Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Fibres Related Abstracts

6 Mechanical Performances and Viscoelastic Behaviour of Starch-Grafted-Polypropylene/Kenaf Fibres Composites

Authors: A. Hamma, A. Pegoretti


The paper focuses on the evaluation of mechanical performances and viscoelastic behaviour of starch-grafted-PP reinforced with kenaf fibres. Investigations were carried out on composites prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. Two aspects have been taken into account, the effects of various fibres loading rates (10, 20 and 30 wt.%) and the fibres aspect ratios (L/D=30 and 160). Good fibres/matrix interaction has been evidenced by SEM observations. However, processing induced variation of fibre length quantified by optical microscopy observations. Tensile modulus and ultimate properties, hardness and tensile impact stress, were found to remarkably increase with fibre loading. Moreover, short term tensile creep tests have proven that kenaf fibres improved considerably the creep stability. Modelling of creep behaviour by a four parameter Burger model was successfully used. An empirical equation involving Halpin-Tsai semi empirical model was also used to predict the elastic modulus of composites.

Keywords: thermoplastic Composites, Fibres, Mechanical Properties, Creep, starch-grafted-PP

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5 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad


An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glass, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000 kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4 %. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: Durability, Geological Engineering, Construction, Fibres, foamed concrete

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4 Tensile Behaviours of Sansevieria Ehrenbergii Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites with Water Absorption Time

Authors: P. Navaneethakrishnan, T. P. Sathishkumar


The research work investigates the variation of tensile properties for the sansevieria ehrenbergii fiber (SEF) and SEF reinforced polyester composites respect to various water absorption time. The experiments were conducted according to ATSM D3379-75 and ASTM D570 standards. The percentage of water absorption for composite specimens was measured according to ASTM D570 standard. The fiber of SE was cut in to 30 mm length for preparation of the composites. The simple hand lay-up method followed by compression moulding process adopted to prepare the randomly oriented SEF reinforced polyester composites at constant fiber weight fraction of 40%. The surface treatment was done on the SEFs with various chemicals such as NaOH, KMnO4, Benzoyl Peroxide, Benzoyl Chloride and Stearic Acid before preparing the composites. NaOH was used for pre-treatment of all other chemical treatments. The morphology of the tensile fractured specimens studied using the Scanning Electron Microscopic. The tensile strength of the SEF and SEF reinforced polymer composites were carried out with various water absorption time such as 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours respectively. The result shows that the tensile strength was drop off with increase in water absorption time for all composites. The highest tensile property of raw fiber was found due to lowest moistures content. Also the chemical bond between the cellulose and cementic materials such as lignin and wax was highest due to lowest moisture content. Tensile load was lowest and elongation was highest for the water absorbed fibers at various water absorption time ranges. During this process, the fiber cellulose inhales the water and expands the primary and secondary fibers walls. This increases the moisture content in the fibers. Ultimately this increases the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water. In tensile testing, the water absorbed fibers shows highest elongation by stretching of expanded cellulose walls and the bonding strength between the fiber cellulose is low. The load carrying capability was stable at 20 hours of water absorption time. This could be directly affecting the interfacial bonding between the fiber/matrix and composite strength. The chemically treated fibers carry higher load and lower elongation which is due to removal of lignin, hemicellulose and wax content. The water time absorption decreases the tensile strength of the composites. The chemically SEF reinforced composites shows highest tensile strength compared to untreated SEF reinforced composites. This was due to highest bonding area between the fiber/matrix. This was proven in the morphology at the fracture zone of the composites. The intra-fiber debonding was occurred by water capsulation in the fiber cellulose. Among all, the tensile strength was found to be highest for KMnO4 treated SEF reinforced composite compared to other composites. This was due to better interfacial bonding between the fiber-matrix compared to other treated fiber composites. The percentage of water absorption of composites increased with time of water absorption. The percentage weight gain of chemically treated SEF composites at 4 hours to zero water absorption are 9, 9, 10, 10.8 and 9.5 for NaOH, BP, BC, KMnO4 and SA respectively. The percentage weight gain of chemically treated SEF composites at 24 hours to zero water absorption 5.2, 7.3, 12.5, 16.7 and 13.5 for NaOH, BP, BC, KMnO4 and SA respectively. Hence the lowest weight gain was found for KMnO4 treated SEF composites by highest percentage with lowest water uptake. However the chemically treated SEF reinforced composites is possible materials for automotive application like body panels, bumpers and interior parts, and household application like tables and racks etc.

