Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

faults Related Abstracts

9 A Digital Filter for Symmetrical Components Identification

Authors: Khaled M. El-Naggar


This paper presents a fast and efficient technique for monitoring and supervising power system disturbances generated due to dynamic performance of power systems or faults. Monitoring power system quantities involve monitoring fundamental voltage, current magnitudes, and their frequencies as well as their negative and zero sequence components under different operating conditions. The proposed technique is based on simulated annealing optimization technique (SA). The method uses digital set of measurements for the voltage or current waveforms at power system bus to perform the estimation process digitally. The algorithm is tested using different simulated data to monitor the symmetrical components of power system waveforms. Different study cases are considered in this work. Effects of number of samples, sampling frequency and the sample window size are studied. Results are reported and discussed.

Keywords: Measurement, estimation, faults, symmetrical components

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8 The Response of LCC to DC System Faults and HVDC Re-Establishment

Authors: Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia Samia, Chiheb Sofien, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine


As every power systems short circuit failure can occur for HVDC at the DC link. So, the power devices should be protected against over heath produced by this over-current. This can be achieved through the power switchers or fast breaker. After short circuit the system is unable to restart, only after a time delay, because of the potential distribution along the DC link line. An appropriate fast and safety control is proposed and tested successfully. The detailed development and discussion of these faults is presented in this paper.

Keywords: short circuit, HVDC, faults, DC link, switchers

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7 Principal Component Analysis Applied to the Electric Power Systems – Practical Guide; Practical Guide for Algorithms

Authors: John Morales, Eduardo Orduña


Currently the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) theory has been used to develop algorithms regarding to Electric Power Systems (EPS). In this context, this paper presents a practical tutorial of this technique detailed their concept, on-line and off-line mathematical foundations, which are necessary and desirables in EPS algorithms. Thus, features of their eigenvectors which are very useful to real-time process are explained, showing how it is possible to select these parameters through a direct optimization. On the other hand, in this work in order to show the application of PCA to off-line and on-line signals, an example step to step using Matlab commands is presented. Finally, a list of different approaches using PCA is presented, and some works which could be analyzed using this tutorial are presented.

Keywords: Algorithms, faults, practical guide; on-line; off-line

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6 Suitability of Black Box Approaches for the Reliability Assessment of Component-Based Software

Authors: Anjushi Verma, Tirthankar Gayen


Although, reliability is an important attribute of quality, especially for mission critical systems, yet, there does not exist any versatile model even today for the reliability assessment of component-based software. The existing Black Box models are found to make various assumptions which may not always be realistic and may be quite contrary to the actual behaviour of software. They focus on observing the manner in which the system behaves without considering the structure of the system, the components composing the system, their interconnections, dependencies, usage frequencies, etc.As a result, the entropy (uncertainty) in assessment using these models is much high.Though, there are some models based on operation profile yet sometimes it becomes extremely difficult to obtain the exact operation profile concerned with a given operation. This paper discusses the drawbacks, deficiencies and limitations of Black Box approaches from the perspective of various authors and finally proposes a conceptual model for the reliability assessment of software.

Keywords: Software reliability, Failure, black box, faults

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5 Modeling of Power Network by ATP-Draw for Lightning Stroke Studies

Authors: John Morales, Armando Guzman


Protection relay algorithms play a crucial role in Electric Power System stability, where, it is clear that lightning strokes produce the mayor percentage of faults and outages of Transmission Lines (TLs) and Distribution Feeders (DFs). In this context, it is imperative to develop novel protection relay algorithms. However, in order to get this aim, Electric Power Systems (EPS) network have to be simulated as real as possible, especially the lightning phenomena, and EPS elements that affect their behavior like direct and indirect lightning, insulator string, overhead line, soil ionization and other. However, researchers have proposed new protection relay algorithms considering common faults, which are not produced by lightning strokes, omitting these imperative phenomena for the transmission line protection relays behavior. Based on the above said, this paper presents the possibilities of using the Alternative Transient Program ATP-Draw for the modeling and simulation of some models to make lightning stroke studies, especially for protection relays, which are developed through Transient Analysis of Control Systems (TACS) and MODELS language corresponding to the ATP-Draw.

