Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

fibers Related Abstracts

7 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan


This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: Concrete, fibers, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, flexural strength

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6 Mechanical Properties of the Sugarcane Bagasse Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: D. R. Mulinari, C. F. Bandeira, S. R. Montoro, R. L. M. Paiva, M. R. Capri


Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of sugarcane bagasse fibers-polypropylene composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar polypropylene. The treatment characterization was obtained by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/PP composites when compared to the pure PP and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.

Keywords: Polymer composites, fibers, Mechanical Properties, sugarcane bagasse

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5 Self-Healing Coatings and Electrospun Fibers

Authors: M. Grandcolas, N. Rival, H. Bu, S. Jahren, R. Schmid, H. Johnsen


The concept of an autonomic self-healing material, where initiation of repair is integrated to the material, is now being considered for engineering applications and is a hot topic in the literature. Among several concepts/techniques, two are most interesting: i) Capsules: Integration of microcapsules in or at the surface of coatings or fibre-like structures has recently gained much attention. Upon damage-induced cracking, the microcapsules are broken by the propagating crack fronts resulting in a release of an active chemical (healing agent) by capillary action, subsequently repairing and avoiding further crack growth. ii) Self-healing polymers: Interestingly, the introduction of dynamic covalent bonds into polymer networks has also recently been used as a powerful approach towards the design of various intrinsically self-healing polymer systems. The idea behind this is to reconnect the chemical crosslinks which are broken when a material fractures, restoring the integrity of the material and thereby prolonging its lifetime. We propose here to integrate both self-healing concepts (capsules, self-healing polymers) in electrospun fibres and coatings. Different capsule preparation approaches have been investigated in SINTEF. The most advanced method to produce capsules is based on emulsification to create a water-in-oil emulsion before polymerisation. The healing agent is a polyurethane-based dispersion that was encapsulated in shell materials consisting of urea-benzaldehyde resins. Results showed the successful preparation of microcapsules and release of the agent when capsules break. Since capsules are produced in water-in-oil systems we mainly investigated organic solvent based coatings while a major challenge resides in the incorporation of capsules into water-based coatings. We also focused on developing more robust microcapsules to prevent premature rupture of the capsules. The capsules have been characterized in terms of size, and encapsulation and release might be visualized by incorporating fluorescent dyes and examine the capsules by microscopy techniques. Alternatively, electrospinning is an innovative technique that has attracted enormous attention due to unique properties of the produced nano-to-micro fibers, ease of fabrication and functionalization, and versatility in controlling parameters. Especially roll-to-roll electrospinning is a unique method which has been used in industry to produce nanofibers continuously. Electrospun nanofibers can usually reach a diameter down to 100 nm, depending on the polymer used, which is of interest for the concept with self-healing polymer systems. In this work, we proved the feasibility of fabrication of POSS-based (POSS: polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, tradename FunzioNano™) nanofibers via electrospinning. Two different formulations based on aqueous or organic solvents have shown nanofibres with a diameter between 200 – 450nm with low defects. The addition of FunzioNano™ in the polymer blend also showed enhanced properties in term of wettability, promising for e.g. membrane technology. The self-healing polymer systems developed are here POSS-based materials synthesized to develop dynamic soft brushes.

Keywords: Coatings, Electrospinning, fibers, capsules

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4 Synthesis of Smart Materials Based on Polyaniline Coated Fibers

Authors: Mihaela Beregoi, Horia Iovu, Cristina Busuioc, Alexandru Evanghelidis, Elena Matei, Monica Enculescu, Ionut Enculescu


Nanomaterials field is very attractive for all researchers who are attempting to develop new devices with the same or improved properties than the micro-sized ones, while reducing the reagents and power consumptions. In this way, a wide range of nanomaterials were fabricated and integrated in applications for electronics, optoelectronics, solar cells, tissue reconstruction and drug delivery. Obviously, the most appealing ones are those dedicated to the medical domain. Different types of nano-sized materials, such as particles, fibers, films etc., can be synthesized by using physical, chemical or electrochemical methods. One of these techniques is electrospinning, which enable the production of fibers with nanometric dimensions by pumping a polymeric solution in a high electric field; due to the electrostatic charging and solvent evaporation, the precursor mixture is converted into nonwoven meshes with different fiber densities and mechanical properties. Moreover, polyaniline is a conducting polymer with interesting optical properties, suitable for displays and electrochromic windows. Otherwise, polyaniline is an electroactive polymer that can contract/expand by applying electric stimuli, due to the oxidation/reduction reactions which take place in the polymer chains. These two main properties can be exploited in order to synthesize smart materials that change their dimensions, exhibiting in the same time good electrochromic properties. In the context aforesaid, a poly(methyl metacrylate) solution was spun to get webs composed of fibers with diameter values between 500 nm and 1 µm. Further, the polymer meshes were covered with a gold layer in order to make them conductive and also appropriate as working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The gold shell was deposited by DC sputtering. Such metalized fibers can be transformed into smart materials by covering them with a thin layer of conductive polymer. Thus, the webs were coated with a polyaniline film by the electrochemical route, starting from and aqueous solution of aniline and sulfuric acid, where sulfuric acid acts as oxidant agent. For the polymerization of aniline, a saturated calomel electrode was employed as reference, a platinum plate as counter electrode and the gold covered webs as working electrode. Chronoamperometry was selected as deposition method for polyaniline, by modifying the deposition time. Metalized meshes with different fiber densities were used, the transmission ranging between 70 and 80 %. The morphological investigation showed that polyaniline layer has a granular structure for all deposition experiments. As well, some preliminary optical tests were done by using sulfuric acid as electrolyte, which revealed the modification of polyaniline colour from green to dark blue when applying a voltage. In conclusion, new multilayered materials were obtained by a simple approach: the merge of the electrospinning method benefits with polyaniline chemistry. This synthesis method allows the fabrication of structures with reproducible characteristics, suitable for display or tissue substituents.

