Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

female entrepreneurship Related Abstracts

7 Female Entrepreneurship in Transitional Economies: An In-Depth Comparative Study about Challenges Facing Female Entrepreneurs in Nigeria and Egypt

Authors: Dina Mohamed Ayman, Rafieu Akin


In an attempt to increase the female total entrepreneurial activities (TEA) within Egypt and Nigeria, this paper aims to investigate the challenges facing female entrepreneurs operating in Egypt, in relative to Nigeria. In this regard, both researchers undertook a qualitative approach due to the scarcity of the literature reviewed on the topic; in those particular countries, and as an in-depth comparative mode. Therefore, ten Egyptian entrepreneurs in relative to ten Nigerian entrepreneurs were in-depth investigated. The research findings prove that female entrepreneurs face complex problems for being both gender and country-specific. Regarding the gender-specific obstacles, the work/life imbalance due to the scarcity of child-care nurseries and the prevalence of the gender-role division while performing the house chores rather than the concept of co-operation, acted as a main source of cultural challenge because women are considered mostly as 'housewives'. However, interestingly, this specific gender-discrimination challenge is proven to have no grounded effect in terms of the business-establishment and daily dealings neither in Egypt nor Nigeria, as one of the sample exclaimed 'as long as you pay, then no gender difference is set on the table'. Other country-specific challenges facing female entrepreneurs, lied in, the aggregate weak entrepreneurial framework governing both countries, also, women faced the difficulty of access to financial institutions with collateral requirements that are usually "hardly to be met", besides, the absence of the "micro-credit-Grameen-banks" concept. As well, the scarcity of incubators and business training centers providing network, consultancy and well-trained workforce to female entrepreneurs constitute a major hurdle for women entrepreneurs operating in both countries. Finally, this paper will conclude the research by offering a set of public-policy recommendations to pave the way for females to choose self-employment as a career path.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Culture, micro-credit, obstacles, female entrepreneurship, framework conditions

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6 The Impact of Socio – Cultural Factors on Female Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Algeria

Authors: Nesrine Bouguerra


Entrepreneurship is seen as a necessary ingredient for stimulating economic growth and employment opportunities in all societies. SMEs account for a wide share of economic activity and development. they are the primary engine of job creation, income growth and poverty reduction. Indeed, government support for entrepreneurship is a strategic option to foster economic growth and females’ input in this regard, is of equal significance not only for employability and productivity but also to narrow the gender gap created by social attitudes and beliefs. This study investigates the impact of socio–cultural factors, among other barriers on female entrepreneurial intention in Algeria. Data will be collected using a mixed method approach (Questionnaires and Interviews) from women intending to become entrepreneurs and those already in the field. This study has conceptual, theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of entrepreneurship which will be unveiled throughout.

Keywords: Women, SMEs, barriers, female entrepreneurship, socio –cultural values

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5 Corporate Female Entrepreneurship, Moving Boundaries

Authors: Morena Paulišić, Marli Gonan Bozac


Business organization and management in theory are typically presented as gender- neutral. Although in practice female contribution to corporation is not questionable, gender diversity in top management of corporation is and that especially in emerging countries like Croatia. This paper brings insights into obstacles and problems which should be overcome. Furthermore, gives an introspective view on the most important promotion and motivation factors of powerful female CEOs in Croatia. The goal was to clarify perception and performance of female CEOs that contributed to their success and to determine mutual characteristics of women in corporate entrepreneurship regarding the motivation. For our study we used survey instrument that was developed for this research. The research methods used were: table research, field research, generalization method, comparative method, and statistical method (descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test). Some result showed us that today even more women in corporations are not likely to accept more engagement at work if it harms their families (2003 – 31.9% in 2013 – 33.8%) although their main motivating factor is still interested job (2003 – 95.8%; in 2013-100%). It is also significant that 78.8 % of Croatian top managers (2013) think that women managers in Croatia are insufficiently spoken and written about, and that the reasons for this are that: (1) the society underestimates their ability (37.9%); (2) women underestimate themselves (22.4%); (3) the society still mainly focuses on male managers (20.7%) and (4) women managers avoid interviews and appearing on front pages (19%). The environment still “blocks” the natural course of advancement of women managers in organisations (entrepreneurship in general) and the main obstacle is that women must always or almost always be more capable than men in order to succeed (96.6%). Based on survey results on longitudinal research conducted in 2003 (return rate 30,8%) and 2013 (return rate 29,2%) in Croatia we expand understanding of determination indicators of corporate female entrepreneurship. Theoretically in practice gender structure at the management level (executive management, management board and supervisory board) throw years (2011- 2014) have positive score but still women remain significantly underrepresented at those positions. Findings from different sources have shown that diversity at the top of corporations’ correlates with better performance. In this paper, we have contributed to research on gender in corporate entrepreneurship by offering experiences from successful female CEOs and explanation why in social responsible society women with their characteristics can support needed changes and construct different way forward for corporations. Based on research result we can conclude that in future underrepresentation of female in corporate entrepreneurship should be overcome.

