Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

FDI Related Abstracts

18 Exchange Rate, Market Size and Human Capital Nexus Foreign Direct Investment: A Bound Testing Approach for Pakistan

Authors: Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Mian Saqib Mehmood, Asif Mehmood


This study investigates the motivators of foreign direct investment (FDI) which will provide a panacea tool and ground breaking results related to it in case of Pakistan. The study considers exchange rate, market size and human capital as the motivators for attracting FDI. In this regard, time series data on annual basis has been collected for the period 1985–2010 and an Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root tests are utilized to determine the stationarity of the variables. A bound testing approach to co-integration was applied because the variables included in the model are at I(1) – first level stationary. The empirical findings of this study confirm the long run relationship among the variables. However, market size and human capital have strong positive and significant impact, in short and long-run, for attracting FDI but exchange rate shows negative impact in this regard. The significant negative coefficient of the ECM indicates that it converges towards equilibrium. CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests plots are with in the lines of critical value, which indicates the stability of the estimated parameters. However, this model can be used by Pakistan in policy and decision making. For achieving higher economic growth and economies of scale, the country should concentrate on the ingredients of this study so that it could attract more FDI as compared to the other countries.

Keywords: Human Capital, Pakistan, Market Size, ARDL, exchange rate, CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests, ECM, FDI

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17 The Vulnerability of a Small, Open Economy in a Situation of Global Fiscal Crisis: The Impact of the Greek Debt Crisis on the Foreign Direct Investments to Macedonia

Authors: Viktorija Mano


The objective of my research is to critique the International Monetary Fund (IMF) stance on foreign investment and the benefits for small, open economies of allowing the free movement of capital. In my research as a whole I will explore the extent to which this stance impacted upon and influenced the economic policies of Macedonia. This will involve providing a contextualized, critical account of the policy of the IMF focusing on a comparison of its policies during the early 2000s through policy documents, political discourse and enacted policies in Macedonia. The conditionality associated with these policies, such as the enforcement of austerity measures (including cutting public spending and reducing debt) and the privatization of public institutions has provoked strong reactions in countries which receive such loans. My main focus in my research is on exploring how the process of Financial Liberalization (FL) of the Macedonian economy affected capital flows in the form of foreign direct investments (FDI) in the private sector and how the recent Greek crisis of 2008 has impacted on this. In the case of Macedonia, the reality of FL was tested by the collapse of the Greek economy. However, this paper will highlight the main duties of the IMF and the goals of the FL process implemented in various countries.Additionally, I will undertake a rhetorical documentary analysis on the IMF reports regarding the process of FL in Macedonia since its independence until today.

Keywords: Greece, Macedonia, FDI, financial liberalization, IMF

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16 Financial Development, FDI, and Intellectual Property on Economic Growth in Iran

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Reza Hosseini, Fatemeh Fahimifar, Rouhollah Nazari


Achieving an adaptable rate of economic growth has always been at the forefront of Iran development programs. In order to increase welfare level of the people in the society, all economic and social indices should be improved which is possible just in case of country's economic development and growth. While developing countries has realized the gap between developed countries and developing countries in today's world, a massive movement has been emerged in less developed countries to eliminate this economic gap. Hence this study investigates the effect of financial development, foreign direct investment and intellectual property on Iran's economic growth and taking into account other variables on economic growth such as impact of the share of foreign direct investment on GDP, government consumptive expenditure share of GDP has been paid. Period used in this study is related to the years 1974 to 2009. Also, in this research we have used Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to examine relationship between variables. The results of this study indicate a meaningful and negative impact of financial development, the share of government consumptive expenditure to GDP and similarly, the initial GDP on economic growth. Also, the degree of economy openness, foreign direct investment and intellectual property has a meaningful positive impact on economic growth.

Keywords: Intellectual Property, Economic growth, Financial Development, Iran, FDI

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15 What Does FDI Inflow Mean for Emerging African Economies?

