Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Fibromyalgia Related Abstracts

7 Determining the Effect of Tdcs in Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Farid Rezaei, Zahra Reza Soltani, Behrouz Tavana, Afsaneh Dadarkhah, Masoume Bahrami Asl


Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome comprised of a group of symptoms. The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is pain propagation is associated by Secondary symptoms include fatigue, cognitive disorders, sleep disorders and hypersensitivity to painful stimuli. Recent studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between fibromyalgia and certain changes in brain activity. Aim: The aim of this study is determining the effect of tDCS in pain and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Method: 68 patients with fibromyalgia who had inclusion criterias were randomly divided into two groups of case and control. Groups were matched in terms of gender, age, education, duration of pain and PMS. Patient groups treated with tDCS device manufacture by Enraf company made in Netherlands (M1 anodal stimulation, 2 mA constant current, 20 minutes, for 10 sessions (3 days a week)). Also the protocol was done for control group, in sham mode of tDCS device that had no current, for 10 sessions of 20 minutes. Before treatment, immediately after the end of 10 sessions treatment (short-term) and 10 week later (long-term effect), pain intensity questionnaires (VAS) and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients questionnaire was completed by the patient. Results: Pain intensity were significantly lower in the treatment group than the sham group 2 weeks and 10 weeks after treatment than before treatment (P < 0.001). Although the quality of life of patients 2 weeks after treatment showed no significant change, but ten weeks after treatment were more than sham group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that tDCS is a safe and effective in treating fibromyalgia patients and an important effect in reducing pain and increasing quality of their life.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, Quality of Life, tDCS, VAS score

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6 Exploring the Illness Experience of Fibromyalgia Patients Using Identity Boxes

Authors: Nicole Brown


This study considers the illness experience of fibromyalgia patients by using identity boxes. The results improve health care professionals' understanding of patient experiences. Additionally, the concept of the identity boxes may offer a practical solution for helping patients accept the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia research traditionally refers to pain experiences and relies on questionnaires, surveys, interviews and some narrative analysis. However, due to the variability in symptoms, symptom levels, and locations, these methods may not be best suited to provide an insight into the patient experience. On the other hand, lengthy interview processes are not easily accessible for sufferers of fibromyalgia. In addition to timelines and diary extracts, this study uses identity boxes as its main data collection method. Participants are asked to find items in response to specific questions and to arrange them in their box. The objects represent the patients' experiences holistically. Participants provide photographs of their identity box at each stage of the process and explain their chosen items. The photographs of the identity boxes and the patients' explanations of their objects and their boxes are subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Despite the unique forms of the completed boxes, common experiences are described: the need for comfort, the role of spirituality and the impact of fibromyalgia on everyday life, that it plays a significant role but those patients are determined not to let it rule their lives. The work with the identity boxes has shown beneficial impact due to the reflective nature involved in the tasks. Further investigations will be needed to identify the long-term impact of identity work using such boxes.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, illness narrative, biographical disruption, illness experience

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5 Fibromyalgia and Personality: A Review of the Different Personality Types Identified

Authors: Lize Tibiriçá, Ronnie Lee, Samantha Behbahani


Fibromyalgia (FM) is a musculoskeletal disorder affecting men and women of different ages and cultures. The cause of this disorder is unknown; however, studies suggest an etiology that involves biological and psychosocial factors. Few studies have shown that a personality type such as neuroticism is associated with chronic pain conditions. Past research has explored whether patients with FM present with a specific personality trait. However, studies have used different methods (i.e. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS) and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire or Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Karolinska scale of personality, Big Five Inventory or NEO Personality Inventory) to explore the connection between FM and a personality type. They have identified personality types that present similar characteristics but vary in the name (i.e. high harm avoidance and low novelty seeking, psychasthenia/muscular tension/somatic anxiety, neuroticism). Although Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory differ in terms of content and structure, both of them identify neuroticism as the personality type of FM patients, and the former also identifies these patients as having a low sociability personality trait. Previous research also shows a trend of sociotropic personality style with FM patients that also suffer from Major Depressive Disorder. Participants in these studies were, for the most part, adult female and researchers have recognized that as a limitation and whether their findings can be generalized to men and younger patients with FM. Furthermore, most studies reviewed were conducted in Europe (i.e. Spain) and had a cross-sectional design. Future research should replicate past studies in different countries and consider conducting a longitudinal study. Although it is suspected that FM course is modulated by FM patients’ personality, it is not known whether individuals with similar personalities will develop FM. This review sought to explain the differences and similarities between the personality types identified. Limitations in the studies reviewed were addressed, and considerations for future research and treatment were discussed.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, Chronic Pain, personality type, neuroticism

