Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

FCR Related Abstracts

2 Effect of Multi-Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance of Broiler

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Abdur Rahman, Saima, T. N. Pasha, Yassar Abbas, Shahid Jaleel


Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) are not completely digested by broiler endogenous enzymes and consequently the soluble NSPs in feed results in high digesta viscosity and poor retention of nutrients. Supplementation of NSPs digesting enzymes may release the nutrients from feed and reduce the anti-nutritional effects of NSP’s. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of NSPs digesting enzymes (Zympex) in broiler chicks. A total of 120 day old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were categorized into 3 treatments and each treatment was having four replicates with 10 birds in each. Dietary treatments comprised of Basal diet (2740 KCal/Kg) as control-1 (T1), low energy diet (2630 KCal/kg) control-2 (T2) and low energy diet with 0.5 gm/Kg enzyme as T3. Multi-enzymes supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) positive effect on weight gain (last three weeks), feed intake (last two weeks), FCR (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th) and nutrient retention in T3 when compared with control-2. Weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in low caloric feed group C when compared with control-1 in all weeks except last week (P > 0.05), feed consumption was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in 5th week and results showed significantly poor FCR (P < 0.05) in 2nd, 3rd and 4th week but non-significant effect in 1st and 5th week when compared with control-1 group, which revealed the positive effect of enzyme supplementation in low energy diet. These results revealed that enzyme supplementation releases more energy from low energy diets and results in equal performance to normal diet.

Keywords: enzyme, body weight, FCR, feed intake, non-starch polysaccharides

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1 Imprecise Vowel Articulation in Down Syndrome: An Acoustic Study

Authors: N. Sreedevi, Anitha Naittee Abraham


Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have relatively better expressive language compared to other individuals with intellectual disabilities. Reduced speech intelligibility is one of the major concerns of this group of individuals due to their anatomical and physiological differences. The study investigated the vowel articulation of Malayalam speaking children with DS in the age range of 5-10 years. The vowel production of 10 children with DS was compared with typically developing children in the same age range. Vowels were extracted from 3 words with the corner vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ in the word-initial position, using Praat (version 5.3.23) software. Acoustic analysis was based on vowel space area (VSA), Formant centralization ration (FCR) and F2i/F2u. The findings revealed increased formant values for the control group except for F2a and F2u. Also, the experimental group had higher FCR, lower VSA, and F2i/F2u values suggestive of imprecise vowel articulation due to restricted tongue movements. The results of the independent t-test revealed a significant difference in F1a, F2i, F2u, VSA, FCR and F2i/F2u values between the experimental and control group. These findings support the fact that children with DS have imprecise vowel articulation that interferes with the overall speech intelligibility. Hence it is essential to target the oromotor skills to enhance the speech intelligibility which in turn benefit in the social and vocational domains of these individuals.

Keywords: down syndrome, FCR, vowel articulation, vowel space

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