Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

feasibility Related Abstracts

8 Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of a PV/Wind/ Battery Hybrid Energy Conversion

Authors: Doaa M. Atia, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. A. El-Rahman, Hassan T. Dorra

Abstract:

In this paper, the optimum design for renewable energy system powered an aquaculture pond was determined. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software program, which is developed by U.S National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is used for analyzing the feasibility of the stand-alone and hybrid system in this study. HOMER program determines whether renewable energy resources satisfy hourly electric demand or not. The program calculates energy balance for every 8760 hours in a year to simulate operation of the system. This optimization compares the demand for the electrical energy for each hour of the year with the energy supplied by the system for that hour and calculates the relevant energy flow for each component in the model. The essential principle is to minimize the total system cost while HOMER ensures control of the system. Moreover the feasibility analysis of the energy system is also studied. Wind speed, solar irradiance, interest rate and capacity shortage are the parameters which are taken into consideration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best choice in this study, yielding lower net present cost. Thus, it provides higher system performance than PV or wind stand-alone systems.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, Hybrid System, wind stand-alone system, photovoltaic stand-alone system, optimum system sizing, feasibility

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7 Feasibilty and Penetration of Electric Vehicles in Indian Power Grid

Authors: Kashyap L. Mokariya, Varsha A. Shah, Makarand M. Lokhande

Abstract:

As the current status and growth of Indian automobile industry is remarkable, transportation sectors are the main concern in terms of Energy security and climate change. Rising demand of fuel and its dependency on other countries affects the GDP of nation. So in this context if the 10 percent of vehicle got operated in Electrical mode how much saving in terms of Rs and in terms of liters is achieved has been analyzed which is also a part of Nations Electric mobility mission plan. Analysis is also done for converting unit consumption of Electricity of Electric vehicle into equivalent fuel consumption in liters which shows that at present tariff rate Electrical operated vehicles are far more beneficial. It also gives benchmark to the authorities to set the tariff rate for Electrical vehicles. Current situation of Indian grid is shown and how the Gap between Generation and Demand can be reduced is analyzed in terms of increasing generation capacity and Energy Conservation measures. As the certain regions of country is facing serious deficit than how to take energy conservation measures in Industry and especially in rural areas where generally Energy Auditing is not carried out that is analyzed in context of Electric vehicle penetration in near future. Author was a part of Vishvakarma yojna where in 255 villages of Gujarat Energy losses were measured and solutions were given to mitigate them and corresponding report to the authorities of villages was delivered.

Keywords: Energy Security, feasibility, vehiclepenetration, Energyconservation, future grid, pf controller

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6 Feasibility Study and Developing Appropriate Hybrid Energy Systems in Regional Level

Authors: Ahmad Rouhani

Abstract:

Iran has several potentials for using renewable energies, so use them could significantly contribute to energy supply. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential of the country and select the appropriate DG technologies with consideration the potential and primary energy resources in the regions. In this context, hybrid energy systems proportionate with the potential of different regions will be determined based on technical, economic, and environmental aspect. In the following, the proposed structure will be optimized in terms of size and cost. DG technologies used in this project include the photovoltaic system, wind turbine, diesel generator, and battery bank. The HOMER software is applied for choosing the appropriate structure and the optimization of system sizing. The results have been analyzed in terms of technical and economic. The performance and the cost of each project demonstrate the appropriate structure of hybrid energy system in that region.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Iran, feasibility, hybrid energy system

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5 A Feasibility and Implementation Model of Small-Scale Hydropower Development for Rural Electrification in South Africa: Design Chart Development

Authors: Gideon J. Bonthuys, Marco van Dijk, Jay N. Bhagwan

Abstract:

Small scale hydropower used to play a very important role in the provision of energy to urban and rural areas of South Africa. The national electricity grid, however, expanded and offered cheap, coal generated electricity and a large number of hydropower systems were decommissioned. Unfortunately, large numbers of households and communities will not be connected to the national electricity grid for the foreseeable future due to high cost of transmission and distribution systems to remote communities due to the relatively low electricity demand within rural communities and the allocation of current expenditure on upgrading and constructing of new coal fired power stations. This necessitates the development of feasible alternative power generation technologies. A feasibility and implementation model was developed to assist in designing and financially evaluating small-scale hydropower (SSHP) plants. Several sites were identified using the model. The SSHP plants were designed for the selected sites and the designs for the different selected sites were priced using pricing models (civil, mechanical and electrical aspects). Following feasibility studies done on the designed and priced SSHP plants, a feasibility analysis was done and a design chart developed for future similar potential SSHP plant projects. The methodology followed in conducting the feasibility analysis for other potential sites consisted of developing cost and income/saving formulae, developing net present value (NPV) formulae, Capital Cost Comparison Ratio (CCCR) and levelised cost formulae for SSHP projects for the different types of plant installations. It included setting up a model for the development of a design chart for a SSHP, calculating the NPV, CCCR and levelised cost for the different scenarios within the model by varying different parameters within the developed formulae, setting up the design chart for the different scenarios within the model and analyzing and interpreting results. From the interpretation of the develop design charts for feasible SSHP in can be seen that turbine and distribution line cost are the major influences on the cost and feasibility of SSHP. High head, short transmission line and islanded mini-grid SSHP installations are the most feasible and that the levelised cost of SSHP is high for low power generation sites. The main conclusion from the study is that the levelised cost of SSHP projects indicate that the cost of SSHP for low energy generation is high compared to the levelised cost of grid connected electricity supply; however, the remoteness of SSHP for rural electrification and the cost of infrastructure to connect remote rural communities to the local or national electricity grid provides a low CCCR and renders SSHP for rural electrification feasible on this basis.

