Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Female Related Abstracts

18 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: L. U. S. Ezeanyika, I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai


This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: Female, Adolescents, Heavy Metals, Nigeria

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17 Population Structure of Europian Pond Turtles, Emys Orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Narta Lagoon (Vlora Bay, Albania)

Authors: Enerit Saçdanaku, Idriz Haxhiu


In this study was monitored the population of the European Pond Turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) in the area of Narta Lagoon, Vlora Bay (Albania), from August to October 2014. A total of 54 individuals of E. orbicularis were studied using different methodologies. Curved Carapace Length (CCL), Plastron Length (PL) and Curved Carapace Width (CCW) were measured for each individual of E. orbicularis and were statistically analyzed. All captured turtles were separated in seven different size–classes based on their carapace length (CCL). Each individual of E. orbicularis was marked by notching the carapace (marginal scutes). Form all individuals captured resulted that 37 were females (68.5%), 14 males (25.9%), 3 juveniles (5.5%), while 18 individuals of E. orbicularis were recaptured for the first and some for the second time.

Keywords: Male, Female, Population, Emys orbicularis, juvenile, size–classes

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16 A Study of Kinematical Parameters I9N Instep Kicking in Soccer

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo


Introduction: Soccer is a game which draws more attention in different countries especially in Brazil. Kicking among different skills in soccer and soccer players is an excellent role for the success and preference of a team. The way of point gaining in this game is passing the ball over the goal lines which are gained by shoot skill in attack time and or during the penalty kicks.Regarding the above assumption, identifying the effective factors in instep kicking in different distances shoot with maximum force and high accuracy or pass and penalty kick, may assist the coaches and players in raising qualitative level of performing the skill. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study of a few kinematical parameters in instep kicking from 3 and 5 meter distance among the male and female elite soccer players. Methods: 24 right dominant lower limb subjects (12 males and 12 females) among Tehran elite soccer players with average and the standard deviation (22.5 ± 1.5) & (22.08± 1.31) years, height of (179.5 ± 5.81) & (164.3 ± 4.09) cm, weight of (69.66 ± 4.09) & (53.16 ± 3.51) kg, %BMI (21.06 ± .731) & (19.67 ± .709), having playing history of (4 ± .73) & (3.08 ± .66) years respectively participated in this study. They had at least two years of continuous playing experience in Tehran soccer league.For sampling player's kick; Kinemetrix Motion analysis with three cameras with 500 Hz was used. Five reflective markers were placed laterally on the kicking leg over anatomical points (the iliac crest, major trochanter, lateral epicondyle of femur, lateral malleolus, and lateral aspect of distal head of the fifth metatarsus). Instep kick was filmed, with one step approach and 30 to 45 degrees angle from stationary ball. Three kicks were filmed, one kick selected for further analyses. Using Kinemetrix 3D motion analysis software, the position of the markers was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean and standard deviation, while the analysis of variance, and independent t-test (P < 0.05) were used to compare the kinematic parameters between two genders. Results and Discussion: Among the evaluated parameters, the knee acceleration, the thigh angular velocity, the angle of knee proportionately showed significant relationship with consequence of kick. While company performance on 5m in 2 genders, significant differences were observed in internal – external displacement of toe, ankle, hip and the velocity of toe, ankle and the acceleration of toe and the angular velocity of pelvic, thigh and before time contact. Significant differences showed the internal – external displacement of toe, the ankle, the knee and the hip, the iliac crest and the velocity of toe, the ankle and acceleration of ankle and angular velocity of the pelvic and the knee.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Male, Female, Kinematics, soccer, instep kick

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15 Female Criminality in Lagos State: A Case of Armed Robbery