Authors: E.George, P. Ojeaga, O. Matthew, A. Adekola


Can foreign direct investment (FDI), promote growth in Africa? What does the inflow of investment hold for African emerging economies? Are the determinants of FDI different for different regional blocs in Africa? This study reviews the implication of FDI for different regional blocs in Africa. FDI was found to have a significant effect on growth in North Africa but had no significant effect in East, Southern and West Africa. FDI was also found not to be driving growth in the whole of Africa in a significant manner. The implications of the findings are that even though trade openness seems to be a major factor driving FDI. Poor domestic markets were still preventing many African economies from taking full advantage of the gains from foreign direct investment. The study results could be useful to scholars who study the dynamics surrounding FDI disbursement and strategies on how FDI can drive growth in developing countries.

Keywords: Markets, Political Economy, Africa, Regional Policy, FDI

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14 The Impact of FDI on Economic Growth in Algeria

Authors: Mohammed Yagoub


The new orientation to the market economy sponsored by the Algeria government in the early Nineties of the last century, and its desire to develop investment mechanisms and the promotion of development recently, the access into a partnership with the European Union, and the forthcoming accession to the World Trade Organization, foreign direct investment makes one of the most important means of opening up to foreign markets and bring technology and interact with globalization, this article we will discuss the impact of FDI on economic growth in the Algerian.

Keywords: Development, Economic, Markets, Globalization, Displacement, FDI

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13 Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth by Industries in Central and Eastern European Countries

Authors: Shorena Pharjiani


The Present empirical paper investigates the relationship between FDI and economic growth by 10 selected industries in 10 Central and Eastern European countries from the period 1995 to 2012. Different estimation approaches were used to explore the connection between FDI and economic growth, for example OLS, RE, FE with and without time dummies. Obtained empirical results leads to some main consequences: First, the Central and East European countries (CEEC) attracted foreign direct investment, which raised the productivity of industries they entered in. It should be concluded that the linkage between FDI and output growth by industries is positive and significant enough to suggest that foreign firm’s participation enhanced the productivity of the industries they occupied. There had been an endogeneity problem in the regression and fixed effects estimation approach was used which partially corrected the regression analysis in order to make the results less biased. Second, it should be stressed that the results show that time has an important role in making FDI operational for enhancing output growth by industries via total factor productivity. Third, R&D positively affected economic growth and at the same time, it should take some time for research and development to influence economic growth. Fourth, the general trends masked crucial differences at the country level: over the last 20 years, the analysis of the tables and figures at the country level show that the main recipients of FDI of the 11 Central and Eastern European countries were Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. The main reason was that these countries had more open door policies for attracting the FDI. Fifth, according to the graphical analysis, while Hungary had the highest FDI inflow in this region, it was not reflected in the GDP growth as much as in other Central and Eastern European countries.

Keywords: Economic growth, panel data, FDI, central and East European countries (CEEC)

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12 Globalisation, Growth and Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Ourvashi Bissoon


Sub-Saharan Africa in addition to being resource rich is increasingly being seen as having a huge growth potential and as a result, is increasingly attracting MNEs on its soil. To empirically assess the effectiveness of GDP in tracking sustainable resource use and the role played by MNEs in Sub-Saharan Africa, a panel data analysis has been undertaken for 32 countries over thirty-five years. The time horizon spans the period 1980-2014 to reflect the evolution from before the publication of the pioneering Brundtland report on sustainable development to date. Multinationals’ presence is proxied by the level of FDI stocks. The empirical investigation first focuses on the impact of trade openness and MNE presence on the traditional measure of economic growth namely the GDP growth rate, and then on the genuine savings (GS) rate, a measure of weak sustainability developed by the World Bank, which assumes the substitutability between different forms of capital and finally, the impact on the adjusted Net National Income (aNNI), a measure of green growth which caters for the depletion of natural resources is examined. For countries with significant exhaustible natural resources and important foreign investor presence, the adjusted net national income (aNNI) can be a better indicator of economic performance than GDP growth (World Bank, 2010). The issue of potential endogeneity and reverse causality is also addressed in addition to robustness tests. The findings indicate that FDI and openness contribute significantly and positively to the GDP growth of the countries in the sample; however there is a threshold level of institutional quality below which FDI has a negative impact on growth. When the GDP growth rate is substituted for the GS rate, a natural resource curse becomes evident. The rents being generated from the exploitation of natural resources are not being re-invested into other forms of capital namely human and physical capital. FDI and trade patterns may be setting the economies in the sample on a unsustainable path of resource depletion. The resource curse is confirmed when utilising the aNNI as well, thus implying that GDP growth measure may not be a reliable to capture sustainable development.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sub-Saharan Africa, FDI, genuine savings

