Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

field emission Related Abstracts

3 Copper Phthalocyanine Nanostructures: A Potential Material for Field Emission Display

Authors: Uttam Kumar Ghorai, Madhupriya Samanta, Subhajit Saha, Swati Das, Nilesh Mazumder, Kalyan Kumar Chattopadhyay


Organic semiconductors have gained potential interest in the last few decades for their significant contributions in the various fields such as solar cell, non-volatile memory devices, field effect transistors and light emitting diodes etc. The most important advantages of using organic materials are mechanically flexible, light weight and low temperature depositing techniques. Recently with the advancement of nanoscience and technology, one dimensional organic and inorganic nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes have gained tremendous interests due to their very high aspect ratio and large surface area for electron transport etc. Among them, self-assembled organic nanostructures like Copper, Zinc Phthalocyanine have shown good transport property and thermal stability due to their π conjugated bonds and π-π stacking respectively. Field emission properties of inorganic and carbon based nanostructures are reported in literatures mostly. But there are few reports in case of cold cathode emission characteristics of organic semiconductor nanostructures. In this work, the authors report the field emission characteristics of chemically and physically synthesized Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanostructures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanotips. The as prepared samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Ultra Violet Visible Spectrometer (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The field emission characteristics were measured in our home designed field emission set up. The registered turn-on field and local field enhancement factor are found to be less than 5 V/μm and greater than 1000 respectively. The field emission behaviour is also stable for 200 minute. The experimental results are further verified by theoretically using by a finite displacement method as implemented in ANSYS Maxwell simulation package. The obtained results strongly indicate CuPc nanostructures to be the potential candidate as an electron emitter for field emission based display device applications.

Keywords: nanotubes, nanowires, organic semiconductor, phthalocyanine, field emission

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2 Optimizing the Field Emission Performance of SiNWs-Based Heterostructures: Controllable Synthesis, Core-Shell Structure, 3D ZnO/Si Nanotrees and Graphene/SiNWs

Authors: Shasha Lv, Zhengcao Li


Due to the CMOS compatibility, silicon-based field emission (FE) devices as potential electron sources have attracted much attention. The geometrical arrangement and dimensional features of aligned silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have a determining influence on the FE properties. We discuss a multistep template replication process of Ag-assisted chemical etching combined with polystyrene (PS) spheres to fabricate highly periodic and well-aligned silicon nanowires, then their diameter, aspect ratio and density were further controlled via dry oxidation and post chemical treatment. The FE properties related to proximity and aspect ratio were systematically studied. A remarkable improvement of FE propertiy was observed with the average nanowires tip interspace increasing from 80 to 820 nm. On the basis of adjusting SiNWs dimensions and morphology, addition of a secondary material whose properties complement the SiNWs could yield a combined characteristic. Three different nanoheterostructures were fabricated to control the FE performance, they are: NiSi/Si core-shell structures, ZnO/Si nanotrees, and Graphene/SiNWs. We successfully fabricated the high-quality NiSi/Si heterostructured nanowires with excellent conformality. First, nickle nanoparticles were deposited onto SiNWs, then rapid thermal annealing process were utilized to form NiSi shell. In addition, we demonstrate a new and simple method for creating 3D nanotree-like ZnO/Si nanocomposites with a spatially branched hierarchical structure. Compared with the as-prepared SiNRs and ZnO NWs, the high-density ZnO NWs on SiNRs have exhibited predominant FE characteristics, and the FE enhancement factors were attributed to band bending effect and geometrical morphology. The FE efficiency from flat sheet structure of graphene is low. We discussed an effective approach towards full control over the diameter of uniform SiNWs to adjust the protrusions of large-scale graphene sheet deposited on SiNWs. The FE performance regarding the uniformity and dimensional control of graphene protrusions supported on SiNWs was systematically clarified. Therefore, the hybrid SiNWs/graphene structures with protrusions provide a promising class of field emission cathodes.

Keywords: Silicon Nanowires, Heterostructures, field emission, controllable synthesis

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1 Enhanced Field Emission from Plasma Treated Graphene and 2D Layered Hybrids

Authors: R. Khare, R. V. Gelamo, M. A. More, D. J. Late, Chandra Sekhar Rout


Graphene emerges out as a promising material for various applications ranging from complementary integrated circuits to optically transparent electrode for displays and sensors. The excellent conductivity and atomic sharp edges of unique two-dimensional structure makes graphene a propitious field emitter. Graphene analogues of other 2D layered materials have emerged in material science and nanotechnology due to the enriched physics and novel enhanced properties they present. There are several advantages of using 2D nanomaterials in field emission based devices, including a thickness of only a few atomic layers, high aspect ratio (the ratio of lateral size to sheet thickness), excellent electrical properties, extraordinary mechanical strength and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, the presence of edges can enhance the tunneling probability for the electrons in layered nanomaterials similar to that seen in nanotubes. Here we report electron emission properties of multilayer graphene and effect of plasma (CO2, O2, Ar and N2) treatment. The plasma treated multilayer graphene shows an enhanced field emission behavior with a low turn on field of 0.18 V/μm and high emission current density of 1.89 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 0.35 V/μm. Further, we report the field emission studies of layered WS2/RGO and SnS2/RGO composites. The turn on field required to draw a field emission current density of 1μA/cm2 is found to be 3.5, 2.3 and 2 V/μm for WS2, RGO and the WS2/RGO composite respectively. The enhanced field emission behavior observed for the WS2/RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a high field enhancement factor of 2978, which is associated with the surface protrusions of the single-to-few layer thick sheets of the nanocomposite. The highest current density of ~800 µA/cm2 is drawn at an applied field of 4.1 V/μm from a few layers of the WS2/RGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, first-principles density functional calculations suggest that the enhanced field emission may also be due to an overlap of the electronic structures of WS2 and RGO, where graphene-like states are dumped in the region of the WS2 fundamental gap. Similarly, the turn on field required to draw an emission current density of 1µA/cm2 is significantly low (almost half the value) for the SnS2/RGO nanocomposite (2.65 V/µm) compared to pristine SnS2 (4.8 V/µm) nanosheets. The field enhancement factor β (~3200 for SnS2 and ~3700 for SnS2/RGO composite) was calculated from Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots and indicates emission from the nanometric geometry of the emitter. The field emission current versus time plot shows overall good emission stability for the SnS2/RGO emitter. The DFT calculations reveal that the enhanced field emission properties of SnS2/RGO composites are because of a substantial lowering of work function of SnS2 when supported by graphene, which is in response to p-type doping of the graphene substrate. Graphene and 2D analogue materials emerge as a potential candidate for future field emission applications.

Keywords: Doping, plasma, Graphene, field emission, layered material

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