Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Fiber Related Abstracts

22 The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Kamarudzaman, A. Kalam, N. A. Mohd Fadzil


Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.

Keywords: Fiber, Polymer Nanocomposite, Polyethylene, oil palm empty fruit bunch, impact strength

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21 Reuse of Refractory Brick Wastes (RBW) as a Supplementary Cementitious Materials in a High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: B. Safi, M. Saidi, B. Amrane


The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the reuse of refractory brick wastes (RBW) as a supplementary cementitious materials (by a total replacement of silica fume) to produce a high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC). This work presents an experimental study on the formulation and physico-mechanical characterization of ultra high performance fiber reinforced concretes based on three types of refractory brick wastes. These have been retrieved from the manufacturing unit of float glass MFG (Mediterranean Float Glass) after their use in the oven basin (ie d. they are considered waste unit). Three compositions of concrete (HPFRC) were established based on three types of refractory brick wastes (finely crushed), with the dosage of each type of bricks is kept constant, similar the dosage of silica fume used for the control concrete. While all the other components and the water/binder ratio are maintained constant with the same quantity of the superplasticizer. The performance of HPFRC, were evaluated by determining the essential characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Fiber, Tensile Strength, compressive strength, refractory bricks, fluidity

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20 Oil Palm Leaf and Corn Stalk, Mechanical Properties and Surface Characterization

Authors: Zawawi Daud


Agro waste can be defined as waste from agricultural plant. Oil palm leaf and corn stalk can be categorized as ago waste material. At first, the comparison between oil palm leaf and corn stalk by mechanical properties from soda pulping process. After that, focusing on surface characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Both material have a potential due to mechanical properties (tensile, tear, burst and fold) and surface characterization but corn stalk shows more in strength and compactness due to fiber characterization compared to oil palm leaf. This study promoting the green technology in develop a friendly product and suitable to be used as an alternative pulp in paper making industry.

Keywords: Green Technology, Fiber, oil palm leaf, corn stalk

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19 Chloroform-Formic Acid Solvent Systems for Nanofibrous Polycaprolactone Webs

Authors: I. Yalcin Enis, J. Vojtech, T. Gok Sadikoglu


In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) was dissolved in chloroform: ethanol solvent system at a concentration of 18 w/v %. 1, 2, 4, and 6 droplets of formic acid were added to the prepared 10ml PCL-chloroform:ethanol solutions separately. Fibrous webs were produced by electrospinning technique. Morphology of the webs was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas fiber diameters were measured by Image J Software System. The effect of formic acid addition to the mostly used chloroform solvent on fiber morphology was examined.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Fiber, chloroform, formic acid polycaprolactone

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18 Nutritional Value and Forage Quality Indicators in Some Rangeland’s Species at Different Vegetation Forms

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli


Information on different rangeland plants’ nutritive values at various phonological stages is important in rangelands management. This information helps rangeland managers to choose proper grazing times to achieve higher animal performance without detrimental effects on the rangeland vegetations. Effects of various plant parts’ phonological stages and vegetation types on reserve carbohydrates and forage quality indicators were investigated during the 2009 and 2010. Plant samples were collected in a completely randomized block (CRB) design. The species included, grasses (Secale montanum and Festuco ovina), forbs (Lotus corniculatus and Sanguisorba minor), and shrubs (Kochia prosterata and Salsola rigida). Aerial plant parts’ samples were oven-dried at 80oC for 24 hours, then analyzed for soluble carbohydrates, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), dry matter digestible (DMD), and metabolizable energy (ME). Results showed that plants at the seedling stage had more reserve carbohydrates and from the three vegetation types (grass, forbs, and shrub), forbs contained more soluble carbohydrates compared to the other two (grasses and shrubs). Differences in soluble carbohydrate contents of different species at various phonological stages in 2 years were statistically significant. The forage quality indicators (CP, ADF, DMD, and ME) in different species, in different vegetation types, in the 2 years were statistically significant, except for the CP.

Keywords: Protein, Fiber, grazing, soluble carbohydrate, metabolizeable energy

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17 Review in Role of Geotextile on Soil Improvement

Authors: Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Mohammadreza Golhashem, Sandra Ghavam Shirazi


Nowadays by development of construction in modern world new techniques are introduced to civil engineering. As for geotechnical problems and demands of soil improvement, engineers are searching for decisive methods to ensure the safety of projects. As a popular material Geotextiles are used in almost every aspect of civil engineering. There is a vast variety of geotextiles and each kind has their own unique characteristics therefor to select the proper geotextile for a specific project their properties must be carefully examined. This review gathers and evaluates different parameters of geotextiles that are used in geotechnical field.

