Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

festival Related Abstracts

8 Stemming the Decline of Cultural Festivals as a Way of Preserving the Nigerian Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Kuteb and Idoma Cultural Festivals

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

Abstract:

A cultural festival is characterized by feasting and celebration, with a day or period that has been set aside solely for this reason. Often expressed by an organized series of acts and performances, it forms a very important part of man’s cultural heritage. Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups and diverse languages. Each of these ethnic groups has a plethora of festivals that depict their culture which is exhibited in many forms ranging from dancing to feasting and celebration. Being a very important aspect of man’s life, it is pertinent to document and optimally harness it. However, there is a significant decline of these practices in some areas in Nigeria while some areas have registered a total loss of same. It is the aim of this paper therefore, to appraise the factors responsible for this and also, to project ways of resuscitating these festivals which by the way are viable tools for revenue generation through tourism. Not only do festivals serve as a source of revenue, they also aid in national integration which in turn further enhances sustainable development. The interest of this paper will focus on the Kuteb people of Taraba State and the Idoma people of Benue State. The methodologies applied include primary (oral interviews) and secondary (consultation of written records on the subject matter) sources of data. It finally concludes by comparing the approaches that are in use by the ethnic groups in Nigeria who have successfully preserved this aspect their culture and suggestions are made as to how to apply same approaches to these two communities that form the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Cultural Heritage, Nigeria, festival, national integration

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7 Tourists' Percepion of Osun Osogbo Festival in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria

Authors: Yina Donald Orga

Abstract:

Osun Osogbo festival is one of the biggest art festivals in Nigeria with over 235, 518 tourist visits in 2014. The purpose of this study is to generate data on the tourists’ perception of Osun Osogbo Festival in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria. Based on the population of 199, 860 tourist visits at Osun Osogbo festival in 2013, Krejcie and Morgan sample size table was used to select 768 tourists/respondents. Likert questionnaire were used to elicit data from the respondents. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the characteristics of respondents and analyse the tourists’ perception of the festival. The findings from data analysed suggest that the trend of domestic and international tourist visits in the past ten years for the festival had shown a consistent increase since 2004 except in 2007 and 2008 and continue to increase up to 2013. This is an indication that the tourists are satisfied with traditional, historical and authenticity features of the festival. Also, findings from the study revealed that the tourists are not satisfied with the number of toilets at Osun Sacred Grove, crowd control of visitors during the festival, medical personnel to cater for visitors during the festival, etc. In view of the findings of the study, the following recommendations are suggested; provision of more toilets at Osun Sacred grove, Osogbo Heritage Council to recruit festival guides to help control the huge crowd at the festival, the Government of State of Osun in conjunction with Red Cross Society should engage adequate medical personnel to cater for medical needs of visitors at the festival, etc.

Keywords: Perception, tourists, festival, positive

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6 The Study on Tourist’s Satisfaction in Xinshe Flowers Festival

Authors: Yashan Liu, Yu-Chen Chien

Abstract:

In the past few years, a global trend to hold sightseeing festivals has prevailed. For the purpose of attracting more tourists, the Taiwan government has not only organized a considerable number of international activities, but also provided guidance to counties and cities in organizing festivals which reflect a collaboration of culture and humanity. These festivals have also assisted in the development of local industry and the promotion of their unique characteristics. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influences and relationships between tourist satisfaction and the revisiting willingness of visitors at the Xin-she Flower Festival.

Keywords: tourist satisfaction, festival, Flowers Festival in Xin-she, Revisiting Willingness

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5 Gender Influence in Yoruba Festivals: A Case Study of Agbaasin Festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alice Abiodun Atolagbe, Samson Abiodun Atolagbe

Abstract:

All over the world and in the history of mankind, festivals have evolved to celebrate one thing or the other. The Yoruba people are no exemptions and they have several festivals which they celebrate at different times, for different reasons and in different communities. Because mankind is mainly of male and female, most of the festivals involve the two sexes, though different roles are usually assigned. In this paper, the writers examine the influence of gender in Yoruba festival using ‘Agbaasin’ festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State of Nigeria as a case study. A research was conducted by visiting the priests, worshipers, and shrine of ‘Agbaasin’ during which interviews were conducted, documented, and analyzed. It was, thereafter, discovered that men dominated the process of celebrating the ‘Agbaasin’ festival even to the extent of cooking by themselves. The paper recommends that women should be more involved in political and communal activities, government should encourage and sponsor researches on gender issues and that, authors of books and writers of plays should create some fora to encourage women empowerment among the Yoruba people. It is hoped that this paper would contribute to the pool of literature available on gender issues among the Yoruba people of Nigeria.