Keywords: flashover, faults, outages, back-flashover, lightning stroke, modeling of lightning, protection relays

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4 Design of a Fuzzy Luenberger Observer for Fault Nonlinear System

Authors: Mounir Bekaik, Messaoud Ramdani


We present in this work a new technique of stabilization for fault nonlinear systems. The approach we adopt focus on a fuzzy Luenverger observer. The T-S approximation of the nonlinear observer is based on fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm to find local linear subsystems. The MOESP identification approach was applied to design an empirical model describing the subsystems state variables. The gain of the observer is given by the minimization of the estimation error through Lyapunov-krasovskii functional and LMI approach. We consider a three tank hydraulic system for an illustrative example.

Keywords: Fuzzy, Nonlinear System, faults, observer, Lyapunov-Krasovskii

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3 Fault Location Identification in High Voltage Transmission Lines

Authors: Khaled M. El Naggar


This paper introduces a digital method for fault section identification in transmission lines. The method uses digital set of the measured short circuit current to locate faults in electrical power systems. The digitized current is used to construct a set of overdetermined system of equations. The problem is then constructed and solved using the proposed digital optimization technique to find the fault distance. The proposed optimization methodology is an application of simulated annealing optimization technique. The method is tested using practical case study to evaluate the proposed method. The accurate results obtained show that the algorithm can be used as a powerful tool in the area of power system protection.

Keywords: Optimization, Measurement, High Voltage, simulated annealing, estimation, faults

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2 Geological Structure Identification in Semilir Formation: An Correlated Geological and Geophysical (Very Low Frequency) Data for Zonation Disaster with Current Density Parameters and Geological Surface Information

Authors: E. M. Rifqi Wilda Pradana, Bagus Bayu Prabowo, Meida Riski Pujiyati, Efraim Maykhel Hagana Ginting, Virgiawan Arya Hangga Reksa


The VLF (Very Low Frequency) method is an electromagnetic method that uses low frequencies between 10-30 KHz which results in a fairly deep penetration. In this study, the VLF method was used for zonation of disaster-prone areas by identifying geological structures in the form of faults. Data acquisition was carried out in Trimulyo Region, Jetis District, Bantul Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia with 8 measurement paths. This study uses wave transmitters from Japan and Australia to obtain Tilt and Elipt values that can be used to create RAE (Rapat Arus Ekuivalen or Current Density) sections that can be used to identify areas that are easily crossed by electric current. This section will indicate the existence of a geological structure in the form of faults in the study area which is characterized by a high RAE value. In data processing of VLF method, it is obtained Tilt vs Elliptical graph and Moving Average (MA) Tilt vs Moving Average (MA) Elipt graph of each path that shows a fluctuating pattern and does not show any intersection at all. Data processing uses Matlab software and obtained areas with low RAE values that are 0%-6% which shows medium with low conductivity and high resistivity and can be interpreted as sandstone, claystone, and tuff lithology which is part of the Semilir Formation. Whereas a high RAE value of 10% -16% which shows a medium with high conductivity and low resistivity can be interpreted as a fault zone filled with fluid. The existence of the fault zone is strengthened by the discovery of a normal fault on the surface with strike N550W and dip 630E at coordinates X= 433256 and Y= 9127722 so that the activities of residents in the zone such as housing, mining activities and other activities can be avoided to reduce the risk of natural disasters.

Keywords: Very low frequency, current density, faults, zonation

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1 Seismic Activity in the Lake Kivu Basin: Implication for Seismic Risk Management

Authors: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo


The Kivu Lake Basin is located in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. In this basin is located a multitude of active faults, on which earthquakes occur regularly. The most recent earthquakes date from 2008, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019. The cities of Bukabu and Goma in DR Congo and Giseyi in Rwanda are the most impacted by this intense seismic activity in the region. The magnitude of the strongest earthquakes in the region is 6.1. The 2008 earthquake was particularly destructive, killing several people in DR Congo and Rwanda. This work aims to complete the distribution of seismicity in the region, deduce areas of weakness and establish a hazard map that can assist in seismic risk management. Using the local seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory, the earthquakes were relocated, and their focus mechanism was studied. The results show that most of these earthquakes occur on active faults described by Villeneuve in 1938. The alignment of the earthquakes shows a pace that follows directly the directions of the faults described by this author. The study of the focus mechanism of these earthquakes, also shows that these are in particular normal faults whose stresses show an extensive activity. Such study can be used for the establishment of seismic risk management tools.

Keywords: Earthquakes, faults, hazard map, focus mechanism

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