Keywords: Fiber, Stabilization, Fabric, geotextile, soft soils

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16 Preparation of Conductive Composite Fiber by the Reduction of Silver Particles onto Hydrolyzed Polyacrylonitrile Fiber

Authors: M. Sahin, M. Saçak, Z. Okay, M. Kalkan Erdoğan


Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is one of the most common and cheap fiber-forming polymers because of its high strength and high abrasion resistance properties. The result of alkaline hydrolysis of PAN fiber could be formed the products with conjugated sequences of –C=N–, acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and amidine. In this study, PAN fiber was hydrolyzed in a solution of sodium hydroxide, and this hydrolyzed PAN (HPAN) fiber was used to prepare conductive composite fiber by silver particles. The electrically conductive PAN fiber has the usage potential to produce variety of materials such as antistatic materials, life jackets and static charge reducing products. We monitored the change in the weight loss values of the PAN fiber with hydrolysis time. It was observed that a 60 % of weight loss was obtained in the fiber weight after 7h hydrolysis under the investigated conditions, but the fiber lost its fibrous structure. The hydrolysis time of 5h was found to be suitable in terms of preserving its fibrous structure. The change in the conductivity values of the composite with the preparation conditions such as hydrolysis time, silver ion concentration was studied. PAN fibers with different degrees of hydrolysis were treated with aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of silver ions by continuous stirring at 20 oC for 30 min, and the composite having the maximum conductivity of 2 S/cm could be prepared. The antibacterial property of the conductive HPAN fibers participated silver was also investigated. While the hydrolysis of the PAN fiber was characterized with FTIR and SEM techniques, the silver reduction process of the HPAN fiber was investigated with SEM and TGA-DTA techniques. The SEM micrographs showed that the surface of HPAN fiber was rougher and much more corroded than that of the PAN fiber. Composite, Conducting polymer, Fiber, Polyacrylonitrile.

Keywords: Composite, Fiber, polyacrylonitrile, conducting polymer

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15 Development of High Fiber Biscuit with Bamboo Shoot Powder

Authors: Beatrix Inah C. Mercado


Bamboo shoots are the immature and edible culms from bamboos which contains high amount of dietary fibers. However, in spite of these functional properties of bamboo shoots it is still underutilized. Objectives: To develop bamboo shoot powder and incorporate it to biscuits as a source of dietary fiber and antioxidant. Materials and Methods: Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was freeze-drying and grind and was incorporated to biscuits in 20% concentration. BSP and biscuits with BSP were analyzed for its proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity. Results: BSP has 13.1 % moisture, 18.8% protein and 8% ash, 2.4g/100g total fat and 57.7% carbohydrate. BSP and biscuits with 20% BSP were good sources of dietary fiber containing 27.8g/100g and 7.1 g/100g, respectively. BSP is high in phytonutrient contents in terms of total polyphenols (1052mg gallic/100 g) and flavonoids (4046mg catechin/100g). Biscuits with BSP contained higher source of phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity as compared to biscuits without BSP. Sensory evaluation revealed that biscuits with BSP were more acceptable than biscuits without BSP. Conclusion: Bamboo shoots may be used as a potential functional ingredient in food products for broader application.

Keywords: Fiber, biscuit, phytonutrients, bamboo shoots

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14 Wear Damage of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyimide Composites with the Addition of Graphite

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine


The glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyimide (PL) composites filled with graphite powders were fabricated by means of hot press molding technique. The friction and wear properties of the resulting composites sliding against GCr15 steel were investigated on a model ring-on-block test rig at dry sliding condition. The wear mechanisms were also discussed, based on scanning electron microscopic examination of the worn surface of the PL composites and the transfer film formed on the counterpart. With the increasing normal loads, the friction coefficient of the composites increased under the dry sliding, owing to inconsistent influences of shear strength and real contact areas. Experimental results revealed that the incorporation of graphite significantly improve the wear resistance of the glass fibers reinforced polyimide composites. For best combination of friction coefficient and wear rate, the optimal volume content of graphite in the composites appears to be 45 %. It was also found that the tribological properties of the glass fiber reinforced PL composites filled with graphite powders were closely related with the sliding condition such as sliding rate and applied load.

