Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

fibre Related Abstracts

11 Flexural Fatigue Performance of Self-Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Surinder Pal Singh, Sanjay Goel


The paper presents results of an investigation conducted to study the flexural fatigue characteristics of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Self Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). In total 360 flexural fatigue tests and 270 static flexural strength tests were conducted on SCC and SCFRC specimens to obtain the fatigue test data. The variability in the distribution of fatigue life of SCC and SCFRC have been analyzed and compared with that of NVC and NVFRC containing steel fibres of comparable size and shape. The experimental coefficients of fatigue equations have been estimated to represent relationship between stress level (S) and fatigue life (N) for SCC and SCFRC containing different fibre volume fractions. The probability of failure (Pf) has been incorporated in S-N relationships to obtain families of S-N-Pf relationships. A good agreement between the predicted curves and those obtained from the test data has been observed. The fatigue performance of SCC and SCFRC has been evaluated in terms of two-million cycles fatigue strength/endurance limit. The theoretic fatigue lives were also estimated using single-log fatigue equation for 10% probability of failure to estimate the enhanced extent of theoretic fatigue lives of SCFRC with reference to SCC and NVC. The reduction in variability in the fatigue life, increased endurance limit and increased theoretiac fatigue lives demonstrates an overall better fatigue performance for SCC and SCFRC.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Fatigue Life, fibre, probability of failure

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10 Influence of Yield Stress and Compressive Strength on Direct Shear Behaviour of Steel Fibre-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Mostefa Hamrat, Bensaid Boulekbache, Mohamed Chemrouk, Sofiane Amziane


This study aims in examining the influence of the paste yield stress and compressive strength on the behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) versus direct shear. The parameters studied are the steel fibre contents, the aspect ratio of fibres and the concrete strength. Prismatic specimens of dimensions 10x10x35cm made of concrete of various yield stress reinforced with steel fibres hooked at the ends with three fibre volume fractions (i.e. 0, 0.5, and 1%) and two aspects ratio (65 and 80) were tested to direct shear. Three types of concretes with various compressive strength and yield stress were tested, an ordinary concrete (OC), a self-compacting concrete (SCC) and a high strength concrete (HSC). The concrete strengths investigated include 30 MPa for OC, 60 MPa for SCC and 80 MPa for HSC. The results show that the shear strength and ductility are affected and have been improved very significantly by the fibre contents, fibre aspect ratio and concrete strength. As the compressive strength and the volume fraction of fibres increase, the shear strength increases. However, yield stress of concrete has an important influence on the orientation and distribution of the fibres in the matrix. The ductility was much higher for ordinary and self-compacting concretes (concrete with good workability). The ductility in direct shear depends on the fibre orientation and is significantly improved when the fibres are perpendicular to the shear plane. On the contrary, for concrete with poor workability, an inadequate distribution and orientation of fibres occurred, leading to a weak contribution of the fibres to the direct shear behaviour.

Keywords: Concrete, Orientation, Strength, fibre, direct shear, yield stress

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9 The Effects of SCMs on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Fibre Cement Plates

Authors: Shahram Derogar, Ceren Ince, Nabi Yuzer, Berkay Zafer Erdem


Fibre cement plates, often used in construction, generally are made using quartz as an inert material, cement as a binder and cellulose as a fibre. This paper first of all investigates the mechanical properties and durability of fibre cement plates when quartz is both partly and fully replaced with diatomite. Diatomite does not only have lower density compared to quartz but also has high pozzolanic activity. The main objective of this paper is the investigation of the effects of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) on the short and long term mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using diatomite. Supplementary cementing materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slug (GGBS) and fly ash (FA) are used in this study. 10, 20, 30 and 40% of GGBS and FA are used as partial replacement materials to cement. Short and long term mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strengths as well as capillary absorption, sorptivity characteristics and mass were investigated. Consistency and setting time at each replacement levels of SCMs were also recorded. The effects of using supplementary cementing materials on the carbonation and sulphate resistance of fibre cement plates were then experimented. The results, first of all, show that the use of diatomite as a full or partial replacement to quartz resulted in a systematic decrease in total mass of the fibre cement plates. The reduction of mass was largely due to the lower density and finer particle size of diatomite compared to quartz. The use of diatomite did not only reduce the mass of these plates but also increased the compressive strength significantly as a result of its high pozzolanic activity. The replacement levels of both GGBS and FA resulted in a systematic decrease in short term compressive strength with increasing replacement levels. This was essentially expected as the total heat of hydration is much lower in GGBS and FA than that of cement. Long term results however, indicated that the compressive strength of fibre cement plates prepared using both GGBS and FA increases with time and hence the compressive strength of plates prepared using SCMs is either equivalent or more than the compressive strength of plates prepared using cement alone. Durability characteristics of fibre cement plates prepared using SCMs were enhanced significantly. Measurements of capillary absorption and sopritivty characteristics were also indicated that the plates prepared using SCMs has much lower permeability compared to plates prepared cement alone. Much higher resistance to carbonation and sulphate attach were observed with plates prepared using SCMs. The results presented in this paper show that the use of SCMs does not only support the production of more sustainable construction materials but also enhances the mechanical properties and durability characteristics of fibre cement plates.