Keywords: Motivation, Croatia, female entrepreneurship, glass ceiling

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4 Female Entrepreneurship in the Creative Industry: The Antecedents of Their Ventures' Performance

Authors: Naoum Mylonas, Eugenia Petridou


Objectives: The objectives of this research are firstly, to develop an integrated model of predicting factors to new ventures performance, taking into account certain issues and specificities related to creative industry and female entrepreneurship based on the prior research; secondly, to determine the appropriate measures of venture performance in a creative industry context, drawing upon previous surveys; thirdly, to illustrate the importance of entrepreneurial orientation, networking ties, environment dynamism and access to financial capital on new ventures performance. Prior Work: An extant review of the creative industry literature highlights the special nature of entrepreneurship in this field. Entrepreneurs in creative industry share certain specific characteristics and intensions, such as to produce something aesthetic, to enrich their talents and their creativity, and to combine their entrepreneurial with their artistic orientation. Thus, assessing venture performance and success in creative industry entails an examination of how creative people or artists conceptualize success. Moreover, female entrepreneurs manifest more positive attitudes towards sectors primarily based on creativity, rather than innovation in which males outbalance. As creative industry entrepreneurship based mainly on the creative personality of the creator / artist, a high interest is accrued to examine female entrepreneurship in the creative industry. Hypotheses development: H1a: Female entrepreneurs who are more entrepreneurially-oriented show a higher financial performance. H1b: Female entrepreneurs who are more artistically-oriented show a higher creative performance. H2: Female entrepreneurs who have personality that is more creative perform better. H3: Female entrepreneurs who participate in or belong to networks perform better. H4: Female entrepreneurs who have been consulted by a mentor perform better. Η5a: Female entrepreneurs who are motivated more by pull-factors perform better. H5b: Female entrepreneurs who are motivated more by push-factors perform worse. Approach: A mixed method triangulation design has been adopted for the collection and analysis of data. The data are collected through a structured questionnaire for the quantitative part and through semi-structured interviews for the qualitative part as well. The sample is 293 Greek female entrepreneurs in the creative industry. Main findings: All research hypotheses are accepted. The majority of creative industry entrepreneurs evaluate themselves in creative performance terms rather than financial ones. The individuals who are closely related to traditional arts sectors have no EO but also evaluate themselves highly in terms of venture performance. Creative personality of creators is appeared as the most important predictor of venture performance. Pull factors in accordance with our hypothesis lead to higher levels of performance compared to push factors. Networking and mentoring are viewed as very important, particularly now during the turbulent economic environment in Greece. Implications-Value: Our research provides an integrated model with several moderating variables to predict ventures performance in the creative industry, taking also into account the complicated nature of arts and the way artists and creators define success. At the end, the findings may be used for the appropriate design of educational programs in creative industry entrepreneurship. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: Networks, creative industry, female entrepreneurship, venture performance

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3 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy

Authors: Amir Ikram, Muhammad Fiaz, Qin Su, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir


Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.

Keywords: Leadership, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, cultural challenges

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2 Female Entrepreneurship and Cultural Influence in Emerging Economy: The Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Abeer Hassan, Nawreen Sobhan, Dina Nziku


There has been a dramatic rise in the percentage of female entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries as it is now considering as an important source of economic growth. Therefore, there has been a growing research interest in female entrepreneurship as they represent an unrecognized engine for economic growth especially in transition economy. This study will determine the role of cultural influence on female entrepreneurship in the growth of economic development which will add new dimensions to the field of female entrepreneurial studies in informal sector of Bangladesh. A systematic literature review has been conducted on female entrepreneurship and cultural studies in both developed and developing country in this research study. There is lack of research on this field as most of the cultural studies on female entrepreneurship have been conducted globally and most of them are either comparative or based on single developed country. This study addresses this gap by using North’s institutional theory to investigate the influence of socio cultural factors on the development of businesses run by female entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. The study, therefore, has practical implications for policy makers and enhancing micro business performance by female entrepreneurs and contributes to the on-going theoretical understanding of cultural influence in female entrepreneurship in an Asian context.

Keywords: Culture, female entrepreneurship, socio cultural factors, informal sectors, formal and informal institution and sustainable economic development

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1 Female Entrepreneurship in Egypt: Barriers and Challenges in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring

Authors: Kate Ebere Maduforo


Examining the constraints faced by female entrepreneurs is an important subject which most literature on female entrepreneurship is centered on. However, the majority of the existing literature has focused on studying female entrepreneurs in developed societies. Recently, a sense of urgency that has emerged in trying to understand the challenges and motivations of female entrepreneurs in developing countries. The arousal of such interest has been attributed to women entrepreneurs in developing countries being identified as catalysts of economic development at a national level and champions of poverty eradication at the domestic level. This paper, therefore, examines the peculiar constraints faced by women-owned businesses in the mist of political chaos and instability. In this case, the issues experienced by female entrepreneurs in Egypt during the aftermath of the Arab Spring is the focus. Using the logit and probit regression models, data from the World Bank Middle East North Africa Enterprise Survey (MENA ES) are analyzed. The results identified that female entrepreneurs still lack business funding through financial institutions, but get significant funding assistance from family, friends, and money lenders. In addition, women-owned businesses promote and hire mostly women. Female entrepreneurs showed a preference for an impartial judicial system as a contributor to business growth.

Keywords: Development, Middle East, developing countries, female entrepreneurship

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