Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Fiber Reinforced Concrete Related Abstracts

12 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park


The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Pavement, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Creep, lean concrete, base

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11 Non-Homogeneous Layered Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs


Fiber reinforced concrete is important material for load bearing structural elements. Usually fibers are homogeneously distributed in a concrete body having arbitrary spatial orientations. At the same time, in many situations, fiber concrete with oriented fibers is more optimal. Is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented short fibers in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of such approaches- fiber reinforced concrete prisms having dimensions 100 mm×100 mm×400 mm with layers of non-homogeneously distributed fibers inside them were fabricated. Simultaneously prisms with homogeneously dispersed fibers were produced for reference as well. Prisms were tested under four point bending conditions. During the tests vertical deflection at the center of every prism and crack opening were measured (using linear displacements transducers in real timescale). Prediction results were discussed.

Keywords: Construction Engineering, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, steel fiber

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10 Layered Fiberconcrete Element Building Technology and Strength

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs, Olga Kononova, Videvuds-Arijs Lapsa


Steel fibres use in a concrete, such way obtaining Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC), is an important technological direction in building industry. Steel fibers are substituting the steel bars in conventional concrete in another situation is possible to combine them in the concrete structures. Traditionally fibers are homogeneously dispersed in a concrete. At the same time in many situations fiber concrete with homogeneously dispersed fibers is not optimal (majority of added fibers are not participating in a load bearing process). It is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented fibers distribution in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of them. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the project «Support for the implementation of doctoral studies at Riga Technical University» and project No. 2013/0025/1DP/ “New “Smart” Nanocomposite Materials for Roads, Bridges, Buildings and Transport Vehicle”.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, steel fiber, SFRC

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9 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdogan Ozbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi


In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, compressive strength, bond stress, elevated temperatures, modulus of rapture

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8 Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. E. M. Sallam, H. S. S Abou El-Mal, A. S. Sherbini


Mode II fracture toughness (KIIc) of fiber reinforced concrete has been widely investigated under various patterns of testing geometries. The effect of fiber type, concrete matrix properties, and testing mechanisms were extensively studied. The area of hybrid fiber addition shows a lake of reported research data. In this paper an experimental investigation of hybrid fiber embedded in high strength concrete matrix is reported. Three different types of fibers; namely steel (S), glass (G), and polypropylene (PP) fibers were mixed together in four hybridization patterns, (S/G), (S/PP), (G/PP), (S/G/PP) with constant cumulative volume fraction (Vf) of 1.5%. The concrete matrix properties were kept the same for all hybrid fiber reinforced concrete patterns. In an attempt to estimate a fairly accepted value of fracture toughness KIIc, four testing geometries and loading types are employed in this investigation. Four point shear, Brazilian notched disc, double notched cube, and double edge notched specimens are investigated in a trial to avoid the limitations and sensitivity of each test regarding geometry, size effect, constraint condition, and the crack length to specimen width ratio a/w. The addition of all hybridization patterns of fiber reduced the compressive strength and increased mode II fracture toughness in pure mode II tests. Mode II fracture toughness of concrete KIIc decreased with the increment of a/w ratio for all concretes and test geometries. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc is found to be sensitive to the hybridization patterns of fiber. The (S/PP) hybridization pattern showed higher values than all other patterns, while the (S/G/PP) showed insignificant enhancement on mode II fracture toughness (KIIc). Four point shear (4PS) test set up reflects the most reliable values of mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete couldn’t be assumed as a real material property.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Hybrid fiber, Mode II fracture toughness, testing geometry

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7 Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahamd Fahimifar, Sajjad V. Maghvan


Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: Finite element modeling, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, concrete damaged plasticity, macro-synthetic fibers, uniaxial tensile test

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6 Stress-Strain Relation for Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Josef Novák, Alena Kohoutková


The performance of concrete structures in fire depends on several factors which include, among others, the change in material properties due to the fire. Today, fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) belongs to materials which have been widely used for various structures and elements. While the knowledge and experience with FRC behavior under ambient temperature is well-known, the effect of elevated temperature on its behavior has to be deeply investigated. This paper deals with an experimental investigation and stress‑strain relations for hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) which contains siliceous aggregates, polypropylene and steel fibers. The main objective of the experimental investigation is to enhance a database of mechanical properties of concrete composites with addition of fibers subject to elevated temperature as well as to validate existing stress-strain relations for HFRC. Within the investigation, a unique heat transport test, compressive test and splitting tensile test were performed on 150 mm cubes heated up to 200, 400, and 600 °C with the aim to determine a time period for uniform heat distribution in test specimens and the mechanical properties of the investigated concrete composite, respectively. Both findings obtained from the presented experimental test as well as experimental data collected from scientific papers so far served for validating the computational accuracy of investigated stress-strain relations for HFRC which have been developed during last few years. Owing to the presence of steel and polypropylene fibers, HFRC becomes a unique material whose structural performance differs from conventional plain concrete when exposed to elevated temperature. Polypropylene fibers in HFRC lower the risk of concrete spalling as the fibers burn out shortly with increasing temperature due to low ignition point and as a consequence pore pressure decreases. On the contrary, the increase in the concrete porosity might affect the mechanical properties of the material. To validate this thought requires enhancing the existing result database which is very limited and does not contain enough data. As a result of the poor database, only few stress-strain relations have been developed so far to describe the structural performance of HFRC at elevated temperature. Moreover, many of them are inconsistent and need to be refined. Most of them also do not take into account the effect of both a fiber type and fiber content. Such approach might be vague especially when high amount of polypropylene fibers are used. Therefore, the existing relations should be validated in detail based on other experimental results.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, elevated temperature, stress strain relation