Keywords: Gender, Yoruba, festival, Kwara State, Agbaasin, Isanlu-Isin

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4 An Impact Assesment of Festive Events on Sustainable Cultural Heritage: İdrisyayla Village

Authors: Betül Gelengül Eki̇mci̇, Semra Günay Aktaş

Abstract:

Festive, habitual activities celebrated on the specified date by a local community, are conducive to recognition of the region. The main function of festive events is to help gathering people via an annual celebration to create an atmosphere of understanding and the opportunity to participate in the joy of life. At the same time, festive events may serve as special occasions on which immigrants return home to celebrate with their family and community, reaffirming their identity and link to the community’s traditions. Festivals also support the local economy by bringing in different visitors to the region. The tradition of “Beet Brewing-Molasses Production,” which is held in İdrisyayla Village is an intangible cultural heritage with customs, traditions, and rituals carrying impacts of cuisine culture of Rumelian immigrants in the Ottoman. After the harvest of the beet plant in the autumn season of the year, Beet Brewing Molasses syrup is made by traditional production methods with co-op of the local community. Festive occurring brewing paste made process provided transmission of knowledge and experience to the young generations. Making molasses, which is a laborious process, is accompanied by folk games such as "sayacı," which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Performance provides enjoyable time and supporting motivation. Like other forms of intangible cultural heritage, “Beet Brewing-Molasses Festive in İdrasyayla is threatened by rapid urbanisation, young generation migration, industrialisation and environmental change. The festive events are threatened with gradual disappearance due to changes communities undergo in modern societies because it depends on the broad participation of practitioners. Ensuring the continuity of festive events often requires the mobilization of large numbers of individuals and the social, political and legal institutions and mechanisms of society. In 2015, Intangible cultural heritage research project with the title of "İdrisyayla Molasses Process" managed by the Eskişehir Governorship, City Directorate of Culture and Tourism and Anadolu University, project members took part in the festival organization to promote sustainability, making it visible, to encourage the broadest public participation possible, to ensure public awareness on the cultural importance. To preserve the originality of and encourage participation in the festive İdrisyayla, local associations, researchers and institutions created foundation and supports festive events, such as "sayacı" folk game, which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Practitioners find new opportunity to market İdrisyayla Molasses production. Publicity program through the press and exhibition made it possible to stress the cultural importance of the festive in İdrisyayla Village. The research reported here used a survey analysis to evaluate an affect of the festive after the spirit of the 2015 Festive in İdrisyayla Village. Particular attention was paid to the importance of the cultural aspects of the festival. Based on a survey of more than a hundred festival attendees, several recommendations are made to festival planners. Results indicate that the variety of festive activities and products offered for sale very important to attendees. The local participants care product sales rather than cultural heritage.

Keywords: Cultural tourism, Agritourism, festival, sustainable cultural heritage

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3 Exploring the Effect of Environmental Cues of Food Festival on Visitor Satisfaction

Authors: Tao Zhang

Abstract:

As the competition of all kinds of festival events becomes more and more fierce, more and more event organizers try to design a blended festivalscape by integrating multifaceted environmental cues in order to raise the service quality of festival events and then raise visitors’ satisfaction. As the main type of festival events, food festivals are popular in all over the world. The organizers’ of food festivals also try to mix food with multifaceted environmental cues (e.g., music, stage, light, dance) to design a blended festivalscape. However, until now little studies explore the environmental cues of food festivals and their relationship with visitors’ satisfaction. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ascertain the environmental cues of food festival and their relationship with visitors’ satisfaction by using the blended festivalscape theory. Using convenient sampling method, this study investigated 1,000 food festival visitors in Macau. Factor analysis showed there are mainly six environmental cues (i.e., food, atmosphere, program, staff, facility, and information). All six environmental cues are positively related with visitors’ satisfaction, while the most influential factors are food, atmosphere, and program. This study showed that festival event organizers’ should focus on the topic of their festival event, build festival atmosphere, and create interesting programs in order to design a blended festivalscape and then raise visitors’ satisfaction.