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11 Fault Detection and Isolation in Sensors and Actuators of Wind Turbines

Authors: Shahrokh Barati, Reza Ramezani


Due to the countries growing attention to the renewable energy producing, the demand for energy from renewable energy has gone up among the renewable energy sources; wind energy is the fastest growth in recent years. In this regard, in order to increase the availability of wind turbines, using of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system is necessary. Wind turbines include of various faults such as sensors fault, actuator faults, network connection fault, mechanical faults and faults in the generator subsystem. Although, sensors and actuators have a large number of faults in wind turbine but have discussed fewer in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we focus our attention to design a sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation algorithm and Fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS) for Wind Turbine. The aim of this research is to propose a comprehensive fault detection and isolation system for sensors and actuators of wind turbine based on data-driven approaches. To achieve this goal, the features of measurable signals in real wind turbine extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extracted features. Features are selected that led to maximum separation networks that implemented in parallel and results of classifiers fused together. In order to maximize the reliability of decision on fault, the property of fault repeatability is used.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind turbines, FDI, sensors and actuators faults

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10 The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth of Ethiopia: Econometrics Cointegration Analysis

Authors: Dejene Gizaw Kidane


This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth of Ethiopia using yearly time-series data for 1974 through 2013. Economic growth is proxies by real per capita gross domestic product and foreign direct investment proxies by the inflow of foreign direct investment. Other control variables such as gross domestic saving, trade, government consumption and inflation has been incorporated. In order to fully account for feedbacks, a vector autoregressive model is utilized. The results show that there is a stable, long-run relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth. The variance decomposition results show that the main sources of Ethiopia economic growth variations are due largely own shocks. The pairwise Granger causality results show that there is a unidirectional causality that runs from FDI to economic growth of Ethiopia. Hence, the researcher therefore recommends that, FDI facilitate economic growth, so the government has to exert much effort in order to attract more FDI into the country.

Keywords: co-integration, granger causality, FDI, VECM, real per capita GDP

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9 FDI, Environmental Regulations and Innovation Performance of Chinese Enterprises

Authors: Yan Chen, Hongbing Li, Ruirui Zhai


Innovation driven and innovation in the process of new-type urbanization is a major strategic choice for the introduction of foreign capital and the process of economic development. This research investigates the effect of urbanization, FDI and environmental regulations on innovation performance of enterprises, based on Chinese Industrial Statistics Database of 2004 to 2007 and data at province-level. It is found that the FDI from U.S. and environmental regulations will hinder the creativity of Chinese industry through reducing the R&D of them. However, the FDI from U.S. enhances the ability of domestic enterprises to attain “compensation from innovation” following the environmental regulations. Meanwhile, we confirm that environmental regulation can contribute to the innovation spillover of FDI from U.S. Furthermore, the channel of effect is discussed. In addition, FDI from EU and Japan are further examined. Unlike the FDI from U.S., the FDI from EU and Japan both have the positive innovation spillover effect, but through the same channel referred above which exist in FDI. Further analysis based on "innovation-driven effect" of urbanization is developed, and it is found that urbanization has an innovation-driven effect on environmental regulation and FDI spillover. The regulation of FDI from the United States and the European Union outperforms the FDI from Japan at a restrained degree.