Keywords: Composites, Fiber, Wear, friction

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13 Recovery of Waste Acrylic Fibers for the Elimination of Basic Dyes

Authors: N. Ouslimani, M. T. Abadlia


Environment protection is a precondition for sustained growth and a better quality of life for all people on earth. Aqueous industrial effluents are the main sources of pollution. Among the compounds of these effluents, dyes are particularly resistant to discoloration by conventional methods, and discharges present many problems that must be supported. The scientific literature shows that synthetic organic dyes are compounds used in many industrial sectors. They are found in the chemical, car, paper industry and particularly the textile industry, where all the lines and grades of the chemical family are represented. The affinity between the fibers and dyes vary depending on the chemical structure of dyes and the type of materials to which they are applied. It is not uncommon to find that during the dyeing operation from 15 to 20 % of sulfur dyes, and sometimes up to 40 % of the reactants are discharged with the effluent. This study was conducted for the purpose of fading basics dyes from wastewater using as adsorbent fiber waste material. This technique presents an interesting alternative to usual treatment, as it allows the recovery of waste fibers, which can find uses as raw material for the manufacture of cleaning products or in other sectors In this study the results obtained by fading fiber waste are encouraging, given the rate of color removal which is about 90%.This method also helps to decrease BOD and suspended solids MES in an effective way.

Keywords: wastewater, Adsorption, Fiber, Dyes, Valorization

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12 The Investigation of Fiber Reinforcement Self-Compacting Concrete and Fiber Reinforcement Concrete

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohesn Ramezan Shirazi, Hassan Moniri


The use of pile foundations technique is developed to support structures and buildings on soft soil. The most important dynamic load that can affect the pile structure is earthquake vibrations. From the 1960s the comprehensive investigation of pile foundations during earthquake excitation indicate that, piles are subject to damage by affecting the superstructure integrity and serviceability. The main part of these research has been focused on the behavior of liquefiable soil and lateral spreading load on piles. During an earthquake, two types of stresses can damage the pile head, inertial load that is caused by superstructure and deformation which caused by the surrounding soil. Soil deformation and inertial load are associated with the acceleration developed in an earthquake. The acceleration amplitude at the ground surface depends on the magnitude of earthquakes, soil properties and seismic source distance. According to the investigation, the damage is between the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers and also soft and stiff layers. This damage crushes the pile head by increasing the inertial load which is applied by the superstructure. On the other hand, the cracks on the piles due to the surrounding soil are directly related to the soil profile and causes cracks from small to large. And researchers have been listed the large cracks reason such as liquefaction, lateral spreading and inertial load. In the field of designing, elastic response of piles are always a challenge for designer in liquefaction soil, by allowing deflection at top of piles. Moreover, absence of plastic hinges in piles should be insured, because the damage in the piles is not observed directly. In this study, the performance and behavior of pile foundations during liquefaction and lateral spreading are investigated. And emphasize on the soil behavior in the liquefiable and non-liquefiable layers by different aspect of piles damage such as ranking, location and degree of damage are going to discuss.

Keywords: Fiber, Self-Compacting Concrete, Tensile Strength, post-cracking, direct and inverse technique

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11 Agronomic Evaluation of Flax Cultivars (Linum Usitatissimum L.) in Response to Irrigation Intervals

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutçular, Emad Rashwan, M. Mousa


Flax is a potential winter crop for Egypt that can be grown for both seed and fiber. The study was conducted during two successive winter seasons of 2013/2014, and 2014/2015 in the experimental farm of El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Agriculture research Centre, Egypt. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals (25, 35 and 45) on the seed yield and quality of flax cultivars (Sakha1, Giza9 and Giza10). Obtained results indicate that highly significant for all studied traits among irrigation intervals except oil percentage that was not significant in both seasons. Irrigated flax plants every 35 days gave the maximum values for all characters. In contrast, irrigation every 45 days gave the minimum values for all studied characters under this study. In respect to cultivars, significant differences in most yield and quality characters were found. Furthermore, the performance of Sakha1 cultivar was superior in total plant height, main stem diameter, seed index, seed, oil, biological and straw yield /ha as well as fiber length and fiber fineness. Meanwhile, Giza9 and Giza10 cultivars were surpassed in fiber yield/hand fiber percentage, respectively. The interactions between irrigation intervals and flax cultivars were highly significant for total plant height, main stem diameter, seed, oil, biological and straw yields /ha. Based on the results, all flax cultivars recorded the maximum values for major traits were measured under irrigation of flax plants every 35 days.