Keywords: satisfaction, festival, event, environmental cue

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2 The Ephemeral Re-Use of Cultural Heritage: The Incorporation of the Festival Phenomenon Within Monuments and Archaeological Sites in Lebanon

Authors: Joe Kallas

Abstract:

It is now widely accepted that the preservation of cultural heritage must go beyond simple restoration and renovation actions. While some historic monuments have been preserved for millennia, many of them, less important or simply neglected because of lack of money, have disappeared. As a result, the adaptation of monuments and archaeological sites to new functions allow them to 'survive'. Temporary activities or 'ephemeral' re-use, are increasingly recognized as a means of vitalization of deprived areas and enhancement of historic sites that became obsolete. They have the potential to increase economic and cultural value while making the best use of existing resources. However, there are often conservation and preservation issues related to the implementation of this type of re-use, which can also threaten the integrity and authenticity of archaeological sites and monuments if they have not been properly managed. This paper aims to get a better knowledge of the ephemeral re-use of heritage, and more specifically the subject of the incorporation of the festival phenomenon within the monuments and archaeological sites in Lebanon, a topic that is not yet studied enough. This paper tried to determine the elements that compose it, in order to analyze this phenomenon and to trace its good practices, by comparing international study cases to important national cases: the International Festival of Baalbek, the International Festival of Byblos and the International Festival of Beiteddine. Various factors have been studied and analyzed in order to best respond to the main problematic of this paper: 'How can we preserve the integrity of sites and monuments after the integration of an ephemeral function? And what are the preventive conservation measures to be taken when holding festivals in archaeological sites with fragile structures?' The impacts of the technical problems were first analyzed using various data and more particularly the effects of mass tourism, the integration of temporary installations, sound vibrations, the effects of unstudied lighting, until the mystification of heritage. Unfortunately, the DGA (General Direction of Antiquities in Lebanon) does not specify any frequency limit for the sound vibrations emitted by the speakers during musical festivals. In addition, there is no requirement from its part regarding the installations of the lighting systems in the historic monuments and no monitoring is done in situ, due to the lack of awareness of the impact that could be generated by such interventions, and due to the lack of materials and tools needed for the monitoring process. The study and analysis of the various data mentioned above led us to the elaboration of the main objective of this paper, which is the establishment of a list of recommendations. This list enables to define various preventive conservation measures to be taken during the holding of the festivals within the cultural heritage sites in Lebanon. We strongly hope that this paper will be an awareness document to start taking into consideration several factors previously neglected, in order to improve the conservation practices in the archaeological sites and monuments during the incorporation of the festival phenomenon.

Keywords: Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, Tourism, Conservation, Integrity, Authenticity, Monuments, festival, historic sites

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1 The Significance of Oranyan Festival among the Oyo Yoruba

Authors: Emmanuel Bole Akinpelu

Abstract:

Festival is a social event that takes place every year which showcase culture and other social activities that usually take place in an environment or town. However, Oranyan Festival is an annual event organized and celebrated in Oyo town in honor of Oranyan the great who is reputed to be the overall head of the Kings of the Yoruba. This event is attended by people from all works of life. The Oyos are used to celebrating various cultural festivals; like Ogun, Oya, Sango, Egungun, Obatala and others. However, Oranyan festival in Oyo is a recent development in honour of Oranyan. He was said to be powerful and an embodiment of a unique cultural tradition. The study examined the significance of the festival to the Oyo Yoruba group. Oyo Yoruba cultural heritage include; Ewi, Ijala, Traditional food ‘Amala and Gbegiri’, Ekun Iyawo, (Bridal Chants), Traditional Music, Traditional Dance, Traditional Game ‘Ayo Olopon’ Eke (Traditional wrestling) and others. Data for this work was gathered through archival sources as journals and relevant publications on the various Oyo Yoruba Traditional Art and Culture. The study is of the opinion that the festival has influence over the religion, Political, economic and other aspects of the modern day traditions. The study also revealed that Oranyan Festival made people to have a better understanding of their rich Cultural Heritage and promoted unity among all and sundry. It also promotes peace among the people. Conclusively, it promotes the rich Cultural Heritage of Oyo Yoruba’s both within and outside NIGERIA and the world at large.

Keywords: festival, Yoruba Oyo, arts and culture, Oranyan

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