Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

fault Related Abstracts

11 Industrial Process Mining Based on Data Pattern Modeling and Nonlinear Analysis

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho


Unexpected events may occur with serious impacts on industrial process. This work utilizes a data representation technique to model and to analyze process data pattern for the purpose of diagnosis. In this work, the use of triangular representation of process data is evaluated using simulation process. Furthermore, the effect of using different pre-treatment techniques based on such as linear or nonlinear reduced spaces was compared. This work extracted the fault pattern in the reduced space, not in the original data space. The results have shown that the non-linear technique based diagnosis method produced more reliable results and outperforms linear method.

Keywords: Data Analysis, Process monitoring, pattern modeling, fault, nonlinear techniques

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10 A Novel Approach of Power Transformer Diagnostic Using 3D FEM Parametrical Model

Authors: M. Brandt, A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus


This paper deals with a novel approach of power transformers diagnostics. This approach identifies the exact location and the range of a fault in the transformer and helps to reduce operation costs related to handling of the faulty transformer, its disassembly and repair. The advantage of the approach is a possibility to simulate healthy transformer and also all faults, which can occur in transformer during its operation without its disassembling, which is very expensive in practice. The approach is based on creating frequency dependent impedance of the transformer by sweep frequency response analysis measurements and by 3D FE parametrical modeling of the fault in the transformer. The parameters of the 3D FE model are the position and the range of the axial short circuit. Then, by comparing the frequency dependent impedances of the parametrical models with the measured ones, the location and the range of the fault is identified. The approach was tested on a real transformer and showed high coincidence between the real fault and the simulated one.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, fault, transformer, parametrical model of transformer, sweep frequency response analysis

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9 Diagnosis of Induction Machine Faults by DWT

Authors: Hamidreza Akbari


In this paper, for detection of inclined eccentricity in an induction motor, time–frequency analysis of the stator startup current is carried out. For this purpose, the discrete wavelet transform is used. Data are obtained from simulations, using winding function approach. The results show the validity of the approach for detecting the fault and discriminating with respect to other faults.

Keywords: Electric, induction machine, fault, DWT

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8 Geomorphology of Karst Features of Shiraz City and Arjan Plain and Development Limitations

Authors: Meysam Jamali, Ebrahim Moghimi, Zean Alabden Jafarpour


Karst term is the determiner of a variety of areas or landforms and unique perspectives that have been formed in result of the ingredients dissolution of rocks constituter by natural waters. Shiraz area with an area of 5322km2 is located in the simple folded belt in the southern part of Zagros Mountain of Fars, and is surrounded with Limestone Mountains (Asmari formation). Shiraz area is located in Calcareous areas. The Infrastructure of this city is lime and absorbing wells that the city has, can influence on the Limestone dissolution and those accelerate its rate and increases the cavitation below the surface. Dasht-e Arjan is a graben, which has been created as the result of activity of two normal faults in its east and west sides. It is a complete sample of Karst plains (Polje) which has been created with the help of tectonic forces (fault) and dissolution process of water in Asmari limestone formation. It is located 60km. off south west of Shiraz (on Kazeroon-Shiraz road). In 1971, UNESCO has recognized this plain as a reserve of biosphere. It is considered as one of the world’s most beautiful geological phenomena, so that most of the world’s geologists are interested in visiting this place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and introduce landscapes of Karst features shiraz city and Dasht-e Arjan including Karst dissolution features (Lapiez, Karst springs, dolines, caves, underground caves, ponors, and Karst valleys), anticlines and synclines, and Arjan Lake, which are studied in this paper.

Keywords: fault, Dasht-eArjan, Karst features, polje, Shiraz city, Zagros

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7 Analysis Of Magnetic Anomaly Data For Identification Subsurface Structure Geothermal Manifestations Area Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ikawati Wulandari


Acquisition of geomagnetic field has been done at Geothermal manifestation Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. The purpose of this research to study sub-surface structure condition and the structure which control the hot springs manifestation. The research area have size of 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement spacing of 150 m. Total magnetic field data, the position, and the north pole direction have acquired by Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM), Global Positioning System (GPS), and of geology compass, respectively. The raw data has been processed and performed using IGRF (International Geomagnetics Reference Field) correction to obtain total field magnetic anomaly. Upward continuation was performed at 100 meters height using software Magpick. Analysis conclude horizontal position of the body causing anomaly which is located at hot springs manifestation, and it stretch along Northeast - Southwest, which later interpreted as normal fault. This hotsprings manifestation was controlled by the downward fault which becomes a weak zone where hot water from underground the geothermal reservoir leakage