Keywords: Oil, Fiber, seed yield, irrigation intervals, flax

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10 Comparative Study of Compressive Strength of Triangular Polyester Fiber with Fly Ash Roller Compacted Concrete Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method

Authors: Atul K. Desai, Pramod Keshav Kolase


This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture and triangular polyester fiber as a secondary reinforcement. The each mix design series fly ash content is varied from 0% to 45 % and triangular polyester fiber 0% to 0.75% by volume fraction. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e. 7, 28 and 90 days) forty-eight cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV of fly ash was found to be lower for all mixtures at 7 days in comparison with control mix concrete. But at 28, 56 days and 90 days the UPV were significantly improved for all the mixes. Relationships between compressive strength of RCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes.

Keywords: fly ash, Fiber, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elastic modulus, roller compacted concrete

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9 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Demet Yavuz, Soner Guler, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut


Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: Fiber, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, Hybrid fiber

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8 The Impact of Glass Additives on the Functional and Microstructural Properties of Sand-Lime Bricks

Authors: Anna Stepien


The paper presents the results of research on modifications of sand-lime bricks, especially using glass additives (glass fiber and glass sand) and other additives (e.g.:basalt&barite aggregate, lithium silicate and microsilica) as well. The main goal of this paper is to answer the question ‘How to use glass additives in the sand-lime mass and get a better bricks?’ The article contains information on modification of sand-lime bricks using glass fiber, glass sand, microsilica (different structure of silica). It also presents the results of the conducted compression tests, which were focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density, and their microstructure. The Scanning Electron Microscope, spectrum EDS, X-ray diffractometry and DTA analysis helped to define the microstructural changes of modified products. The interpretation of the products structure revealed the existence of diversified phases i.e.the C-S-H and tobermorite. CaO-SiO2-H2O system is the object of intensive research due to its meaning in chemistry and technologies of mineral binding materials. Because the blocks are the autoclaving materials, the temperature of hydrothermal treatment of the products is around 200°C, the pressure - 1,6-1,8 MPa and the time - up to 8hours (it means: 1h heating + 6h autoclaving + 1h cooling). The microstructure of the products consists mostly of hydrated calcium silicates with a different level of structural arrangement. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the type of used sand is an important factor in the manufacturing of sand-lime elements. Quartz sand of a high hardness is also a substrate hardly reacting with other possible modifiers, which may cause deterioration of certain physical and mechanical properties. TG and DTA curves show the changes in the weight loss of the sand-lime bricks specimen against time as well as the endo- and exothermic reactions that took place. The endothermic effect with the maximum at T=573°C is related to isomorphic transformation of quartz. This effect is not accompanied by a change of the specimen weight. The next endothermic effect with the maximum at T=730-760°C is related to the decomposition of the calcium carbonates. The bulk density of the brick it is 1,73kg/dm3, the presence of xonotlite in the microstructure and significant weight loss during DTA and TG tests (around 0,6% after 70 minutes) have been noticed. Silicate elements were assessed on the basis of their compressive property. Orthogonal compositional plan type 3k (with k=2), i.e.full two-factor experiment was applied in order to carry out the experiments both, in the compression strength test and bulk density test. Some modification (e.g.products with barite and basalt aggregate) have improved the compressive strength around 41.3 MPa and water absorption due to capillary raising have been limited to 12%. The next modification was adding glass fiber to sand-lime mass, then glass sand. The results show that the compressive strength was higher than in the case of traditional bricks, while modified bricks were lighter.