Keywords: Strength, fibre, diatomite, supplementary cementing material

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8 The Source of Fibre and Roxazyme® G2 Interacted to Influence the Length of Villi in the Ileal Epithelium of Growing Pigs Fed Fibrous Maize-Soybean Diets

Authors: F. Fushai, M.Tekere, M. Masafu, F. Siebrits, A. Kanengoni, F. Nherera


The effects of dietary fibre source on the histomorphology of the ileal epithelium were examined in growing pigs fed high fibre (242-250 g total dietary fibre kg-1 dry matter) diets fortified with Roxazyme® G2. The control was a standard, low fibre (141 g total dietary fibre kg-1 dry matter) diet formulated from dehulled soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea Mays) meal and hominy chop. Five fibrous diets were evaluated in which fibre was increased by partial substitution of the grains in the control diet with maize cobs, soybean hulls, barley (Hordeum vulgare L) brewer’s grains, Lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay or wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran. Each diet was duplicated and 220 mg Roxazyme® G2 kg-1 dry mater was added to one of the mixtures. Seventy-two intact Large White X Landrace male pigs of weight 32 ± 5.6 kg pigs were randomly allocated to the diets in a complete randomised design with a 2 (fibre source) X (enzyme) factorial arrangement of treatments. The pigs were fed ad libitum for 10 weeks. Ileal tissue samples were taken at slaughter, at a point 50cm above the ileal-caecal valve. Villi length and area, and crypt depth were measured by computerised image analyses. The villi length: crypt ratio was calculated. The diet and the supplemental enzyme cocktail did not affect (p>0.05) any of the measured parameters. Significant (p=0.016) diet X enzyme interaction was observed for villi length whereby the enzyme reduced the villi length of pigs on the soy-hulls, standard and wheat bran diets, with an opposite effect on pigs on the maize cob, brewer’s grain, Lucerne diets. The results suggested fibre-source dependent changes in the morphology of the ileal epithelium of pigs fed high fibre, maize-soybean diets fortified with Roxazyme® G2.

Keywords: fibre, growing pigs, histomorphology, ileum, Roxazyme® G2

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7 Melaleuca alternifolia Fibre Composites: Effect of Different Type of Fibre on Mechanical and Physical Properties

Authors: Sahari Japar, M. A. Maleque, Rodney Jammy


The fabrication of melaleuca alternifolia fibre reinforced thermoplastic starch composites was successfully done. This paper aims to show the effect of melaleuca alternifolia fibres on mechanical and physical properties of composites by using starch as a matrix. The fibres were extracted from three different part i.e. tea tree trunk (TTT), tea tree bunch (TTB) and tea tree leaf (TTL) and combined with tapioca starch by casting method. All composites showed superior mechanical properties in comparison to TS. The addition of 5% (v/v) fibres as a filler to TS led to the improvement in young’s modulus by 350% for TTB/TS, 282% for TTT/TS and 220% for TTL/TS. The tensile strength also increased to 34.39% for TTL/TS, 82.80% for TTB/TS and 203.18% for TTT/TS respectively. The trend can be correlated to the amount of cellulose in the fibres. For physical properties, it can be seen that, with the addition of fibres, the water absorption and swelling of composites decreased. The addition of melaleuca alternifolia fibre improved mechanical and physical properties of thermoplastic starch composites.

Keywords: Mechanical, Physical, Starch, fibre, melaleuca alternifolia

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6 Performance Evaluation of Cement Mortar with Crushed Stone Dust as Fine Aggregates

Authors: Pradeep Kumar


The present work is based on application of cement mortar with natural sand and discontinuous steel fiber through which bending behavior of skinny beam was evaluated. This research is to study the effects of combining reinforcing steel meshes (continuous steel reinforcement) with discontinuous fibers as reinforcement in skinny walled Portland cement based cement mortar with crushed stone dust as a fine aggregate. The term ‘skinny’ means thickness of the beams is less than 25 mm. The main idea behind this combination is to satisfy the ultimate strength limit state through the steel mesh reinforcement (as a main reinforcement) and to control the cracking under service loads through fiber (Recron 3s) reinforcement (as secondary reinforcement). The main object of this study is to carry out the bending behavior of mortar reinforced thin beam with only one layer of steel mesh (with various transfer wire spacing) and with a recron 3s (Reliance) fifers. The wide experimental program with bending tests is undertaken. The following variables are investigated: (a) the reference mesh size - 25.4 x 25.4 mm and 50.8 x 50.8 mm; (b) the transverse wire spacing - 25.4 mm, 50.8 mm, and no transverse wires; (c) the type of fibers – Reliance (Recron 3s, 6mm length); and (d) the fiber volume fraction – 0.1% and 0.25%. Some of the main conclusions are: (a) the use of recron 3s fibers leads to a little better overall performance than that with no fiber; (b) an increase in equivalent stress is observed when 0.1% RF,0.25% R Fibers are used; (c) when 25.4 x 50.8 size steel mesh is used, no noticeable change in behavior is observed in comparison to specimens without fibers; and (d) for no fibers 0.1% and o.1% RF the transverse wire spacing has some little effect on the equivalent stress for RF fibers, the transverse wire has no influence but the equivalent stress are increased.