Authors: Ebobo Urowoli Christiana


The Nigerian Prison Service statistics of 2007; 2009 revealed that though crime in the past was ascribed to men, but today there is a steady increase in the population of women involved in crime. This study focused on the investigation of female criminality in Lagos State: A case of Armed Robbery. Its major objective was to find out if there is an increase or decrease in female involvement in armed robbery and its growth rate. The major research question is 'Is there an increase in the perpetration of armed robbery by females in Lagos State?' the null hypotheses is 'There is no significant increase in the perpetration of armed robbery by females in Lagos State.' As a result, this study adopted the survey design, purposive sampling method and a sample size of 120 respondents. The rational choice theory was used to explain the reason for female involvement in armed robbery. Both primary and secondary data was generated for this study; the primary data was collected from the criminal records in Lagos State Police Command, Panti while the Quantitative data was collected using the questionnaire from 120 female detainees and inmates. The data collected was analyzed using the simple frequency tables and percentages and chi square was used to test for relationships. The study revealed a persistent rise in the prevalence of female armed robbery and recommended that youths should be equipped with educational/vocational skills in order to lead responsible lives.

Keywords: Female, Nature, Criminality, armed robbery, police commands, panti

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14 The Benefits of Using Hijab Syar'i against Female Sexual Abuse

Authors: Catur Sigit Hartanto, Anggraeni Anisa Wara Rahmayanti


Objective: This research is aimed to assess the benefits of using hijab syar'i against female sexual abuse. Method: This research uses a quantitative study. The population is students in Semarang State University who wear hijab syar’i. The sampling technique uses the method of conformity. The retrieving data uses questionnaire on 30 female students as the sample. The data analysis uses descriptive analysis. Result: Using hijab syar’i provides benefits in preventing and minimizing female sexual abuse. Limitation: Respondents were limited to only 30 people.

Keywords: Female, Sexual Abuse, hijab syar’i, student of Semarang State University

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13 Female’s Involvement in Real Estate Business in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State

Authors: Osaretin Rosemary Uyi, A. O. Ogungbemi


Female involvement in policy making and partnership in a man-driven-world is fast gaining international recognition. The Nigeria commercial real estate is one of the sectors of the economy that has a significant number of the male in the business. This study was conducted to assess the participation of females in estate management in Lagos state, Nigeria. Lagos is the commercial nerve center of Nigeria having the highest number of real estate practitioners and investors. The population due to the daily influx of people has made real estate business to continue to grow in this part of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire duly pre-tested and validated was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data collected were presented using tables and charts and were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentages, were used to test the hypothesis. The results also indicated that most females that participated in commercial real estate business are educated (80%), fell within 31-40 years of age (75%) and of high income status (88%) earn above ₦800,000 per year, while 10% are real estate investors and 82% of the female in the sector are employee. The study concluded that the number of female participating in various aspect of commercial real estate business in the study area was moderate while the numbers of female investors are low when compared to male. This might be due to the problems associated with rent collection, land disputes and other issues that are associated with property management in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that females in real estate should be empowered and encouraged to match with their male counterpart.

Keywords: Female, Participation, Commercial real estate, Empowerment, Property Management

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12 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari


The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: Female, Depression, students, metaphor therapy

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11 The Role of Female Population as a Consumer in Modern Marketing Strategy and Management

Authors: Jana Aleksić, Marijana Petković


Female population has an increasing role when it comes to purchase. Consequently, the female population has a greater role in modern marketing. Although it is thought that women buy more than men, marketing strategy was not directed specifically towards women. The thing that has changed regarding women’s role in modern marketing is the fact that the female population has a leading position when it comes to decision making in various fields and various sectors, which was not the case in the past. Marketing should be directed towards women but it should be done in the right way. Compared to men, women buy in a different way, and they look for more various advantages in the product itself, than men do. This paper aims to show the importance of the female role in the modern marketing and management and to redirect marketing in some way towards female population through new marketing strategies and management systems. Hypothesis is that women have an important role in marketing, and marketing strategy of modern society could and should be based on and directed towards female population and their tastes when it comes to purchasing. It is necessary and desirable to apply marketing strategy with a special strategy that has an emphasis on women and their purchase or in a word to apply WS- woman strategy. This research was carried out as a random sample research, where were obtained 212 valid surveys whose results serve as a basis for drawing conclusions about the research as well as to verify the formulated hypotheses. The research was carried out during 2011 and 2012. The study has shown a significant role of the female population in the marketing process.