Keywords: Microstructure, Glass, Fiber, bricks

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7 Microfluidized Fiber Based Oleogels for Encapsulation of Lycopene

Authors: Behic Mert


This study reports a facile approach to structure soft solids from microfluidizer lycopene-rich plant based structure and oil. First carotenoid-rich plant material (pumpkin was used in this study) processed with high-pressure microfluidizer to release lycopene molecules, then an emulsion was formed by mixing processed plant material and oil. While, in emulsion state lipid soluble carotenoid molecules were allowed to dissolve in the oil phase, the fiber material of plant material provided the network which was required for emulsion stabilization. Additional hydrocolloids (gelatin, xhantan, and pectin) up to 0.5% were also used to reinforce the emulsion stability and their impact on final product properties were evaluated via rheological, textural and oxidation studies. Finally, water was removed from emulsion phase by drying in a tray dryer at 40°C for 36 hours, and subsequent shearing resulted in soft solid (ole gel) structures. The microstructure of these systems was revealed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Effect of hydrocolloids on total lycopene and surface lycopene contents were also evaluated. The surface lycopene was lowest in gelatin containing oleo gels and highest in pectin-containing oleo gels. This study outlines the novel emulsion-based structuring method that can be used to encapsulate lycopene without the need of separate extraction of them.

Keywords: Fiber, encapsulation, lycopene, oleo gel

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6 Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab

Authors: Faisal Ananda, Junaidi Al-Husein, Oni Febriani, Juli Ardita, N. Indra, Syaari Al-Husein, A. Bukri


Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.

Keywords: Fiber, slab, crack, load, dramix

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5 Identification and Classification of Fiber-Fortified Semolina by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)

Authors: Amanda T. Badaró, Douglas F. Barbin, Sofia T. Garcia, Maria Teresa P. S. Clerici, Amanda R. Ferreira


Food fortification is the intentional addition of a nutrient in a food matrix and has been widely used to overcome the lack of nutrients in the diet or increasing the nutritional value of food. Fortified food must meet the demand of the population, taking into account their habits and risks that these foods may cause. Wheat and its by-products, such as semolina, has been strongly indicated to be used as a food vehicle since it is widely consumed and used in the production of other foods. These products have been strategically used to add some nutrients, such as fibers. Methods of analysis and quantification of these kinds of components are destructive and require lengthy sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, the industry has searched for faster and less invasive methods, such as Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). NIR is a rapid and cost-effective method, however, it is based on indirect measurements, yielding high amount of data. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy requires calibration with mathematical and statistical tools (Chemometrics) to extract analytical information from the corresponding spectra, as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). PCA is well suited for NIR, once it can handle many spectra at a time and be used for non-supervised classification. Advantages of the PCA, which is also a data reduction technique, is that it reduces the data spectra to a smaller number of latent variables for further interpretation. On the other hand, LDA is a supervised method that searches the Canonical Variables (CV) with the maximum separation among different categories. In LDA, the first CV is the direction of maximum ratio between inter and intra-class variances. The present work used a portable infrared spectrometer (NIR) for identification and classification of pure and fiber-fortified semolina samples. The fiber was added to semolina in two different concentrations, and after the spectra acquisition, the data was used for PCA and LDA to identify and discriminate the samples. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy associate to PCA was very effective in identifying pure and fiber-fortified semolina. Additionally, the classification range of the samples using LDA was between 78.3% and 95% for calibration and 75% and 95% for cross-validation. Thus, after the multivariate analysis such as PCA and LDA, it was possible to verify that NIR associated to chemometric methods is able to identify and classify the different samples in a fast and non-destructive way.

Keywords: Chemometrics, Principal Component Analysis, Fiber, linear discriminant analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy, semolina

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4 Multilayered Assembly of Gelatin on Nanofibrous Matrix for 3-D Cell Cultivation

Authors: Hyuk Sang Yoo, Wei Mao, Ji Un Shin


Electrospinning is a versatile tool for fabricating nano-structured polymeric materials. Gelatin hydrogels are considered to be a good material for cell cultivation because of high water swellability as well as good biocompatibility. Three-dimensional (3-D) cell cultivation is a desirable method of cell cultivation for preparing tissues and organs because cell-to-cell interactions or cell-to-matrix interactions can be much enhanced through this approach. For this reason, hydrogels were widely employed as tissue scaffolds because they can support cultivating cells and tissue in multi-dimensions. Major disadvantages of hydrogel-based cell cultivation include low mechanical properties, lack of topography, which should be enhanced for successful tissue engineering. Herein we surface-immobilized gelatin on the surface of nanofibrous matrix for 3-D cell cultivation in topographical cues added environments. Electrospun nanofibers were electrospun with injection of poly(caprolactone) through a single nozzle syringe. Electrospun meshes were then chopped up with a high speed grinder to fine powders. This was hydrolyzed in optimized concentration of sodium hydroxide solution from 1 to 6 hours and harvested by centrifugation. The freeze-dried powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for revealing the morphology and fibrilar shaped with a length of ca. 20um was observed. This was subsequently immersed in gelatin solution for surface-coating of gelatin, where the process repeated up to 10 times for obtaining desirable coating of gelatin on the surface. Gelatin-coated nanofibrils showed high waterswellability in comparison to the unmodified nanofibrils, and this enabled good dispersion properties of the modified nanofibrils in aqueous phase. The degree of water-swellability was increased as the coating numbers of gelatin increased, however, it did not any meaning result after 10 times of gelatin coating process. Thus, by adjusting the gelatin coating times, we could successfully control the degree of hydrophilicity and water-swellability of nanofibrils.