Keywords: innovation performance, FDI, environmental regulations, innovation-driven

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8 Comparative Study of Iran and Turkey Advantages to Attract Foreign Investors

Authors: Sedigheh Zarei, Alireza Saviz


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an integral part of an open and effective international economic system and a major catalyst to development. Developing countries, emerging economies and countries in transition have come increasingly to see FDI as a source of economic development modernization, income growth and employment. FDI is an important vehicle for the transfer of technology, contributing relatively more to growth than domestic investment. Exploratory research is being conducted here. The data for the study is collected from secondary sources like research papers, journals, websites and reports. This paper aim was to generate knowledge on Iran’s situation through these factors after lifting sanction in comparison to Turkey. Although the most important factors that influence foreign investor decisions vary depending on the countries, sectors, years, and the objective of investor, nowadays governments should pay more attention to human resources education, marketing, infrastructure and administrative process in order to attracting foreign investors. A proper understanding of these findings will help governments to create appropriate policies in order to encourage more foreign investors

Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, competitive advantage, FDI, host country

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7 A Case Study of the Saudi Arabian Investment Regime

Authors: Atif Alenezi


The low global oil price poses economic challenges for Saudi Arabia, as oil revenues still make up a great percentage of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At the end of 2014, the Consultative Assembly considered a report from the Committee on Economic Affairs and Energy which highlights that the economy had not been successfully diversified. There thus exist ample reasons for modernising the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) regime, primarily to achieve and maintain prosperity and facilitate peace in the region. Therefore, this paper aims at identifying specific problems with the existing FDI regime in Saudi Arabia and subsequently some solutions to those problems. Saudi Arabia adopted its first specific legislation in 1956, which imposed significant restrictions on foreign ownership. Since then, Saudi Arabia has modernised its FDI framework with the passing of the Foreign Capital Investment Act 1979 and the Foreign Investment Law2000 and the accompanying Executive Rules 2000 and the recently adopted Implementing Regulations 2014.Nonetheless, the legislative provisions contain various gaps and the failure to address these gaps creates risks and uncertainty for investors. For instance, the important topic of mergers and acquisitions has not been addressed in the Foreign Investment Law 2000. The circumstances in which expropriation can be considered to be in the public interest have not been defined. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has not entered into many bilateral investment treaties (BITs). This has an effect on the investment climate, as foreign investors are not afforded typical rights. An analysis of the BITs which have been entered into reveals that the national treatment standard and stabilisation, umbrella or renegotiation provisions have not been included. This is problematic since the 2000 Act does not spell out the applicable standard in accordance with which foreign investors should be treated. Moreover, the most-favoured-nation (MFN) or fair and equitable treatment (FET) standards have not been put on a statutory footing. Whilst the Arbitration Act 2012 permits that investment disputes can be internationalised, restrictions have been retained. The effectiveness of international arbitration is further undermined because Saudi Arabia does not enforce non-domestic arbitral awards which contravene public policy. Furthermore, the reservation to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes allows Saudi Arabia to exclude petroleum and sovereign disputes. Interviews with foreign investors, who operate in Saudi Arabia highlight additional issues. Saudi Arabia ought not to procrastinate far-reaching structural reforms.

Keywords: Law, FDI, Saudi, BITs

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6 Subsidiary Strategy and Importance of Standards: Re-Interpreting the Integration-Responsiveness Framework

Authors: Jo-Ann Müller


The integration-responsiveness (IR) framework presents four distinct internationalization strategies which differ depending on the extent of pressure the company faces for local responsiveness and global integration. This study applies the framework to standards by examining differences in the relative importance of three types of standards depending on the role the subsidiary plays within the corporate group. Hypotheses are tested empirically in a two-stage procedure. First, the subsidiaries are grouped performing cluster analysis. In the second step, the relationship between cluster affiliation and subsidiary strategy is tested using multinomial Probit estimation. While the level of local responsiveness of a firm relates to the relative importance of national and international formal standards, the degree of vertical integration is associated with the application of internal company.

