Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

fiber-matrix interface Related Abstracts

2 Multiscale Cohesive Zone Modeling of Composite Microstructure

Authors: Vincent Iacobellis, Kamran Behdinan

Abstract:

A finite element cohesive zone model is used to predict the temperature dependent material properties of a polyimide matrix composite with unidirectional carbon fiber arrangement. The cohesive zone parameters have been obtained from previous research involving an atomistic-to-continuum multiscale simulation of the fiber-matrix interface using the bridging cell multiscale method. The goal of the research was to both investigate the effect of temperature change on the composite behavior with respect to transverse loading as well as the validate the use of cohesive parameters obtained from atomistic-to-continuum multiscale modeling to predict fiber-matrix interfacial cracking. From the multiscale model cohesive zone parameters (i.e. maximum traction and energy of separation) were obtained by modeling the interface between the coarse-grained polyimide matrix and graphite based carbon fiber. The cohesive parameters from this simulation were used in a cohesive zone model of the composite microstructure in order to predict the properties of the macroscale composite with respect to changes in temperature ranging from 21 ˚C to 316 ˚C. Good agreement was found between the microscale RUC model and experimental results for stress-strain response, stiffness, and material strength at low and high temperatures. Examination of the deformation of the composite through localized crack initiation at the fiber-matrix interface also agreed with experimental observations of similar phenomena. Overall, the cohesive zone model was shown to be both effective at modeling the composite properties with respect to transverse loading as well as validated the use of cohesive zone parameters obtained from the multiscale simulation.

Keywords: Multiscale Modeling, cohesive zone model, fiber-matrix interface, microscale damage

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1 Investigation on Pull-Out-Behavior and Interface Critical Parameters of Polymeric Fibers Embedded in Concrete and Their Correlation with Particular Fiber Characteristics

Authors: Michael Sigruener, Dirk Muscat, Nicole Struebbe

Abstract:

Fiber reinforcement is a state of the art to enhance mechanical properties in plastics. For concrete and civil engineering, steel reinforcements are commonly used. Steel reinforcements show disadvantages in their chemical resistance and weight, whereas polymer fibers' major problems are in fiber-matrix adhesion and mechanical properties. In spite of these facts, longevity and easy handling, as well as chemical resistance motivate researches to develop a polymeric material for fiber reinforced concrete. Adhesion and interfacial mechanism in fiber-polymer-composites are already studied thoroughly. For polymer fibers used as concrete reinforcement, the bonding behavior still requires a deeper investigation. Therefore, several differing polymers (e.g., polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK)) were spun into fibers via single screw extrusion and monoaxial stretching. Fibers then were embedded in a concrete matrix, and Single-Fiber-Pull-Out-Tests (SFPT) were conducted to investigate bonding characteristics and microstructural interface of the composite. Differences in maximum pull-out-force, displacement and slope of the linear part of force vs displacement-function, which depicts the adhesion strength and the ductility of the interfacial bond were studied. In SFPT fiber, debonding is an inhomogeneous process, where the combination of interfacial bonding and friction mechanisms add up to a resulting value. Therefore, correlations between polymeric properties and pull-out-mechanisms have to be emphasized. To investigate these correlations, all fibers were introduced to a series of analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle measurement, surface roughness and hardness analysis, tensile testing and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Of each polymer, smooth and abraded fibers were tested, first to simulate the abrasion and damage caused by a concrete mixing process and secondly to estimate the influence of mechanical anchoring of rough surfaces. In general, abraded fibers showed a significant increase in maximum pull-out-force due to better mechanical anchoring. Friction processes therefore play a major role to increase the maximum pull-out-force. The polymer hardness affects the tribological behavior and polymers with high hardness lead to lower surface roughness verified by SEM and surface roughness measurements. This concludes into a decreased maximum pull-out-force for hard polymers. High surface energy polymers show better interfacial bonding strength in general, which coincides with the conducted SFPT investigation. Polymers such as PEEK or PA6 show higher bonding strength in smooth and roughened fibers, revealed through high pull-out-force and concrete particles bonded on the fiber surface pictured via SEM analysis. The surface energy divides into dispersive and polar part, at which the slope is correlating with the polar part. Only polar polymers increase their SFPT-function slope due to better wetting abilities when showing a higher bonding area through rough surfaces. Hence, the maximum force and the bonding strength of an embedded fiber is a function of polarity, hardness, and consequently surface roughness. Other properties such as crystallinity or tensile strength do not affect bonding behavior. Through the conducted analysis, it is now feasible to understand and resolve different effects in pull-out-behavior step-by-step based on the polymer properties itself. This investigation developed a roadmap on how to engineer high adhering polymeric materials for fiber reinforcement of concrete.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Concrete, fiber-matrix interface, polymeric fibers, single fiber pull-out test

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