Keywords: Smart Materials, Electrospinning, fibers, polyaniline

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3 Evaluation of Goji By-Product as a Value-Added Ingredient for the Functional Food Industry

Authors: Sanaa Ragaee, Paragyani Bora, Wee Teng Tan, Xin Hu


Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) is a member of the family Solanaceae which is grown widely in China, Tibet, and other parts of Asia. Its fruits are 1–2 cm-long, bright orange-red ellipsoid berries and it has a long tradition as a food and medicinal plant. Goji berries are believed to boost immune system properties. The berries are considered an excellent source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals and several bioactive components. Studies have shown effects of goji fruit on aging, neuroprotection, general well-being, fatigue/endurance, metabolism/energy expenditure, glucose control in diabetics and glaucoma, antioxidant properties, immunomodulation and anti-tumor activity. Goji berries are being used to prepare Goji beverage, and the remaining solid material is considered as by-product. The by-product is currently unused and disposed as waste despite its potential as a value-added food ingredient. Therefore, this study is intended to evaluate nutritional properties of Goji by-product and its potential applications in the baking industry. The Goji by-product was freeze dried and ground to pass through 1 mm screen prior to evaluation and food use. The Goji by-product was found to be a rich source of fiber (54%) and free phenolic components (1,307 µg/g), protein (13.6%), ash (3.3%) and fat (10%). Incorporation of the Goji by-product in muffins and cookies at various levels (10-40%) significantly improved the nutritional quality of the baked products. The baked products were generally accepted and highly rated by panelists at 20% replacement level. The results indicate the potential of Goji by-product as a value-added ingredient in particular as a source of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: fibers, phenolics, by-product, Goji, baked products

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2 Voltage Polarity in Electrospinning: Way to Control Surface Properties of Polymer Fibers

Authors: Urszula Stachewicz


Surface properties of materials are the key parameter in many applications, especially in the biomedical field, to control cell-material interactions. In our work, we want to achieve the controllability of surface properties of polymer fibers via a single-step electrospinning process by alternating voltage polarities. Voltage polarity defines the charge accumulated on the surface of the liquid jet and the surface of the fibers. Positive polarity attracts negatively charged groups to fibers’ surface, whereas negative polarity moves the negatively charged functional groups away from the surface. This way, we can control the surface chemistry, wettability, and additionally surface potential of electrospun fibers. Within our research, we characterized surface chemistry using X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and surface potential with Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on electrospun fibers of commonly used polymers such as PCL, PVDF, and PMMA, often used as biomaterials. We proved the significant effect of fibers' surface potential on cell integration with the scaffolds and further cells development for the regeneration processes based on the osteoblast and fibroblast culture studies. Acknowledgments: The study was conducted within ‘Nanofiber-based sponges for atopic skin treatment’ project, which is carried out within the First TEAM programme of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund, project no POIR.04.04.00-00- 4571/18-00.

Keywords: fibers, surface potential, osteoblast, proliferation, cell attachment, fibroblasts

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1 Immunostimulant from Biodiversity to Enhance Shrimp Survival against Vibriosis

Authors: Frank Alexis, Jenny Antonia Rodriguez Leon, Cristobal Leonardo Dominguez Borbor, Mery Rosario Ramirez Munoz


The shrimp industry has increased in the last years to the point of becoming one of the most dynamic industries. However, the appearance of diseases that significantly affect the production of shrimps has been an obstacle for the shrimp industry. We hypothesized that natural fibers from biodiversity can stimulate the immune system to prevent shrimp diseases like vibriosis. In this project, we extracted the fibers from vegetal sources in Ecuador and characterized them using common techniques like XRD, SEM, and then we tested the effect of fibers as immunostimulants for shrimps in-vitro and in-vivo using small aquarium and large pools. Our results demonstrate that vegetal fibers can significantly increase the survival of shrimps. Moreover, the production of shrimps in a large pool was significantly increased. Lastly, the test of color and taste successfully surpass the control group of shrimps not treated with fiber food supplements.

Keywords: Shrimp, fibers, immunostimulant, vibriosis

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