Keywords: Standards, FDI, firm-level data, subsidiary strategy

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5 Innovation and Economic Growth Model of East Asian Countries: The Adaptability of the Model in Ethiopia

Authors: Khalid Yousuf Ahmed


At the beginning of growth period, East Asian countries achieved impressive economic growth for the decades. They transformed from agricultural economy toward industrialization and contributed to dynamic structural transformation. The achievements were driven by government-led development policies that implemented effective innovation policy to boost technological capability of local firms. Recently, most Sub-Saharan African have been showing sustainable growth. Exceptionally, Ethiopia has been recording double-digit growth for a decade. Hence, Ethiopia has claimed to follow the footstep of East Asia development model. The study is going to examine whether Ethiopia can replicate innovation and economic growth model of East Asia by using Japan, Taiwan, South Korea and China as a case to illustrate their model of growth. This research will be based on empirical data gathering and extended theory of national innovation system and economic growth theory. Moreover, the methodology is based on Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) and also employing cross-countries regression analysis. The results explained that there is a significant relationship between innovation indicators and economic growth in East Asian countries while the relationship is non-existing for Ethiopia except implementing similar policies and achieving similar growth trend. Therefore, Ethiopia needs to introduce inclusive policies that give priority to improving human capital and invest on the knowledge-based economy to replicate East Asian Model.

Keywords: Economic growth, FDI, endogenous growth theory, East Asia model

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4 Role of Institutional Quality as a Key Determinant of FDI Flows in Developing Asian Economies

Authors: Lopamudra D. Satpathy, Bikash Ranjan Mishra


In the wake of the phenomenal surge in international business in the last decades or more, both the developed and developing economies around the world are in massive competition to attract more and more FDI flows. While the developed countries have marched ahead in the race, the developing countries, especially those of Asian economies, have followed them at a rapid pace. While most of the previous studies have analysed the role of institutional quality in the promotion of FDI flows in developing countries, very few studies have taken an integrated approach of examining the comprehensive impact of institutional quality, globalization pattern and domestic financial development on FDI flows. In this context, the paper contributes to the literature in two important ways. Firstly, two composite indices of institutional quality and domestic financial development for the Asian countries are constructed in comparison to earlier studies that resort to a single variable for indicating the institutional quality and domestic financial development. Secondly, the impact of these variables on FDI flows through their interaction with geographical region is investigated. The study uses panel data covering the time period of 1996 to 2012 by selecting twenty Asian developing countries by emphasizing the quality of institutions from the geographical regions of eastern, south-eastern, southern and western Asia. Control of corruption, better rule of law, regulatory quality, effectiveness of the government, political stability and voice and accountability are used as indicators of institutional quality. Besides these, the study takes into account the domestic credits in the hands of public, private sectors and in stock markets as domestic financial indicators. First in the specification of model, a factor analysis is performed to reduce the vast determinants, which are highly correlated with each other, to a manageable size. Afterwards, a reduced version of the model is estimated with the extracted factors in the form of index as independent variables along with a set of control variables. It is found that the institutional quality index and index of globalization exert a significant effect on FDI inflows of the host countries; in contrast, the domestic financial index does not seem to play much worthy role. Finally, some robustness tests are performed to make sure that the results are not sensitive to temporal and spatial unobserved heterogeneity. On the basis of the above study, one general inference can be drawn from the policy prescription point of view that the government of these developing countries should strengthen their domestic institution, both financial and non-financial. In addition to these, welfare policies should also target for rapid globalization. If the financial and non-financial institutions of these developing countries become sound and grow more globalized in the economic, social and political domain, then they can appeal to more amounts of FDI inflows that will subsequently result in advancement of these economies.