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4 The Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Murine Fibromyalgia Model

Authors: Yi-Wen Lin, Bernice Jeanne Lottering


Introduction: Chronic pain has a definitive lack of objective parameters in the measurement and treatment efficacy of diseases such as Fibromyalgia (FM). Persistent widespread pain and generalized tenderness are the characteristic symptoms affecting a large majority of the global population, particularly females. This disease has indicated a refractory tendency to conventional treatment ventures, largely resultant from a lack of etiological and pathogenic understanding of the disease development. Emerging evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a critical role in the amplification of pain signals and the neurotransmitters associated therewith. Various stimuli have been found to activate the channels existent on nociceptor terminals, thereby actuating nociceptive impulses along the pain pathways. The transient receptor potential vanalloid 1 (TRPV1) channel functions as a molecular integrator for numerous sensory inputs, such as nociception, and was explored in the current study. Current intervention approaches face a multitude challenges, ranging from effective therapeutic interventions to the limitation of pathognomonic criteria resultant from incomplete understanding and partial evidence on the mechanisms of action of FM. It remains unclear whether electroacupuncture (EA) plays an integral role in the functioning of the TRPV1 pathway, and whether or not it can reduce the chronic pain induced by FM. Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms underlying the activation and modulation of the TRPV1 channel pathway in a cold stress model of FM applied to a murine model. Furthermore, the effect of EA in the treatment of mechanical and thermal pain, as expressed in FM was also to be investigated. Methods: 18 C57BL/6 wild type and 6 TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice, aged 8-12 weeks, were exposed to an intermittent cold stress-induced fibromyalgia-like pain model, with or without EA treatment at ZusanLi ST36 (2Hz/20min) on day 3 to 5. Von Frey and Hargreaves behaviour tests were implemented in order to analyze the mechanical and thermal pain thresholds on day 0, 3 and 5 in control group (C), FM group (FM), FM mice with EA treated group (FM + EA) and FM in KO group. Results: An increase in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was observed in the FM, EA and KO groups when compared to the control group. This initial increase was reduced in the EA group, which directs focus at the treatment efficacy of EA in nociceptive sensitization, and the analgesic effect EA has attenuating FM associated pain. Discussion: An increase in the nociceptive sensitization was observed through higher withdrawal thresholds in the von Frey mechanical test and the Hargreaves thermal test. TRPV1 function in mice has been scientifically associated with these nociceptive conduits, and the increased behaviour test results suggest that TRPV1 upregulation is central to the FM induced hyperalgesia. This data was supported by the decrease in sensitivity observed in results of the TRPV1 KO group. Moreover, the treatment of EA showed a decrease in this FM induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA at bilateral ST36. This evidence compellingly implies that the analgesic effect of EA is associated with TRPV1 downregulation.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, nociception, electroacupuncture, TRPV1

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3 Analytical-Behavioral Intervention for Women with Fibromyalgia: Evaluation of Effectiveness Clinical Significance and Reliable Change

Authors: Luziane De Fatima Kirchner, Maria De Jesus Dutra Dos Reis, Francine Nathalie Ferraresi Rodrigues Queluz