Keywords: fibre, cement mortar, crushed stone dust, steel mesh

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5 Volarization of Sugarcane Bagasse: The Effect of Alkali Concentration, Soaking Time and Temperature on Fibre Yield

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Tilahun Seyoum, K. Shabaridharan


The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of NaOH concentration, soaking time, soaking temperature and their interaction on percentage yield of fibre extract using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction process of cellulosic fibre from sugar cane by-product bagasse using low alkaline extraction technique. The quadratic model with the optimal technological conditions resulted in a maximum fibre yield of 56.80% at 0.55N NaOH concentration, 4 h steeping time and 60ᵒC soaking temperature. Among the independent variables concentration was found to be the most significant (P < 0.005) variable and the interaction effect of concentration and soaking time leads to securing the optimized processes.

Keywords: fibre, sugarcane bagasse, low alkaline, Box-Behnken

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4 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: C. Tezara, H. Y. Lim, M. H. Yazdi, J. W. Lim, J. P. Siregar


Natural fibre has become an element in human lives. A lot of researchers have conducted research about natural fibre reinforced polymer. Malaysian government has spent a lot of money on the research funding for researchers and academician especially research on kenaf fibre due to exclusion of tobacco from AFTA (Asean Free Trade Area) list. This work is to investigate the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite where short kenaf fibre was applied and the mechanical properties of 5%, 10% and 15% wt. of kenaf fibre were added into the mixture of epoxy resin. Hand lay-up process was selected in the fabrication of the specimen for testing. The tensile, flexural and impact test were conducted following ASTM D3039, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 accordingly. From the experiment result, the effect of different fiber loading of the specimen on its mechanical properties would be analyzed and compared in the result and discussion.

Keywords: Composite, epoxy, fibre, kenaf fibre

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3 Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption

Authors: P. Sam Vimal Rajkumar, K. Priyanga


Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.

Keywords: Acoustics, Noise, non-woven, fibre, sound absorption coefficient, sound absorption properties

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2 Experimental Work to Estimate the Strength of Ferrocement Slabs Incorporating Silica Fume and Steel Fibre

Authors: Mohammed Mashrei


Ferrocement is a type of thin reinforced concrete made of cement-sand matrix with closely spaced relatively small diameter wire meshes, with or without steel bars of small diameter called skeletal steel. This work concerns on the behavior of square ferrocement slabs of dimensions (500) mm x (500) mm and 30 mm subjected to a central load. This study includes testing thirteen ferrocement slabs. The main variables considered in the experimental work are the number of wire mesh layers, percentage of silica fume and the presence of steel fiber. The effects of these variables on the behavior and load carrying capacity of tested slabs under central load were investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that by increasing the percentage of silica fume from (0 to 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6) of weight of cement the ultimate loads are affected. Also From this study, it is observed that the load carrying capacity increases with the presence of steel fiber reinforcement, the ductility is high in the case of steel fibers. The increasing wire mesh layer from six to ten layers increased the load capacity by 76%. Also, a reduction in width of crack with increasing in number of cracks in the samples that content on steel fibers comparing with samples without steel fibers was observed from the results.

Keywords: Strength, silica fume, slab, fibre, ferrocement

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1 Quantification of Lustre in Textile Fibers by Image Analysis

Authors: Neelesh Bharti Shukla, Suvankar Dutta, Esha Sharma, Shrikant Ralebhat, Gurudatt Krishnamurthy


A key component of the physical attribute of textile fibers is lustre. It is a complex phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with fibers, yarn and fabrics. It is perceived as the contrast difference between the bright areas (specular reflection) and duller backgrounds (diffused reflection). Lustre of fibers is affected by their surface structure, morphology, cross-section profile as well as the presence of any additives/registrants. Due to complexities in measurements, objective measurements such as gloss meter do not give reproducible quantification of lustre. Other instruments such as SAMBA hair systems are expensive. In light of this, lustre quantification has largely remained subjective, judged visually by experts, but prone to errors. In this development, a physics-based approach was conceptualized and demonstrated. We have developed an image analysis based technique to quantify visually observed differences in lustre of fibers. Cellulosic fibers, produced with different approaches, with visually different levels of lustre were photographed under controlled optics. These images were subsequently analyzed using a configured software system. The ratio of Intensity of light from bright (specular reflection) and dull (diffused reflection) areas was used to numerically represent lustre. In the next step, the set of samples that were not visually distinguishable easily were also evaluated by the technique and it was established that quantification of lustre is feasible.

Keywords: Image Analysis, Measurement, fibre, lustre

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