Keywords: Marketing, Management, Female, Strategy, purchase

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10 The Meaning of Happiness and Unhappiness among Female Teenagers in Urban Finland: A Social Representations Approach

Authors: Jennifer De Paola


Objectives: The literature is saturated with figures and hard data on happiness and its rates, causes and effects at a large scale, whereas very little is known about the way specific groups of people within societies understand and talk about happiness in their everyday life. The present study contributes to fill this gap in the happiness research by analyzing social representations of happiness among young women through the theoretical frame provided by Moscovici’s Social Representation Theory. Methods: Participants were (N= 351) female students (16-18 year olds) from Finnish, Swedish and English speaking high schools in the Helsinki region, Finland. Main source of data collection were word associations using the stimulus word ‘happiness’ and word associations using as stimulus the term that in the participants’ opinion represents the opposite of happiness. The allowed number of associations was five per stimulus word (10 associations per participant). In total, the 351 participants produced 6973 associations with the two stimulus words given: 3500 (50,19%) associations with ‘happiness’ and 3473 (49,81%) associations with ‘opposite of happiness’. The associations produced were analyzed qualitatively to identify associations with similar meaning and then coded combining similar associations in larger categories. Results: In total, 33 categories were identified respectively for the stimulus word ‘happiness’ and for the stimulus word ‘opposite of happiness’. In general terms, the 33 categories identified for ‘happiness’ included associations regarding relationships with key people considered important, such as ‘family’, abstract concepts such as meaningful life, success and moral values as well as more mundane and hedonic elements like food, pleasure and fun. Similarly, the 33 categories emerged for ‘opposite of happiness’ included relationship problems and arguments, negative feelings such as sadness, depression, stress as well as more concrete issues such as financial problems. Participants were also asked to rate their own level of happiness on a scale from 1 to 10. Results indicated the mean of the self-rated level of happiness was 7,93 (the range varied from 1 to 10; SD = 1, 50). Participants’ responses were further divided into three different groups according to the self-rated level of happiness: group 1 (level 10-9), group 2 (level 8-6), and group 3 (level 5 and lower) in order to investigate the way the categories mentioned above were distributed among the different groups. Preliminary results show that the category ‘family’ is associated with higher level of happiness, whereas its presence gradually decreases among the participants with a lower level of happiness. Moreover, the category ‘depression’ seems to be mainly present among participants in group 3, whereas the category ‘sadness’ is mainly present among participants with higher level of happiness. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study indicates the prevalent ways of thinking about happiness and its opposite among young female students, suggesting that representations varied to some extent depending on the happiness level of the participants. This study contributes to bringing new knowledge as it considers happiness as a holistic state, thus going beyond the literature that so far has too often viewed happiness as a mere unidimensional spectrum.

Keywords: Female, Social Representations, Happiness, unhappiness

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9 Challenges to Collaborative Learning in Architectural Education in the Middle East

Authors: Lizmol Mathew, Divya Thomas, Shiney Rajan


Educational paradigm all over the globe is undergoing significant reform today. Because of this, so-called flipped classroom model is becoming increasingly popular in higher education. Flipped classroom has proved to be more effective than traditional lecture based model as flipped classroom model promotes active learning by encouraging students to work on in collaborative tasks and peer-led learning during the class-time. However, success of flipped classrooms relies on students’ ability and their attitudes towards collaboration and group work. This paper examines: 1) Students’ attitudes towards collaborative learning; 2) Main challenges to successful collaboration from students’ experience and 3) Students’ perception of criteria for successful team work. 4) Recommendations for enhancing collaborative learning. This study’s methodology involves quantitative analysis of surveys collected from students enrolled in undergraduate Architecture program at Qatar University. Analysis indicates that in general students enrolled in the program do not have positive perceptions or experiences associated with group work. Positive and negative factors that influence collaborative learning in higher education have been identified. Recommendations for improving collaborative work experience have been proposed.