Keywords: Geothermal, fault, PPM, Grabag

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6 A Finite Elements Model for the Study of Buried Pipelines Affected by Strike-Slip Fault

Authors: Reza Akbari, Jalal MontazeriFashtali, PeymanMomeni Taromsari


Pipeline systems, play an important role as a vital element in reducing or increasing the risk of earthquake damage and vulnerability. Pipelines are suitable, cheap, fast, and safe routes for transporting oil, gas, water, sewage, etc. The sepipelines must pass from a wide geographical area; hence they will structurally face different environmental and underground factors of earthquake forces’ effect. Therefore, structural engineering analysis and design for this type of lines requires the understanding of relevant parameters behavior and lack of familiarity with them can cause irreparable damages and risks to design and execution, especially in the face of earthquakes. Today, buried pipelines play an important role in human life cycle, thus, studying the vulnerability of pipeline systems is of particular importance. This study examines the behavior of buried pipelines affected by strike-slip fault. Studied fault is perpendicular to the tube axis and causes stress and deformation in the tube by sliding horizontally. In this study, the pipe-soil interaction is accurately simulated, so that one can examine the large displacements and strains, nonlinear material behavior and contact and friction conditions of soil and pipe. The results can be used for designing buried pipes and determining the amount of fault displacement that causes the failure of the buried pipes.

Keywords: Earthquake, fault, pipe lines, soil-fault interaction

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5 Dynamics of Understanding Earthquake Precursors-A Review

Authors: Sarada Nivedita Bhuyan


Earthquake is the sudden, rapid movement of the earth’s crust and is the natural means of releasing stress. Tectonic plates play a major role for earthquakes as tectonic plates are the crust of the planet. The boundary lines of tectonic plates are usually known as fault lines. To understand an earthquake before its occurrence, different types of earthquake precursors are studied by different researchers. Surface temperature, strange cloud cover, earth’s electric field, geomagnetic phenomena, ground water level, active faults, ionospheric anomalies, tectonic movements are taken as parameters for earthquake study by different researchers. In this paper we tried to gather complete and helpful information of earthquake precursors which have been studied until now.

Keywords: Earthquake, fault, earthquake precursors, tectonic plates

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4 A Fault Analysis Cracked-Rotor-to-Stator Rub and Unbalance by Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu


An analytical 4-DOF nonlinear model of a de Laval rotor-stator system based on Energy Principles has been used theoretically and experimentally to investigate fault symptoms in a rotating system. The faults, namely rotor-stator-rub, crack and unbalance are modelled as excitations on the rotor shaft. Mayes steering function is used to simulate the breathing behaviour of the crack. The fault analysis technique is based on waveform signal, orbits and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) derived from simulated and real measured signals. Simulated and experimental results manifest considerable mutual resemblance of elliptic-shaped orbits and FFT for a same range of test data.

Keywords: Nonlinear, Vibration analysis, Orbit, fault, FFT, a breathing crack, rotor-stator rub

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3 Experimental and Numerical Studies on Earthquake Shear Rupture Generation

Authors: Louis N. Y. Wong


En-echelon fractures are commonly found in rocks, which appear as a special set of regularly oriented and spaced fractures. By using both experimental and numerical approaches, this study investigates the interaction among them, and how this interaction finally contributes to the development of a shear rupture (fault), especially in brittle natural rocks. Firstly, uniaxial compression tests are conducted on marble specimens containing en-echelon flaws. The latter is cut by using the water abrasive jet into the rock specimens. The fracturing processes of these specimens leading to the formation of a fault are observed in detail by the use of a high speed camera. The influences of the flaw geometry on the production of tensile cracks and shear cracks, which in turn dictate the coalescence patterns of the entire set of en-echelon flaws are comprehensively studied. Secondly, a numerical study based on a recently developed contact model, flat-joint contact model using the discrete element method (DEM) is carried out to model the present laboratory experiments. The numerical results provide a quantitative assessment of the interaction of en-echelon flaws. Particularly, the evolution of the stress field, as well as the characteristics of new crack initiation, propagation and coalescence associated with the generation of an eventual shear rupture are studied in detail. The numerical results are found to agree well with the experimental results obtained in both microscopic and macroscopic observations.

