Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

fetus Related Abstracts

4 Partition of Nonylphenol between Different Compartment for Mother-Fetus Pairs and Health Effects of Newborns

Authors: Chun-Hao Lai, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Meng-Han Lin, Mei-Lien Chen


Nonylphenol (NP) is a degradation product of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs). It is a well-known endocrine disruptor which may cause estrogenic effects. The growing fetus and infants are more vulnerable to exposure to NP than adults. It is important to know the levels and influences of prenatal exposure to NP. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the levels of prenatal exposure among Taiwanese, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for the infants who were breastfed and exposed to NP through the milk. (3) To investigate the correlation between birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to NP. We analyzed thirty one pairs of maternal urines, placentas, first month’ breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detector. The questionnaire included socio- demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history. Information about the birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. The daily intake of NP from breast milk was calculated using deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in placenta, and breast milk in the first month were 31.2 (1.8) ng/g, 17.2 (1.6) ng/g, respectively. The medium of daily intake NP in breast milk was 1.33 μg/kg-bw/day in the first month. We found negative association between NP levels of placenta and birth height. And we observed negative correlation between maternal urine NP levels and birth weight. In this study, we could provide the NP exposure profile among Taiwan pregnant women and the daily intake of NP in Taiwan infants. Prenatal exposure to higher levels of NP may increase the risk of lower birth weight and shorter birth height.

Keywords: urine, breast milk, nonylphenol, mother, fetus, placenta

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3 Anti-Implantation Activity of Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) Pulp Ethanol Extract in Female Mice

Authors: Dina Fatmawati, Suparmi, Israhnanto Isradji, Iwang Yusuf


Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) is one of the traditional plants originating from Indonesia that can be used to prevent pregnancy, launched urine and kidney inflammation. Kepel pulp has compounds alkaloid, triterpenoid, tannin, saponin, and flavonoid, when used will give the hormonal and cytotoxic effect. This study was aimed at evaluating ethanol extract of kepel in vivo for anti-implantation activities. In this experimental study with post test only control group design, 20 female mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. It was divided into the control, the 0,65 mg dose, 1,3 mg dose, and 3,6 mg dose of kepel pulp extract group. The extract soluted in DMSO’s solution and was given 1 ml per mice. The extract was given 10 days before copulation until 18 days of pregnancy. Then, the number of implantation, presence of fetus, and embrio resorbtion were recorded and used to calculate the percentage anti-implantation effect. The results were tested by One-way ANOVA. The mean number of implantation in group control, 0,65 mg;1,3 mg; and 2,6 mg were 5,60±1,14; 6,20± 1,64; 7,60±1,51; 8,00± 1,58, respectively. One way Annova test showed that there is no significant difference in the number of implantation between the group (p > 0,05). The administration of kepel pulp ethanol extract had no effect on the percentage anti-implantation effect and the number of and embrio resorbtion.

Keywords: flavonoid, fetus, antiimplantation, Stelechocarpus burahol

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2 Rumen Epithelium Development of Bovine Fetuses and Newborn Calves

Authors: Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão, Letícia Palmeira Pinto, Francisco Palma Rennó, Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez