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5 Effect of Size, Geometry and Tensile Strength of Fibers on the Flexure of Hooked Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Chuchai Sujivorakul


This research focused on the study of various parameters of fiber itself affecting on the flexure of hooked steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC). The size of HSFRC beams was 150x150 mm in cross section and 550 mm in length, and the flexural test was carried out in accordance with EN-14651 standard. The test result was the relationship between centre-point load and crack-mount opening displacement (CMOD) at the centre notch. Controlled concrete had a compressive strength of 42 MPa. The investigated variables related to the hooked fiber itself were: (a) 3 levels of aspect ratio of fibers (65, 80 and 100); (b) 2 different fiber lengths (35 mm and 60 mm); (c) 2 different tensile strength of fibers (1100 MPa and 1500 MPa); and (d) 3 different fiber-end geometries (3D 4D and 5D fibers). The 3D hooked fibers have two plastic hinges at both ends, while the 4D and 5D hooked fibers are the newly developed steel fibers by Bekaert, and they have three and four plastic hinges at both ends, respectively. The hooked steel fibers were used in concrete with three different fiber contents, i.e., 20 30 and 40 kg/m³. From the study, it was found that all variables did not seem to affect the flexural strength at limit of proportionality (LOP) of HSFRC. However, they affected the residual flexural tensile strength (fR,j). It was observed that an increase in fiber lengths and the tensile strength the fibers would significantly increase in the fR,j of HSFRC, while the aspect ratio of the fiber would slightly effect the fR,j of HSFRC. Moreover, it was found that using 5D fibers would better enhance the fR,j and flexural behavior of HSFRC than 3D and 4D fibers, because they gave highest mechanical anchorage effect created by their hooked-end geometry.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, flexural test, hooked steel fibers, EN-14651

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4 Analysis of the Influence of Fiber Volume and Fiber Orientation on Post-Cracking Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marilia M. Camargo, Luisa A. Gachet-Barbosa, Rosa C. C. Lintz


The addition of fibers into concrete matrix can enhance some properties of the composite, such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths, toughness, deformation capacity and post-cracking ductility. Many factors affect the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete, such as concrete matrix (concrete strength, additions, aggregate diameter, etc.), characteristics of the fiber (geometry, type, aspect ratio, volume, orientation, distribution, strength, stiffness, etc.), specimen (size, geometry, method of preparation and loading rate). This research investigates the effects of fiber volume and orientation on the post-cracking behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Hooked-end steel fibers with aspect ratios of 45 were added into concrete with volume of 0,32%, 0,64%, 0,94%. The post-cracking behaviour was assessed by double punch test of cubic specimens and the actual volume and orientation of the fibers were determined by non-destructive tests by means of electromagnetic induction. The results showed that the actual volume of fibers in each sample differs in a small amount from the dosed volume of fibers and that the deformation and toughness of the concrete increase with the increase in the actual volume of fibers. In determining the orientation of the fibers, it was found that they tend to distribute more in the X and Y axes due to the influence of the walls of the mold. In addition, it was concluded that the orientation of the fibers is important in the post-cracking behaviour of FRC when analyzed together with the actual volume of fibers, since the greater the volume of fibers, the greater the number of fibers oriented orthogonally to the application of loadings and, consequently, there is a better mechanical behavior of the composite. These results provide a better understanding of the influence of volume and fiber orientation on the post-cracking behavior of the FRC.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Steel Fibers, volume of fibers, orientation of fibers, post-cracking behaviour

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3 Effect of Shape and Size of Concrete Specimen and Strength of Concrete Mixture in the Absence and Presence of Fiber

Authors: Zia Ahmad Faqiri, Sultan Husein Bayqra, Ali Mardani Aghabaglou, Hassane Amidou Ouedraogo