Keywords: fault, discrete element method, marble, en-echelon flaws

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2 On the Qarat Kibrit Salt Dome Faulting System South of Adam, Oman: In Search of Uranium Anomalies

Authors: Alaeddin Ebrahimi, Narasimman Sundararajan, Bernhard Pracejus


Development of salt domes, often a rising from depths of some 10 km or more, causes an intense faulting of the surrounding host rocks (salt tectonics). The fractured rocks then present ideal space for oil that can migrate and get trapped. If such moving of hydrocarbons passes uranium-carrying rock units (e.g., shales), uranium is collected and enriched by organic carbon compounds. Brines from the salt body are also ideal carriers for oxidized uranium species and will further dislocate uranium when in contact with uranium-enriched oils. Uranium then has the potential to mineralize in the vicinity of the dome (blue halite is evidence for radiation having affected salt deposits elsewhere in the world). Based on this knowledge, the Qarat Kibrit salt dome was investigated by a well-established geophysical method like very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) along five traverses approximately 250 m in length (10 m intervals) in order to identify subsurface fault systems. In-phase and quadrature components of the VLF-EM signal were recorded at two different transmitter frequencies (24.0 and 24.9 kHz). The images of Fraser filtered response of the in-phase components indicate a conductive zone (fault) in the southeast and southwest of the study area. The Karous-Hjelt current density pseudo section delineates subsurface faults at depths between 10 and 40 m. The stacked profiles of the Fraser filtered responses brought out two plausible trends/directions of faults. However, there seems to be no evidence for uranium enrichment has been recorded in this area.

Keywords: Uranium, fault, salt dome, in-phase component, quadrature component, Fraser filter, Karous-Hjelt current density

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1 A Supervised Embedding and Clustering Anomaly Detection Method for Classification of Mobile Network Faults

Authors: Raziyeh Mosayebi, Hanif Kia, Aseman Kianpour Raki, Seyed Mohamadhasan Zoee


Several nodes and elements of the mobile network are continuously generating different alarm logs. The most frequent alarm types are normal and do not require special attention. However, a small portion of these alarms may result in anomaly and fault. In the network operating center, the operators monitor the enormous amount of alarm logs in their dashboards to acknowledge any possible anomaly; however, due to the large volume of alarms, the high rate of miss identification is inevitable. Recently, by moving toward the full automation of telecommunication networks, machine learning techniques have come to assist operators for anomaly detection and problem identification. In this paper, we propose a Supervised Embedding and Clustering Anomaly Detection (SEMC-AD) method to identify the faulty alarm logs in a fraction of a second, reduce the operator workload and enhance the network maintenance by reducing the time for problem resolution. However, because anomalies contain a very small portion of total data, so anomaly detection would be an imbalanced classification problem and the process of identification is quite challenging. Also, the dataset has numerous categorical features with enormous different values for each one. As a result, the ordinary one hot encoding approach will produce a large number of features. To overcome the curse of dimensionality while we work with numerical data, the history of alarm logs and their labels (anomaly and normal) are used in a supervised embedding approach based on a deep neural network to extract a numerical representation of each alarm log. To examine the robustness of the embedding, the scatter plot of the two most significant principle components of the embedded alarm logs is used. The plot shows that the alarms in the anomaly group are scattered in the same neighborhood, which means the embedding vectors of the anomalies are similar. The multivariate normal Gaussian clustering method is then applied to the two most important principle components of embedded alarm logs. The different number of clusters are examined to estimate the best possible clusters for anomalies. The clusters in which the ratio of the number of anomalies to normal alarms are higher than 90 percent are labeled as anomaly groups. The new alarm log will be classified as an anomaly if the two most significant principle components of its embedded vector are classified in clusters with the label of an anomaly. Considering the values of recall and precision metrics, the performance of the proposed SEMC_AD method is 18% better than the ordinary random forest and Gradient boosting method without embedding. 99% percent of anomalies are detected by SEMC-AD method, while 86% and 81% of anomalies are detected by random forest and XGBoost, respectively. Although it seems that in the labeled datasets, the supervised classification methods may have higher performance in anomaly detection, but the results demonstrate that in our dataset with high number of categorical features, the SEMC_AD method can classify the anomalies more efficiently.

Keywords: Mobile Network, Deep learning, Anomaly Detection, alarm, fault, embedding

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