Keywords: Cost, Rural Electrification, feasibility, small-scale hydropower

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4 The Growth of E-Commerce and Online Dispute Resolution in Developing Nations: An Analysis

Authors: Robin V. Cupido

Abstract:

Online dispute resolution has been identified in many countries as a viable alternative for resolving conflicts which have arisen in the so-called digital age. This system of dispute resolution is developing alongside the Internet, and as new types of transactions are made possible by our increased connectivity, new ways of resolving disputes must be explored. Developed nations, such as the United States of America and the European Union, have been involved in creating these online dispute resolution mechanisms from the outset, and currently have sophisticated systems in place to deal with conflicts arising in a number of different fields, such as e-commerce, domain name disputes, labour disputes and conflicts arising from family law. Specifically, in the field of e-commerce, the Internet’s borderless nature has served as a way to promote cross-border trade, and has created a global marketplace. Participation in this marketplace boosts a country’s economy, as new markets are now available, and consumers can transact from anywhere in the world. It would be especially advantageous for developing nations to be a part of this global marketplace, as it could stimulate much-needed investment in these nations, and encourage international co-operation and trade. However, for these types of transactions to proliferate, an effective system for resolving the inevitable disputes arising from such an increase in e-commerce is needed. Online dispute resolution scholarship and practice is flourishing in developed nations, and it is clear that the gap is widening between developed and developing nations in this regard. The potential for implementing online dispute resolution in developing countries has been discussed, but there are a number of obstacles that have thus far prevented its continued development. This paper aims to evaluate the various political, infrastructural and socio-economic challenges faced in developing nations, and to question how these have impacted the acceptance and development of online dispute resolution, scholarship and training of online dispute resolution practitioners and, ultimately, developing nations’ readiness to participate in cross-border e-commerce.

Keywords: developing countries, feasibility, progress, online dispute resolution

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3 Feasibility and Acceptability of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in People with Depression and Cardiovascular Disorders: A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Modi Alsubaie, Chris Dickens, Barnaby Dunn, Andy Gibson, Obioha Ukoumunned, Alison Evans, Rachael Vicary, Manish Gandhi, Willem Kuyken

Abstract:

Background: Depression co-occurs in 20% of people with cardiovascular disorders, can persist for years and predicts worse physical health outcomes. While psychosocial treatments have been shown to effectively treat acute depression in those with comorbid cardiovascular disorders, to date there has been no evaluation of approaches aiming to prevent relapse and treat residual depression symptoms in this group. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial design evaluating an adapted version of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) designed specifically for people with co-morbid depression and cardiovascular disorders. Methods: A 3-arm feasibility randomised controlled trial was conducted, comparing MBCT adapted for people with cardiovascular disorders plus treatment as usual (TAU), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) plus TAU, and TAU alone. Participants completed a set of self-report measures of depression severity, anxiety, quality of life, illness perceptions, mindfulness, self-compassion and affect and had their blood pressure taken immediately before, immediately after, and three months following the intervention. Those in the adapted-MBCT arm additionally underwent a qualitative interview to gather their views about the adapted intervention. Results: 3400 potentially eligible participants were approached when attending an outpatient appointment at a cardiology clinic or via a GP letter following a case note search. 242 (7.1%) were interested in taking part, 59 (1.7%) were screened as being suitable, and 33 (<1%) were eventually randomised to the three groups. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of whether they reported current depression or had a history of depression and the time since the onset of cardiovascular disease (one to 25 years). Of 11 participants randomised to adapted MBCT seven completed the full course, levels of home mindfulness practice were high, and positive qualitative feedback about the intervention was given. Twenty-nine out of 33 participants randomised completed all the assessment measures at all three-time points. With regards to the primary outcome (depression), five out of the seven people who completed the adapted MBCT and three out of five under MBSR showed significant clinical change, while in TAU no one showed any clinical change at the three-month follow-up. Conclusions: The adapted MBCT intervention was feasible and acceptable to participants. However, aspects of the trial design were not feasible. In particular, low recruitment rates were achieved, and there was a high withdrawal rate between screening and randomisation. Moreover, the heterogeneity in the sample was high meaning the adapted intervention was unlikely to be well tailored to all participants needs. This suggests that if the decision is made to move to a definitive trial, study recruitment procedures will need to be revised to more successfully recruit a target sample that optimally matches the adapted intervention.

