysis based on classical image process was applied. Operator image process like logarithmic and gamma correction are used. This paper also present the results obtained from this image processing analysis of the enhancement edges of the Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Tangier-Tetuan zone.

Keywords: Filtering, bouguer, tangier, gamma correction, logarithmic enhancement edges

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6 Calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the Spectral Signature of Coffee Crops: Benefits of Image Filtering on Mixed Crops

Authors: Catalina Albornoz, Giacomo Barbieri


Crop monitoring has shown to reduce vulnerability to spreading plagues and pathologies in crops. Remote sensing with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has made crop monitoring more precise, cost-efficient and accessible. Nowadays, remote monitoring involves calculating maps of vegetation indices by using different software that takes either Truecolor (RGB) or multispectral images as an input. These maps are then used to segment the crop into management zones. Finally, knowing the spectral signature of a crop (the reflected radiation as a function of wavelength) can be used as an input for decision-making and crop characterization. The calculation of vegetation indices using software such as Pix4D has high precision for monoculture plantations. However, this paper shows that using this software on mixed crops may lead to errors resulting in an incorrect segmentation of the field. Within this work, authors propose to filter all the elements different from the main crop before the calculation of vegetation indices and the spectral signature. A filter based on the Sobel method for border detection is used for filtering a coffee crop. Results show that segmentation into management zones changes with respect to the traditional situation in which a filter is not applied. In particular, it is shown how the values of the spectral signature change in up to 17% per spectral band. Future work will quantify the benefits of filtering through the comparison between in situ measurements and the calculated vegetation indices obtained through remote sensing.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Precision Agriculture, Filtering, coffee, mixed crop, spectral signature

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5 Ways to Prevent Increased Wear of the Drive Box Parts and the Central Drive of the Civil Aviation Turbo Engine Based on Tribology

Authors: Liudmila Shabalinskaya, Victor Golovanov, Liudmila Milinis, Sergey Loponos, Alexander Maslov, D. O. Frolov


The work is devoted to the rapid laboratory diagnosis of the condition of aircraft friction units, based on the application of the nondestructive testing method by analyzing the parameters of wear particles, or tribodiagnostics. The most important task of tribodiagnostics is to develop recommendations for the selection of more advanced designs, materials and lubricants based on data on wear processes for increasing the life and ensuring the safety of the operation of machines and mechanisms. The object of tribodiagnostics in this work are the tooth gears of the central drive and the gearboxes of the gas turbine engine of the civil aviation PS-90A type, in which rolling friction and sliding friction with slip occur. The main criterion for evaluating the technical state of lubricated friction units of a gas turbine engine is the intensity and rate of wear of the friction surfaces of the friction unit parts. When the engine is running, oil samples are taken and the state of the friction surfaces is evaluated according to the parameters of the wear particles contained in the oil sample, which carry important and detailed information about the wear processes in the engine transmission units. The parameters carrying this information include the concentration of wear particles and metals in the oil, the dispersion composition, the shape, the size ratio and the number of particles, the state of their surfaces, the presence in the oil of various mechanical impurities of non-metallic origin. Such a morphological analysis of wear particles has been introduced into the order of monitoring the status and diagnostics of various aircraft engines, including a gas turbine engine, since the type of wear characteristic of the central drive and the drive box is surface fatigue wear and the beginning of its development, accompanied by the formation of microcracks, leads to the formation of spherical, up to 10 μm in size, and in the aftermath of flocculent particles measuring 20-200 μm in size. Tribodiagnostics using the morphological analysis of wear particles includes the following techniques: ferrography, filtering, and computer analysis of the classification and counting of wear particles. Based on the analysis of several series of oil samples taken from the drive box of the engine during their operating time, a study was carried out of the processes of wear kinetics. Based on the results of the study and comparing the series of criteria for tribodiagnostics, wear state ratings and statistics of the results of morphological analysis, norms for the normal operating regime were developed. The study allowed to develop levels of wear state for friction surfaces of gearing and a 10-point rating system for estimating the likelihood of the occurrence of an increased wear mode and, accordingly, prevention of engine failures in flight.

