Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

FGM Related Abstracts

3 Fabrication of Al/Al2O3 Functionally Graded Composites via Centrifugal Method by Using a Polymeric Suspension

Authors: Majid Eslami


Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit heterogeneous microstructures in which the composition and properties gently change in specified directions. The common type of FGMs consist of a metal in which ceramic particles are distributed with a graded concentration. There are many processing routes for FGMs. An important group of these methods is casting techniques (gravity or centrifugal). However, the main problem of casting molten metal slurry with dispersed ceramic particles is a destructive chemical reaction between these two phases which deteriorates the properties of the materials. In order to overcome this problem, in the present investigation a suspension of 6061 aluminum and alumina powders in a liquid polymer was used as the starting material and subjected to centrifugal force for making FGMs. The size rang of these powders was 45-63 and 106-125 μm. The volume percent of alumina in the Al/Al2O3 powder mixture was in the range of 5 to 20%. PMMA (Plexiglas) in different concentrations (20-50 g/lit) was dissolved in toluene and used as the suspension liquid. The glass mold contaning the suspension of Al/Al2O3 powders in the mentioned liquid was rotated at 1700 rpm for different times (4-40 min) while the arm length was kept constant (10 cm) for all the experiments. After curing the polymer, burning out the binder, cold pressing and sintering , cylindrical samples (φ=22 mm h=20 mm) were produced. The density of samples before and after sintering was quantified by Archimedes method. The results indicated that by using the same sized alumina and aluminum powders particles, FGM sample can be produced by rotation times exceeding 7 min. However, by using coarse alumina and fine alumina powders the sample exhibits step concentration. On the other hand, using fine alumina and coarse alumina results in a relatively uniform concentration of Al2O3 along the sample height. These results are attributed to the effects of size and density of different powders on the centrifugal force induced on the powders during rotation. The PMMA concentration and the vol.% of alumina in the suspension did not have any considerable effect on the distribution of alumina particles in the samples. The hardness profiles along the height of samples were affected by both the alumina vol.% and porosity content. The presence of alumina particles increased the hardness while increased porosity reduced the hardness. Therefore, the hardness values did not show the expected gradient in same sample. The sintering resulted in decreased porosity for all the samples investigated.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, FGM, centrifugal method, polymeric suspension

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2 Yield Onset of Thermo-Mechanical Loading of FGM Thick Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

Authors: S. Ansari Sadrabadi, G. H. Rahimi


In this paper, thick walled Cylindrical tanks or tubes made of functionally graded material under internal pressure and temperature gradient are studied. Material parameters have been considered as power functions. They play important role in the elastoplastic behavior of these materials. To clarify their role, different materials with different parameters have been used under temperature gradient. Finally, their effect and loading effect have been determined in first yield point. Also, the important role of temperature gradient was also shown. At the end the study has been results obtained from changes in the elastic modulus and yield stress. Also special attention is also given to the effects of this internal pressure and temperature gradient in the creation of tensile and compressive stresses.

Keywords: FGM, cylindrical pressure tubes, small deformation theory, yield onset, thermal loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1 Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of a Functionally Graded Micro-Beam under a Step DC Voltage

Authors: Ali Raheli, Rahim Habibifar, Behzad Mohammadi-Alasti, Mahdi Abbasgholipour


This paper presents vibration behavior of a FGM micro-beam and its pull-in instability under a nonlinear electrostatic pressure. An exponential function has been applied to show the continuous gradation of the properties along thickness. Nonlinear integro-differential-electro-mechanical equation based on Euler–Bernoulli beam theory has been derived. The governing equation in the static analysis has been solved using Step-by-Step Linearization Method and Finite Difference Method. Fixed points or equilibrium positions and singular points have been shown in the state control space. In order to find the response to a step DC voltage, the nonlinear equation of motion has been solved using Galerkin-based reduced-order model and time histories and phase portrait for different applied voltages have been shown. The effects of electrostatic pressure on stability of FGM micro-beams having various amounts of the ceramic constituent have been investigated.

Keywords: Electrical, MEMS, Nonlinear Vibration, FGM, dynamic pull-in voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 304