Keywords: Cell, tissue, Nano, Fiber

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3 Keratin Fiber Fabrication from Biowaste for Biomedical Application

Authors: Ashmita Mukherjee, Yogesh Harishchandra Kabutare, Suritra Bandyopadhyay, Paulomi Ghosh


Uncontrolled bleeding in the battlefield and the operation rooms can lead to serious injuries, trauma and even be lethal. Keratin was reported to be a haemostatic material which rapidly activates thrombin followed by activation of fibrinogen leading to the formation of insoluble fibrin. Also platelets, the main initiator of haemostasis are reported to adhere to keratin. However, the major limitation of pure keratin as a biomaterial is its poor physical property and corresponding low mechanical strength. To overcome this problem, keratin was cross-linked with alginate to increase its mechanical stability. In our study, Keratin extracted from feather waste showed yield of 80.5% and protein content of 8.05 ± 0.43 mg/mL (n=3). FTIR and CD spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the essential functional groups and preservation of the secondary structures of keratin. The keratin was then cross-linked with alginate to make a dope. The dope was used to draw fibers of desired diameters in a suitable coagulation bath using a customized wet spinning setup. The resultant morphology of keratin fibers was observed under a brightfield microscope. The FT-IR analysis implied that there was a presence of both keratin and alginate peaks in the fibers. The cross-linking was confirmed in the keratin alginate fibers by a shift of the amide A and amide B peaks towards the right and disappearance of the peak for N-H stretching (1534.68 cm-1). Blood was drawn in citrate vacutainers for whole blood clotting test and blood clotting kinetics, which showed that the keratin fibers could accelerate blood coagulation compared to that of alginate fibers and tissue culture plate. Additionally, cross-linked keratin-alginate fiber was found to have lower haemolytic potential compared to alginate fiber. Thus, keratin cross-linked fibers can have potential applications to combat unrestrained bleeding.

Keywords: Biomaterial, Fiber, keratin, biowaste

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2 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem


Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, fineness, fleece, Carpet, Raw Wool

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1 Evaluation of Rhus lancea and Celtis africana as Browse for Mixed-Feeders in Captivity

Authors: Dawood Hattas, France Phiri, Arnold Kanengoni, Khanyisile Mbatha


A study was carried out to determine seasonal changes in fiber composition and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in Rhus lancea and Celtis africana and their effects on feed intake and blood metabolites in mixed-feeders. Rhus lancea and C. africana were analysed for dry matter (DM), acid detergent lignin (ADL), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and CT concentrations over four seasons; early wet (EWS), late wet (LWS), early dry (EDS) and late dry (LDS). Twelve indigenous male goats were kept in metabolic crates for periods of 21 days per season and fed one of two diet combinations; the test diet comprised R. lancea and C. africana (denoted as BROWSE) and the lucerne diet comprised lucerne (Medicago sativa and concentrates (CON). Feed intake, body weight and blood metabolites were determined in all goats over each study period. Goats fed BROWSE in the EDS, LDS and LWS lost weight while goats fed CON gained weight (P < 0.05). Goats fed CON had higher urea, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations than those fed BROWSE (P < 0.05). Creatinine and cholesterol concentrations in all goats across LWS, EDS and LDS were lower than the normal range, while total protein and globulin concentrations were higher. The goats fed BROWSE had higher creatinine concentrations (P < 0.05) than those fed CON. Cholesterol concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in goats fed BROWSE than in those on CON fed. It was concluded that goats fed BROWSE lost weight, indicating insufficient nutrients for maintenance requirements.

Keywords: Maintenance, Fiber, blood metabolites, condense tannins

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