Keywords: Higher Education, Female, Middle East, Architecture, Collaborative Learning, Student Experience, Qatar, group work

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8 The Role of Situational Attribution Training in Reducing Automatic In-Group Stereotyping in Females

Authors: Olga Mironiuk, Małgorzata Kossowska


The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Situational Attribution Training on reducing automatic in-group stereotyping in females. The experiment was conducted with the control of age and level of prejudice. 90 female participants were randomly assigned to two conditions: experimental and control group (each group was also divided into younger- and older-aged condition). Participants from the experimental condition were subjected to more extensive training. In the first part of the experiment, the experimental group took part in the first session of Situational Attribution Training while the control group participated in the Grammatical Training Control. In the second part of the research both groups took part in the Situational Attribution Training (which was considered as the second training session for the experimental group and the first one for the control condition). The training procedure was based on the descriptions of ambiguous situations which could be explained using situational or dispositional attributions. The participant’s task was to choose the situational explanation from two alternatives, out of which the second one presented the explanation based on neutral or stereotypically associated with women traits. Moreover, the experimental group took part in the third training session after two- day time delay, in order to check the persistence of the training effect. The main hypothesis stated that among participants taking part in the more extensive training, the automatic in-group stereotyping would be less frequent after having finished training sessions. The effectiveness of the training was tested by measuring the response time and the correctness of answers: the longer response time for the examples where one of two possible answers was based on the stereotype trait and higher correctness of answers was considered to be a proof of the training effectiveness. As the participants’ level of prejudice was controlled (using the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory), it was also assumed that the training effect would be weaker for participants revealing a higher level of prejudice. The obtained results did not confirm the hypothesis based on the response time: participants from the experimental group responded faster in case of situations where one of the possible explanations was based on stereotype trait. However, an interesting observation was made during the analysis of the answers’ correctness: regardless the condition and age group affiliation, participants made more mistakes while choosing the situational explanations when the alternative was based on stereotypical trait associated with the dimension of warmth. What is more, the correctness of answers was higher in the third training session for the experimental group in case when the alternative of situational explanation was based on the stereotype trait associated with the dimension of competence. The obtained results partially confirm the effectiveness of the training.

Keywords: Female, Prejudice, in-group stereotyping, situational attribution training

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7 Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infection of Korean Adolescent Females: Analysis of Pooled Data from Korean Nationwide Survey

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee, Minji Je


Objectives: In adolescence, adolescents are curious about sex, but sexual experience before becoming an adult can cause the risk of high probability of sexually transmitted infection. Therefore, it is very important to prevent sexually transmitted infections so that adolescents can grow in healthy and upright way. Adolescent females, especially, have sexual behavior distinguished from that of male adolescents. Protecting female adolescents’ reproductive health is even more important since it is directly related to the childbirth of the next generation. This study, thus, investigated the predictors of sexually transmitted infection in adolescent females with sexual experiences based on the National Health Statistics in Korea. Methods: This study was conducted based on the National Health Statistics in Korea. The 11th Korea Youth Behavior Web-based Survey in 2016 was conducted in the type of anonymous self-reported survey in order to find out the health behavior of adolescents. The target recruitment group was middle and high school students nationwide as of April 2016, and 65,528 students from a total of 800 middle and high schools participated. The study was conducted in 537 female high school students (Grades 10–12) among them. The collected data were analyzed as complex sampling design using SPSS statistics 22. The strata, cluster, weight, and finite population correction provided by Korea Center for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) were reflected to constitute complex sample design files, which were used in the statistical analysis. The analysis methods included Rao-Scott chi-square test, complex samples general linear model, and complex samples multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of 537 female adolescents, 11.9% (53 adolescents) had experiences of venereal infection. The predictors for venereal infection of the subjects were ‘age at first intercourse’ and ‘sexual intercourse after drinking’. The sexually transmitted infection of the subjects was decreased by 0.31 times (p=.006, 95%CI=0.13-0.71) for middle school students and 0.13 times (p<.001, 95%CI=0.05-0.32) for high school students whereas the age of the first sexual experience was under elementary school age. In addition, the sexually transmitted infection of the subjects was 3.54 times (p < .001, 95%CI=1.76-7.14) increased when they have experience of sexual relation after drinking alcohol, compared to those without the experience of sexual relation after drinking alcohol. Conclusions: The female adolescents had high probability of sexually transmitted infection if their age for the first sexual experience was low. Therefore, the female adolescents who start sexual experience earlier shall have practical sex education appropriate for their developmental stage. In addition, since the sexually transmitted infection increases, if they have sexual relations after drinking alcohol, the consideration for prevention of alcohol use or intervention of sex education shall be required. When health education intervention is conducted for health promotion for female adolescents in the future, it is necessary to reflect the result of this study.

