Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

fiber optic Related Abstracts

4 Selective Excitation of Circular Helical Modes in Graded Index Fibers

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan

Abstract:

The impact of selective excitation of circular helical modes of graded-index fibers on its capacity is analyzed using a model for propagation delay variation with launch offset and angle that resulted from misalignment of source and fiber axis. Results show that promising technique to improve graded-index fiber capacities.

Keywords: communications, fiber optic, fiber measurements, circular helical modes

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3 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations

Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu

Abstract:

Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.

Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulated

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2 Cooperative Robot Application in a Never Explored or an Abandoned Sub-Surface Mine

Authors: Michael K. O. Ayomoh, Oyindamola A. Omotuyi

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots deployed to explore or operate in a never explored or an abandoned sub-surface mine requires extreme effectiveness in coordination and communication. In a bid to transmit information from the depth of the mine to the external surface in real-time and amidst diverse physical, chemical and virtual impediments, the concept of unified cooperative robots is seen to be a proficient approach. This paper presents an effective [human → robot → task] coordination framework for effective exploration of an abandoned underground mine. The problem addressed in this research is basically the development of a globalized optimization model premised on time series differentiation and geometrical configurations for effective positioning of the two classes of robots in the cooperation namely the outermost stationary master (OSM) robots and the innermost dynamic task (IDT) robots for effective bi-directional signal transmission. In addition, the synchronization of a vision system and wireless communication system for both categories of robots, fiber optics system for the OSM robots in cases of highly sloppy or vertical mine channels and an autonomous battery recharging capability for the IDT robots further enhanced the proposed concept. The OSM robots are the master robots which are positioned at strategic locations starting from the mine open surface down to its base using a fiber-optic cable or a wireless communication medium all subject to the identified mine geometrical configuration. The OSM robots are usually stationary and function by coordinating the transmission of signals from the IDT robots at the base of the mine to the surface and in a reverse order based on human decisions at the surface control station. The proposed scheme also presents an optimized number of robots required to form the cooperation in a bid to reduce overall operational cost and system complexity.

Keywords: Wireless Communication, fiber optic, sub-surface mine, outermost stationary master robots, inner-most dynamic robots

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1 Tunnel Convergence Monitoring by Distributed Fiber Optics Embedded into Concrete

Authors: R. Farhoud, G. Hermand, S. Delepine-lesoille

Abstract:

Future underground facility of French radioactive waste disposal, named Cigeo, is designed to store intermediate and high level - long-lived French radioactive waste. Intermediate level waste cells are tunnel-like, about 400m length and 65 m² section, equipped with several concrete layers, which can be grouted in situ or composed of tunnel elements pre-grouted. The operating space into cells, to allow putting or removing waste containers, should be monitored for several decades without any maintenance. To provide the required information, design was performed and tested in situ in Andra’s underground laboratory (URL) at 500m under the surface. Based on distributed optic fiber sensors (OFS) and backscattered Brillouin for strain and Raman for temperature interrogation technics, the design consists of 2 loops of OFS, at 2 different radiuses, around the monitored section (Orthoradiale strains) and longitudinally. Strains measured by distributed OFS cables were compared to classical vibrating wire extensometers (VWE) and platinum probes (Pt). The OFS cables were composed of 2 cables sensitive to strains and temperatures and one only for temperatures. All cables were connected, between sensitive part and instruments, to hybrid cables to reduce cost. The connection has been made according to 2 technics: splicing fibers in situ after installation or preparing each fiber with a connector and only plugging them together in situ. Another challenge was installing OFS cables along a tunnel mad in several parts, without interruption along several parts. First success consists of the survival rate of sensors after installation and quality of measurements. Indeed, 100% of OFS cables, intended for long-term monitoring, survived installation. Few new configurations were tested with relative success. Measurements obtained were very promising. Indeed, after 3 years of data, no difference was observed between cables and connection methods of OFS and strains fit well with VWE and Pt placed at the same location. Data, from Brillouin instrument sensitive to strains and temperatures, were compensated with data provided by Raman instrument only sensitive to temperature and into a separated fiber. These results provide confidence in the next steps of the qualification processes which consists of testing several data treatment approach for direct analyses.

Keywords: Sensor, monitoring, fiber optic, Data Treatment

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