This study evaluated the effect of two components of analytic-behavioral intervention (1-management of conditions of the physical environment, 2-management of the interpersonal relationship) of women with fibromyalgia (FM), besides Clinical Significance and Reliable Change at the end of the intervention. Self-report instruments were used to evaluate stress, anxiety, depression, social skills and disability due to pain and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). Four women with a medical diagnosis of FM (mean age 52.7; sd = 6.65), participated of the following procedures: initial evaluation, 10 sessions of component 1, intermediate evaluation, 10 sessions of component 2, and final evaluation. The 20 sessions were effective, with positive changes in the scores of all the self-report instruments, highlighting the results of the stress symptoms that had improvement in the intermediate evaluation. There was, however, no change in the cortisol response on awakening. The Clinical Significance or Reliable Change observed, according to the scores of the stress, anxiety, depression and social skills instruments, corroborated the reports of the participants in the session and the objectives of the treatment. Implications for future studies are discussed, above all, the importance in conducting evaluations with the use of direct measures together with self-report measures.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, Clinical Significance, behavioral intervention, reliable change

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2 Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Different Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Systematic Review

Authors: R. R. Billones, N. Lukkahatai, L. N. Saligan


Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) have been used in medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). This systematic review describes the literature investigating the general effect of MBIs on MUS and identifies the effects of specific MBIs on specific MUS conditions. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA) and the modified Oxford quality scoring system (JADAD) were applied to the review, yielding an initial 1,556 articles. The search engines included PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsychINFO using the search terms: mindfulness, or mediations, or mindful or MBCT or MBSR and medically unexplained symptoms or MUS or fibromyalgia or FMS. A total of 24 articles were included in the final systematic review. MBIs showed large effects on socialization skills for chronic fatigue syndrome (d=0.65), anger in fibromyalgia (d=0.61), improvement of somatic symptoms (d=1.6) and sleep (d=1.12) for painful conditions, physical health for chronic back pain (d=0.51), and disease intensity for irritable bowel disease/syndrome (d=1.13). A manualized MBI that applies the four fundamental elements present in all types of interventions were critical to efficacy. These elements were psycho-education sessions specific to better understand the medical symptoms, the practice of awareness, the non-judgmental observance of the experience at the moment, and the compassion to ones’ self. The effectiveness of different mindfulness interventions necessitates giving attention to improve the gaps that were identified related to home-based practice monitoring, competency training of mindfulness teachers, and sound psychometric properties to measure the mindfulness practice.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, mindfulness-based interventions, medically unexplained symptoms, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction

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1 Short Term Effects of Mobilization with Movement in a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Case Report

Authors: S. F. Kanaan, Fatima Al-Kadi, H. Khrais


Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that is characterized by chronic pain that limits physical and functional activities. To our best knowledge, there is currently no key physiotherapy approach recommended to reduce pain and improve function. In addition, there are scarce studies that investigated the effect of manual therapy in the management of Fibromyalgia, and no study investigated the efficacy of Mulligan´s mobilization with movement (MWM) in particular. Methods: A 51-year-old female diagnosed with Fibromyalgia for more than a year. The patient was complaining of generalized pain including neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees. In addition, the patient reported severe limitation in activities and inability to complete her work as a lawyer. The Intervention provided for the patient consisted of 4 sessions (in two weeks) of MWM for neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, sacroiliac joint, hips, and knees. The Visual Analogue Scale of pain (VAS), Range of Motion (ROM), 10-minute walk test, Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH) were collected at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: Average improvement of ROM in the neck, lower back, shoulder, elbows, hips, and knees was 45%. VAS scale changed from pre-treatment to post-treatment as the following: neck pain (9 to 0), lower back pain (8 to 1), shoulders pain (8 to 2), elbows pain (7 to 1), and knees pain (9 to 0). The patient demonstrated improvement in all functional scale from pre-intervention to post-intervention: 10-meter walk test (9.8 to 4.5 seconds), RMQ (21 to 11/24), and DASH (88.7% to 40.5%). The patient did not report any side effect of using this approach. Conclusion: Fibromyalgia can cause joint 'faulty position' leading to pain and dysfunction, which can be reversed by using MWM. MWM showed to have clinically significant improvement in ROM, pain, and ability to walk and a clinically significant reduction in disability in only 4 sessions. This work can be expanded in a larger sample.

Keywords: Fibromyalgia, manual therapy, Dysfunction, mobilization

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