Keywords: Female, Adolescent, sexually transmitted diseases, coitus

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6 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Problem Alcohol Use in Women: Systematic Analysis

Authors: Neringa Bagdonaitė


Study Aims: The current study aimed to systematically analyse various research done in the area of female post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse, and to critically review these results on the basis of theoretical models as well as answer following questions: (I) What is the reciprocal relationship between PTSD and problem alcohol use among females; (II) What are the moderating/mediating factors of this relationship? Methods: The computer bibliographic databases Ebsco, Scopus, Springer, Web of Science, Medline, Science Direct were used to search for scientific articles. Systematic analyses sample consisted of peer-reviewed, English written articles addressing mixed gender and female PTSD and alcohol abuse issues from Jan 2012 to May 2017. Results: Total of 1011 articles were found in scientific databases related to searched keywords of which 29 met the selection criteria and were analysed. The results of longitudinal studies indicate that (I) various trauma, especially interpersonal trauma exposure in childhood is linked with increased risk of revictimization in later life and problem alcohol use; (II) revictimization in adolescence or adulthood, rather than victimization in childhood has a greater impact on the onset and progression of problematic alcohol use in adulthood. Cross-sectional and epidemiological studies also support significant relationships between female PTSD and problem alcohol use. Regards to the negative impact of alcohol use on PTSD symptoms results are yet controversial; some evidence suggests that alcohol does not exacerbate symptoms of PTSD over time, while others argue that problem alcohol use worsens PTSD symptoms and is linked to chronicity of both disorders, especially among women with previous alcohol use problems. Analysis of moderating/mediating factors of PTSD and problem alcohol use revealed, that higher motives/expectancies, specifically distress coping motives for alcohol use significantly moderates the relationship between PTSD and problematic alcohol use. Whereas negative affective states mediate relationship between symptoms of PTSD and alcohol use, but only among woman with alcohol use problems already developed. Conclusions: Interpersonal trauma experience, especially in childhood and its reappearance in lifetime is linked with PTSD symptoms and problem drinking among women. Moreover, problem alcohol use can be both a cause and a consequence of trauma and PTSD, and if used for coping it, increases the likelihood of chronicity of both disorders. In order to effectively treat both disorders, it’s worthwhile taking into account this dynamic interplay of women's PTSD symptoms and problem drinking.

Keywords: Trauma, Female, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, problem alcohol use, systemic analysis

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5 The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women

Authors: Kelsey Scanlon


Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: Power, Female, anaerobic, athlete

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4 Influences on Female Gender Identity and Role in Pre-School, Saudi Arabian: Analyzing Children's Perspectives through Narratives and Teachers' Pedagogies

Authors: Mona Alzahrani


Microworld theories can help to define the many influences on female development. In this research, theories together with narratives have been used to discover the reality of children’s gender perceptions in Saudi Arabia. Today, Saudi Arabia is considered a ‘closed and conserved’ society due to tribal, cultural and religious factors. This study focuses on how young girls in Saudi Arabia learn about what is expected of them as females. Cultural beliefs and experiences contribute to children’s notions of identity. Moreover, significant others such as more experienced peers, teachers, parents, and other members of a society can influence a child’s development of knowledge through interactions within their social world. There are dominant influences from the Saudi State. These influences have very strong devices and perceptions of what or how a female should act and be. However, children may have other viewpoints, as it also needs to be considered that the Internet and other media sources could have an influence. Consequently, difficulties could exist for these young children to feel an authentic sense of belonging. The study gathered data using a multi-method approach that elicited the perspectives of the children using ‘multiple modes of expression’ such as observations, story-telling, picture prompt cards, group interviews, drawings and annotations. For this study, prompts and a book was devised, specifically, for use in a Saudi setting. It was found that Saudi young girls in preschool were heteronomous, mainly influenced by culture and society, in their perceptions of female gender and role.