Keywords: Aviation, Tribology, Filtering, Morphological Analysis, box of drives, tribodiagnostics, ferrography, wear particle

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4 Denoising of Magnetotelluric Signals by Filtering

Authors: Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Ivette Caldelas


In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the denoising processing of magnetotelluric signals using several filters. In particular, we use the most common spatial domain filters such as median and mean, but we are also using the Fourier and wavelet transform for frequency domain filtering. We employ three datasets obtained at the different sampling rate (128, 4096 and 8192 bps) and evaluate the mean square error, signal-to-noise relation, and peak signal-to-noise relation to compare the kernels and determine the most suitable for each case. The magnetotelluric signals correspond to earth exploration when water is searched. The object is to find a denoising strategy different to the one included in the commercial equipment that is employed in this task.

Keywords: Filtering, Wavelet Transform, denoising, magnetotelluric signals

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3 Evaluation of Diagnosis Performance Based on Pairwise Model Construction and Filtered Data

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho


It is quite important to utilize right time and intelligent production monitoring and diagnosis of industrial processes in terms of quality and safety issues. When compared with monitoring task, fault diagnosis represents the task of finding process variables responsible causing a specific fault in the process. It can be helpful to process operators who should investigate and eliminate root causes more effectively and efficiently. This work focused on the active use of combining a nonlinear statistical technique with a preprocessing method in order to implement practical real-time fault identification schemes for data-rich cases. To compare its performance to existing identification schemes, a case study on a benchmark process was performed in several scenarios. The results showed that the proposed fault identification scheme produced more reliable diagnosis results than linear methods. In addition, the use of the filtering step improved the identification results for the complicated processes with massive data sets.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Process monitoring, Filtering, nonlinear statistical techniques

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2 Extracting Terrain Points from Airborne Laser Scanning Data in Densely Forested Areas

Authors: Ziad Abdeldayem, Jakub Markiewicz, Kunal Kansara, Laura Edwards


Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is one of the main technologies for generating high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). DTMs are crucial to several applications, such as topographic mapping, flood zone delineation, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrological modelling, spatial analysis, etc. Laser scanning system generates irregularly spaced three-dimensional cloud of points. Raw ALS data are mainly ground points (that represent the bare earth) and non-ground points (that represent buildings, trees, cars, etc.). Removing all the non-ground points from the raw data is referred to as filtering. Filtering heavily forested areas is considered a difficult and challenging task as the canopy stops laser pulses from reaching the terrain surface. This research presents an approach for removing non-ground points from raw ALS data in densely forested areas. Smoothing splines are exploited to interpolate and fit the noisy ALS data. The presented filter utilizes a weight function to allocate weights for each point of the data. Furthermore, unlike most of the methods, the presented filtering algorithm is designed to be automatic. Three different forested areas in the United Kingdom are used to assess the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the generated DTMs from the filtered data are accurate (when compared against reference terrain data) and the performance of the method is stable for all the heavily forested data samples. The average root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.35 m.

Keywords: Filtering, digital terrain models, airborne laser scanning, forested areas

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1 Heart Murmurs and Heart Sounds Extraction Using an Algorithm Process Separation

Authors: Fatima Mokeddem


The phonocardiogram signal (PCG) is a physiological signal that reflects heart mechanical activity, is a promising tool for curious researchers in this field because it is full of indications and useful information for medical diagnosis. PCG segmentation is a basic step to benefit from this signal. Therefore, this paper presents an algorithm that serves the separation of heart sounds and heart murmurs in case they exist in order to use them in several applications and heart sounds analysis. The separation process presents here is founded on three essential steps filtering, envelope detection, and heart sounds segmentation. The algorithm separates the PCG signal into S1 and S2 and extract cardiac murmurs.

Keywords: Detection, Filtering, envelope, heart sounds, phonocardiogram signal, murmurs

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