The ruminant stomach is a complex and multi-chambered organ. Although the true stomach (abomasum) is fully differentiated and functional at birth, the same does not occur with the rumen chamber. At this moment, rumen papillae are small or nonexistent. The papillae only fully develop after weaning and during calf growth. Papillae development and ruminal epithelium specialization during the fetus growth and at birth must be two interdependent processes that will prepare the rumen to adapt to ruminant adult feeding. The microscopic study of rumen epithelium at these early phases of life is important to understand how this structure prepares the rumen to deal with the following weaning processes and its functional activation. Samples of ruminal mucosa of bovine fetuses (110- and 150 day-old) and newborn calves were collected (dorsal and ventral portions) and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The basal cell layer of the stratified pavimentous epithelium present in different ruminal portions of the fetuses was thicker than the same portions of newborn calves. The superficial and intermediate epithelial layers of 150 day-old fetuses were thicker than those found in the other 2 studied ages. At this age (150 days), dermal papillae begin to invade the intermediate epithelial layer which gradually disappears in newborn calves. At birth, the ruminal papillae project from the epithelial surface, probably by regression of the epithelial cells (transitory cells) surrounding the dermal papillae. The PCNA cell proliferation index (%) was calculated for all epithelial samples. Fetuses 150 day-old showed increased cell proliferation in basal cell layer (Dorsal Portion: 84.2%; Ventral Portion: 89.8%) compared to other ages studied. Newborn calves showed an intermediate index (Dorsal Portion: 65.1%; Ventral Portion: 48.9%), whereas 110 day-old fetuses had the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.2%; Ventral Portion: 20.6%). Regarding the transitory epithelium, 110 day-old fetuses showed the lowest proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 44.6%; Ventral Portion: 20.1%), 150 day-old fetuses showed an intermediate proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 57.5%; Ventral Portion: 71.1%) and newborn calves presented a higher proliferation index (Dorsal Portion: 75.1%; Ventral Portion: 19.6%). Under TEM, the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses presented thicker and poorly organized basal cell layer, with large nuclei and dense cytoplasm. In newborn calves, the basal cell layer was more organized and with fewer layers, but typically similar in both regions of the rumen. For the transitory epithelium, fetuses displayed larger cells than those found in newborn calves with less electrondense cytoplasm than that found in the basal cells. The ruminal dorsal portion has an overall higher cell proliferation rate than the ventral portion. Thus we can infer that the dorsal portion may have a higher cell activity than the ventral portion during ruminal development. Moreover, the basal cell layer is thicker in the 110- and 150 day-old fetuses than in the newborn calves. The transitory epithelium, which is much reduced, at birth may have a structural support function of the developing dermal papillae. When it regresses or is sheared off, the papillae are “carved out” from the surrounding epithelial layer.

Keywords: Bovine, Calf, TEM, fetus, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin, epithelium, Rumen

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1 Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies on Corneal Ontogeny in Buffalo

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Neelam Bansal


Histomorphological, histochemical and scanning electron microscopic observations were recorded in developing cornea of buffalo fetuses. The samples from fetal cornea were collected in appropriate fixative from slaughter house and Veterinary Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The microscopic slides were stained for detailed histomorphological and histochemical studies. The scanning electron microscopic studies were performed at Electron microscopy & Nanobiology Lab, PAU Ludhiana. In present study, it was observed that, in 36 days (d) fetus, the corneal epithelium was well marked single layered structure which was placed on stroma mesenchyme. Cornea appeared as the continuation of developing sclera. The thickness of cornea and its epithelium increased as well as the epithelium started becoming double layered in 47d fetus at corneo-scleral junction. The corneal thickness in this stage suddenly increased thus easily distinguished from developing sclera. The separation of corneal endothelium from stroma was evident as a single layered epithelium. The stroma possessed numerous fibroblasts in 49d stage eye. Descemet’s membrane was appeared at 52d stage. The limbus area was separated by a depression from the developing cornea in 61d stage. In 65d stage, the Bowman’s layer was more developed. Fibroblasts were arranged parallel to each other as well as parallel to the surface of developing cornea in superficial layers. These fibroblasts and fibers were arranged in wavy pattern in the center of stroma. Corneal epithelium started to be stratified as a double layered epithelium was present in this age of fetal eye. In group II (>120 Days), the corneal epithelium was stratified towards a well marked irido-corneal angle. The stromal fibroblasts followed a complete parallel arrangement in its entire thickness. In full term fetuses, a well developed cornea was observed. It was a fibrous layer which had five distinct layers. From outside to inwards were described as the outer most layer was the 7-8 layered corneal epithelial, subepithelial basement membrane (Bowman’s membrane), substantia propria or stroma, posterior limiting membrane (Descemet’s membrane) and the posterior epithelium (corneal endothelium). The corneal thickness and connective tissue elements were continued to be increased. It was 121.39 + 3.73µ at 36d stage which increased to 518.47 + 4.98 µ in group III fetuses. In fetal life, the basement membrane of corneal epithelium and endothelium depicted strong to intense periodic Acid Schiff’s (PAS) reaction. At the irido-corneal angle, the endothelium of blood vessels was also positive for PAS activity. However, cornea was found mild positive for alcian blue reaction. The developing cornea showed strong reaction for basic proteins in outer epithelium and the inner endothelium layers. Under low magnification scanning electron microscope, cornea showed two types of cells viz. light cells and dark cells. The light cells were smaller in size and had less number of microvilli in their surface than in the dark cells. Despite these surface differences between light and dark cells, the corneal surface showed the same general pattern of microvilli studding all exposed surfaces out to the cell margin. which were long (with variable height), slight tortuous slender and possessed a micro villus shaft with a very prominent knob.

Keywords: Cornea, Scanning Electron Microscopy, ontogeny, buffalo, fetus, eye

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