Keywords: Gender, Female, Identity, Teachers, Saudi Arabia, Pre-school, role

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3 Everyday Life Information Seeking among Female Students: A Survey of University and Private Hostels at Lahore

Authors: Muhammad Waqas, Nisar Ahmad, Sadaf Rafiq, Shakeel Ahmad Khan


Everyday life information seeking (ELIS) is considered as the mastery of life. It plays an important role in daily problem solving activities. Female students living in university hostels need variety of information to fulfil their everyday information needs. To find accurate and timely information is really challenging for females students who move from rural areas for educational purposes. These challenges involve culture differences, stress, financial issues, homesickness, diet needs and change in sleeping and eating habits. These complications create numerous problems for female students to adjust themselves in new and unfamiliar environment. Although the Internet has increased the ease of seeking everyday life information to survive successfully but there is still uncertainty to fully rely on the quality of information available on the web. Pakistan is an underdeveloped country where limited budget is allocated for educational institutions to enable them in developing well established hostels for their students. Female students who pursue for higher education has to stay at hostels for years to obtain education goals. It really becomes very difficult for them to spend life in hostels if they are not properly facilitated with relevant information sources to acquire everyday life information. The proposed study attempts to investigate the everyday life information seeking behavior of female students who are living in university and private hostels of Lahore. It investigates the various sources of information used by female students. It also identifies the problems faced by the female students in accessing everyday life information. The results of this study will be helpful for university management to understand their information need and provide required information sources which are essential for them to spend a comfortable, successful and peaceful life in hostels and achieve their educational goals. To achieve the objectives of the study, we will use quantitative research approach by using questionnaire as a data collection tool. The population of this study will be the university students living in public and private hostels of Lahore, Pakistan. This study will increase the understanding of everyday life information seeking behavior of female students living in hostels. Results of the study will be helpful for hostel administrations to better understand the students’ everyday life information needs and provide high quality of information services and living environment.

Keywords: Female, Information Seeking, hostel, everyday

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2 Cognitive Behavior Therapy with a Migrant Pakistani in Malaysia: A Single Case Study of Conversion Disorder

Authors: Fahad R. Choudhry., Khadeeja Munawar


This clinical case presents a 24 years old, Muslim Pakistani girl with a history of conversion disorder. Her symptoms comprised fits, restlessness, numbness in legs, poor coordination and balance, burning during urination and retention. A cognitive-behavioral model was used for conceptualizing her problem and devising a management plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted coping statements. She took 13 therapy sessions and was presented with idiosyncratic case conceptualization. Psychoeducation, coping statements, extinction, verbal challenging, and behavioral activation techniques were practiced in a collaborative way for cognitive restructuring of the client. Focus of terminal sessions was on anger management. The client needed a couple of more sessions in order to help her manage her anger. However, the therapy was terminated on the part of the client after attainment of short term goals. The client reported to have a 75 % improvement in her overall condition and remained compliant throughout the therapy.

Keywords: Female, Cognitive behavioral therapy, muslim, pakistani, conversion disorder

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1 Understanding Music through the Framework of Feminist Confessional Literary Criticism: Heightening Audience Identification and Prioritising the Female Voice

Authors: Katharine Pollock


Feminist scholars assert that a defining aspect of feminist confessional literature is that it expresses both an individual and communal identity, one which is predicated on the commonly-shared aspects of female experience. Reading feminist confessional literature in this way accommodates a plurality of readerly experiences and textual interpretations. It affirms the individual whilst acknowledging those experiences which bind women together, and refuses traditional objective criticism. It invites readers to see themselves reflected in the text, and encourages them to share their own stories. Similarly, music which communicates women’s personal experience, fictive or not, expresses a dual identity. There is an inherent risk of imposing a confessional reading upon a musical or literary text. Understanding music as being multivocal in the same way as confessional literature negates this patriarchal tendency, and allows listeners to engage with both the subjective and collective aspects of a text. By hearing their own stories reflected in the music, listeners engage in an ongoing dialogic process in which female stories are prioritised. This refuses patriarchal silencing and ensures a diversity of female voices. To demonstrate the veracity of these claims, literary criticism is applied to Lily Allen’s music, and memoir My Thoughts Exactly.

Keywords: Music, Literature, Female, Feminist, confession

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