Keywords: Fibres, Mechanical Properties, Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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3 Fire Resistance of High Alumina Cement and Slag Based Ultra High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi


Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) structures are susceptible to intense deterioration when exposed to elevated temperatures, particularly in the incident of fire. FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy; the key component of FRP matrix.  In the past few decades, various types of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC) were explored for the protection of RC structural members against elevated temperature. However, there is an inadequate information on the influence of elevated temperature on the ultra high performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (UHPFRCC) containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a replacement of high alumina cement (HAC) in conjunction with hybrid fibres (basalt and polypropylene fibres), which could be a prospective fire resisting material for the structural components. The influence of elevated temperatures on the compressive as well as flexural strength of UHPFRCC, made of HAC-GGBS and hybrid fibres, were examined in this study. Besides control sample (without fibres), three other samples, containing 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of basalt fibres by total weight of mix and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres, were prepared and tested. Another mix was also prepared with only 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres. Each of the samples were retained at ambient temperature as well as exposed to 400, 700 and 1000 °C followed by testing after 28 and 56 days of conventional curing. Investigation of results disclosed that the use of hybrid fibres significantly helped to improve the ambient temperature compressive and flexural strength of UHPFRCC, which was found to be 80 and 14.3 MPa respectively. However, the optimum residual compressive strength was marked by UHPFRCC-CP (with polypropylene fibres only), equally after both curing days (28 and 56 days), i.e. 41%. In addition, the utmost residual flexural strength, after 28 and 56 days of curing, was marked by UHPFRCC– CP and UHPFRCC– CB2 (1 kg/m3 of PP fibres + 1% of basalt fibres) i.e. 39% and 48.5% respectively.

Keywords: Hybrid, Fibres, fibre reinforced polymer materials (FRP), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), high-alumina cement

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2 Fracture Crack Monitoring Using Digital Image Correlation Technique

Authors: B. G. Patel, A. K. Desai, S. G. Shah


The main of objective of this paper is to develop new measurement technique without touching the object. DIC is advance measurement technique use to measure displacement of particle with very high accuracy. This powerful innovative technique which is used to correlate two image segments to determine the similarity between them. For this study, nine geometrically similar beam specimens of different sizes with (steel fibers and glass fibers) and without fibers were tested under three-point bending in a closed loop servo-controlled machine with crack mouth opening displacement control with a rate of opening of 0.0005 mm/sec. Digital images were captured before loading (unreformed state) and at different instances of loading and were analyzed using correlation techniques to compute the surface displacements, crack opening and sliding displacements, load-point displacement, crack length and crack tip location. It was seen that the CMOD and vertical load-point displacement computed using DIC analysis matches well with those measured experimentally.

Keywords: Fibres, Size Effect, digital image correlation, self compacting concrete

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1 Mechanical Properties of Fibre Reinforced High Performance Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Diana Bajare, Aleksandrs Korjakins, Genadijs Sahmenko, Laura Dembovska


This study focused on the mechanical properties of the fibre reinforced High Performance Concrete. The most important benefits of addition of fibres to the concrete mix are the hindrance of the development of microcracks, the delay of the propagation of microcracks to macroscopic cracks and the better ductility after microcracks have been occurred. This work presents an extensive comparative experimental study on six different types of fibres (alkali resistant glass, polyvinyl alcohol fibres, polypropylene fibres and carbon fibres) with the same binding High Performance Concrete matrix. The purpose was to assess the influence of the type of fibre on the mechanical properties of Fibre Reinforced High Performance Concrete. Therefore, in this study three main objectives have been chosen: 1) analyze the structure of the bulk cementitious matrix, 2) determine the influence of fibres and distribution in the matrix on the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced High Performance Concrete and 3) characterize the microstructure of the fibre-matrix interface. Acknowledgement: This study was partially funded by European Regional Development Fund project Nr. “A New Concept for Sustainable and Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings” and COST Action TU1404 Conference grants project.

Keywords: Microstructure, Fibres, Mechanical Properties, High Performance Concrete

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