Keywords: panel data, FDI, Asian developing economies, institutional quality

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3 Investment and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

Authors: Manamba Epaphra


This paper analyzes the causal effect between domestic private investment, public investment, foreign direct investment and economic growth in Tanzania during the 1970-2014 period. The modified neo-classical growth model that includes control variables such as trade liberalization, life expectancy and macroeconomic stability proxied by inflation is used to estimate the impact of investment on economic growth. Also, the economic growth models based on Phetsavong and Ichihashi (2012), and Le and Suruga (2005) are used to estimate the crowding out effect of public investment on private domestic investment on one hand and foreign direct investment on the other hand. A correlation test is applied to check the correlation among independent variables, and the results show that there is very low correlation suggesting that multicollinearity is not a serious problem. Moreover, the diagnostic tests including RESET regression errors specification test, Breusch-Godfrey serial correlation LM test, Jacque-Bera-normality test and white heteroskedasticity test reveal that the model has no signs of misspecification and that, the residuals are serially uncorrelated, normally distributed and homoskedastic. Generally, the empirical results show that the domestic private investment plays an important role in economic growth in Tanzania. FDI also tends to affect growth positively, while control variables such as high population growth and inflation appear to harm economic growth. Results also reveal that control variables such as trade openness and life expectancy improvement tend to increase real GDP growth. Moreover, a revealed negative, albeit weak, association between public and private investment suggests that the positive effect of domestic private investment on economic growth reduces when public investment-to-GDP ratio exceeds 8-10 percent. Thus, there is a great need for promoting domestic saving so as to encourage domestic investment for economic growth.

Keywords: Economic growth, FDI, public investment, domestic private investment, crowding out effect

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2 Changes in Foreign Direct Investment Policy of India and Its Impact on Economic Development

Authors: Kishor P. Kadam


Foreign direct investment policy (FDI) is defined as an investment involving a long term relationship and reflecting a long duration interest and control of a resident entity in the home country (foreign direct investor or parent firm) in the host country. India has been one of the most translucent and open-minded FDI regimes among the emerging and developing economies. There is clear cut mentioned about the sectoral caps for foreign investment. The policy problems that have been identified by time to time surveys as acting as additional hurdles for FDI are laws, regulatory systems and government monopolies that do not have contemporary relevance. Foreign investment policies in the post-reforms period have emphasized greater encouragement and mobilization of non-debt creating private inflows for plunging reliance on debt flows. This paper will focus on how foreign direct investment policy changed from 1990-91 up to now. A time series data of 25 years is used for analysing the policy changes. It is observed that India has more liberal policy. The growth in number of Greenfield investments in India has been more impressive than the number of M&A deals whereas equity capital for incorporated bodies FDI inflows has been increased continuously 2014-15. India has made major changes in FDI Policy, and it has positive impact on economic development.

Keywords: Government, Economic Development, India, FDI

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1 The Importance of Absorptive Capacities in the Foreign Direct Investment-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Anthony Amoah, Edmund Kwablah


The merits associated with Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to host countries in Sub-Saharan Africa cannot be overemphasized. Against this background, countries have sought to design and implement strategic policies geared towards enhacing FDI and promoting economic growth. In this study, we used the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares technique and a panel data for Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries spanning from 1998 to 2016. We hypothesize that FDI’s effect on economic growth is contingent on some absorptive capacities (e.g., financial market development and economic freedom) of the host country. We used financial market data that accounts for market fragility as a measure of financial market development and economic freedom data which uses the overall score of all the freedom indicators as a measure of economic freedom. Our results suggest that FDI has a statistically positive effect on economic growth when we account for host country’s absorptive capacities. However, a negative relationship will ensue if these absorptive capacities are not accounted for. We recommend that a developing continent like SSA should focus on identifying and building the relevant absorptive capacities that can translate the effect of FDI into a positive growth. This is because an economy with sound absorptive capacities reduces business risk and spur economic growth.

Keywords: Economic growth, FDI, absorptive capacity, SSA, FMOLS, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares

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