In this study, the effect of shape and size of the concrete specimen on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixtures in the absence and presence of steel fiber was investigated. For this aim, ten different concrete mixtures having w/c ratio of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 with and without fiber were prepared. In the mixtures containing steel fibers having aspect ratio (L/D) of 64 were used by 1% of the total mixture volume. In all concrete mixtures, CEM I 42,5R type Portland cement and crushed Lime-stone aggregates having different aggregate size fractions were used. The combined aggregate was obtained by mixing %40 0-5 mm, %30 5-12 mm and %30 12-22 mm aggregate size fraction. The slump values of concrete mixtures were kept constant as 17 ± 2 cm. To provide the desired slump value, a polycarboxylate ether-based high range water reducing admixture was used. In order to investigate the effect of size and shape of concrete specimen on strength properties 10 cm, 15 cm cubic specimens and 10×20 cm, 15×30 cm cylindrical specimens were prepared for each mixture. The specimens were cured under standard conditions until testing days. The 7- and 28-day compressive and splitting tensile strengths of mixtures were determined. The results obtained from the experimental study showed that the strength ratio between the cylinder and the cube specimens increased with the increase of the strength of the concrete. Regardless of the fiber utilization and specimen shape, strength values of concrete mixtures were increased by decreasing specimen size. However, the mentioned behaviour was not observed for the case that the mixtures having high W/C ratio and containing fiber. The compressive strength of cube specimens containing fiber was less affected by the size of the specimen compared to that of cube specimens containing no fibers.

Keywords: Size Effect, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, shape effect

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2 Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Replacing 20% Cement by Fly Ash

Authors: Suman Kumar Adhikary, Zymantus Rudzionis, Arvind Balakrishnan


This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s workability in a fresh state and compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3kg/m3, 4.5kg/m3, 6kg/m3 and 9kg/m3) of polyolefin macro fibers mixed in concrete mixture to observe the workability and strength properties difference between the concrete specimens. 20% class C type fly ash added is the concrete as replacement of cement. The water-cement ratio(W/C) of those concrete mix was 0.35. Masterglenium SKY 700 superplasticizer was added to the concrete mixture for better results. Slump test was carried out for determining the flowability. On 7th, 14th and 28th day of curing process compression strength tests were done and on 28th day flexural strength test and CMOD test were carried to differentiate the strength properties and post-cracking behavior of concrete samples.

Keywords: Self-Compacting Concrete, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, polyolefin fibers, CMOD test of concrete

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1 Investigation on Pull-Out-Behavior and Interface Critical Parameters of Polymeric Fibers Embedded in Concrete and Their Correlation with Particular Fiber Characteristics

Authors: Michael Sigruener, Dirk Muscat, Nicole Struebbe


Fiber reinforcement is a state of the art to enhance mechanical properties in plastics. For concrete and civil engineering, steel reinforcements are commonly used. Steel reinforcements show disadvantages in their chemical resistance and weight, whereas polymer fibers' major problems are in fiber-matrix adhesion and mechanical properties. In spite of these facts, longevity and easy handling, as well as chemical resistance motivate researches to develop a polymeric material for fiber reinforced concrete. Adhesion and interfacial mechanism in fiber-polymer-composites are already studied thoroughly. For polymer fibers used as concrete reinforcement, the bonding behavior still requires a deeper investigation. Therefore, several differing polymers (e.g., polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK)) were spun into fibers via single screw extrusion and monoaxial stretching. Fibers then were embedded in a concrete matrix, and Single-Fiber-Pull-Out-Tests (SFPT) were conducted to investigate bonding characteristics and microstructural interface of the composite. Differences in maximum pull-out-force, displacement and slope of the linear part of force vs displacement-function, which depicts the adhesion strength and the ductility of the interfacial bond were studied. In SFPT fiber, debonding is an inhomogeneous process, where the combination of interfacial bonding and friction mechanisms add up to a resulting value. Therefore, correlations between polymeric properties and pull-out-mechanisms have to be emphasized. To investigate these correlations, all fibers were introduced to a series of analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle measurement, surface roughness and hardness analysis, tensile testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Of each polymer, smooth and abraded fibers were tested, first to simulate the abrasion and damage caused by a concrete mixing process and secondly to estimate the influence of mechanical anchoring of rough surfaces. In general, abraded fibers showed a significant increase in maximum pull-out-force due to better mechanical anchoring. Friction processes therefore play a major role to increase the maximum pull-out-force. The polymer hardness affects the tribological behavior and polymers with high hardness lead to lower surface roughness verified by SEM and surface roughness measurements. This concludes into a decreased maximum pull-out-force for hard polymers. High surface energy polymers show better interfacial bonding strength in general, which coincides with the conducted SFPT investigation. Polymers such as PEEK or PA6 show higher bonding strength in smooth and roughened fibers, revealed through high pull-out-force and concrete particles bonded on the fiber surface pictured via SEM analysis. The surface energy divides into dispersive and polar part, at which the slope is correlating with the polar part. Only polar polymers increase their SFPT-function slope due to better wetting abilities when showing a higher bonding area through rough surfaces. Hence, the maximum force and the bonding strength of an embedded fiber is a function of polarity, hardness, and consequently surface roughness. Other properties such as crystallinity or tensile strength do not affect bonding behavior. Through the conducted analysis, it is now feasible to understand and resolve different effects in pull-out-behavior step-by-step based on the polymer properties itself. This investigation developed a roadmap on how to engineer high adhering polymeric materials for fiber reinforcement of concrete.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, fiber-matrix interface, polymeric fibers, single fiber pull-out test

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