Keywords: Depression, Cardiovascular Disorders, feasibility, acceptability, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)

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2 Successful Optimization of a Shallow Marginal Offshore Field and Its Applications

Authors: Kumar Satyam Das, Murali Raghunathan

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This note discusses the feasibility of field development of a challenging shallow offshore field in South East Asia and how its learnings can be applied to marginal field development across the world especially developing marginal fields in this low oil price world. The field was found to be economically challenging even during high oil prices and the project was put on hold. Shell started development study with the aim to significantly reduce cost through competitively scoping and revive stranded projects. The proposed strategy to achieve this involved Improve Per platform recovery and Reduction in CAPEX. Methodology: Based on various Benchmarking Tool such as Woodmac for similar projects in the region and economic affordability, a challenging target of 50% reduction in unit development cost (UDC) was set for the project. Technical scope was defined to the minimum as to be a wellhead platform with minimum functionality to ensure production. The evaluation of key project decisions like Well location and number, well design, Artificial lift methods and wellhead platform type under different development concept was carried out through integrated multi-discipline approach. Key elements influencing per platform recovery were Wellhead Platform (WHP) location, Well count, well reach and well productivity. Major Findings: Reservoir being shallow posed challenges in well design (dog-leg severity, casing size and the achievable step-out), choice of artificial lift and sand-control method. Integrated approach amongst relevant disciplines with challenging mind-set enabled to achieve optimized set of development decisions. This led to significant improvement in per platform recovery. It was concluded that platform recovery largely depended on the reach of the well. Choice of slim well design enabled designing of high inclination and better productivity wells. However, there is trade-off between high inclination Gas Lift (GL) wells and low inclination wells in terms of long term value, operational complexity, well reach, recovery and uptime. Well design element like casing size, well completion, artificial lift and sand control were added successively over the minimum technical scope design leading to a value and risk staircase. Logical combinations of options (slim well, GL) were competitively screened to achieve 25% reduction in well cost. Facility cost reduction was achieved through sourcing standardized Low Cost Facilities platform in combination with portfolio execution to maximizing execution efficiency; this approach is expected to reduce facilities cost by ~23% with respect to the development costs. Further cost reductions were achieved by maximizing use of existing facilities nearby; changing reliance on existing water injection wells and utilizing existing water injector (W.I.) platform for new injectors. Conclusion: The study provides a spectrum of technically feasible options. It also made clear that different drivers lead to different development concepts and the cost value trade off staircase made this very visible. Scoping of the project through competitive way has proven to be valuable for decision makers by creating a transparent view of value and associated risks/uncertainty/trade-offs for difficult choices: elements of the projects can be competitive, whilst other parts will struggle, even though contributing to significant volumes. Reduction in UDC through proper scoping of present projects and its benchmarking paves as a learning for the development of marginal fields across the world, especially in this low oil price scenario. This way of developing a field has on average a reduction of 40% of cost for the Shell projects.

Keywords: Benchmarking, feasibility, capex, full field development

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1 Assessing the Feasibility of Commercial Meat Rabbit Production in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

Authors: Nana Segu Acquaah-Harrison, James Osei Mensah, Richard Aidoo, David Amponsah, Amy Buah, Gilbert Aboagye

Abstract:

The study aimed at assessing the feasibility of commercial meat rabbit production in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. Structured and unstructured questionnaires were utilized in obtaining information from two hundred meat consumers and 15 meat rabbit farmers. Data were analyzed using Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)/Profitability Index (PI) technique, percentages and chi-square contingency test. The study found that the current demand for rabbit meat is low (36%). The desirable nutritional attributes of rabbit meat and other socio economic factors of meat consumers make the potential demand for rabbit meat high (69%). It was estimated that GH¢5,292 (approximately $ 2672) was needed as a start-up capital for a 40-doe unit meat rabbit farm in Kumasi Metropolis. The cost of breeding animals, housing and equipment formed 12.47%, 53.97% and 24.87% respectively of the initial estimated capital. A Net Present Value of GH¢ 5,910.75 (approximately $ 2984) was obtained at the end of the fifth year, with an internal rate return and profitability index of 70% and 1.12 respectively. The major constraints identified in meat rabbit production were low price of rabbit meat, shortage of fodder, pest and diseases, high cost of capital, high cost of operating materials and veterinary care. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that meat rabbit production is feasible in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The study recommends embarking on mass advertisement; farmer association and adapting to new technologies in the production process will help to enhance productivity.

Keywords: Production, feasibility, Ghana, commercial meat rabbit, Kumasi

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