Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Fault Detection Related Abstracts

21 Sensor Validation Using Bottleneck Neural Network and Variable Reconstruction

Authors: Somia Bouzid, Messaoud Ramdani


The success of any diagnosis strategy critically depends on the sensors measuring process variables. This paper presents a detection and diagnosis sensor faults method based on a Bottleneck Neural Network (BNN). The BNN approach is used as a statistical process control tool for drinking water distribution (DWD) systems to detect and isolate the sensor faults. Variable reconstruction approach is very useful for sensor fault isolation, this method is validated in simulation on a nonlinear system: actual drinking water distribution system. Several results are presented.

Keywords: Localization, Fault Detection, PCA, NLPCA, auto-associative neural network

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20 Fault Detection of Pipeline in Water Distribution Network System

Authors: Shin Je Lee, Go Bong Choi, Jeong Cheol Seo, Jong Min Lee, Gibaek Lee


Water pipe network is installed underground and once equipped; it is difficult to recognize the state of pipes when the leak or burst happens. Accordingly, post management is often delayed after the fault occurs. Therefore, the systematic fault management system of water pipe network is required to prevent the accident and minimize the loss. In this work, we develop online fault detection system of water pipe network using data of pipes such as flow rate or pressure. The transient model describing water flow in pipelines is presented and simulated using Matlab. The fault situations such as the leak or burst can be also simulated and flow rate or pressure data when the fault happens are collected. Faults are detected using statistical methods of fast Fourier transform and discrete wavelet transform, and they are compared to find which method shows the better fault detection performance.

Keywords: Fault Detection, fast fourier transform, discrete wavelet transform, water pipeline model

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19 On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility

Authors: F. Sallem, B. Dahhou, A. Kamoun


In this work, the main problem considered is the detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.

Keywords: Nuclear Reactor, Fault Detection, Observability, actuator fault, left invertibility, parameter intervals, system inversion

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18 Proposed Fault Detection Scheme on Low Voltage Distribution Feeders

Authors: Adewusi Adeoluwawale, Oronti Iyabosola Busola, Akinola Iretiayo, Komolafe Olusola Aderibigbe


The complex and radial structure of the low voltage distribution network (415V) makes it vulnerable to faults which are due to system and the environmental related factors. Besides these, the protective scheme employed on the low voltage network which is the fuse cannot be monitored remotely such that in the event of sustained fault, the utility will have to rely solely on the complaint brought by customers for loss of supply and this tends to increase the length of outages. A microcontroller based fault detection scheme is hereby developed to detect low voltage and high voltage fault conditions which are common faults on this network. Voltages below 198V and above 242V on the distribution feeders are classified and detected as low voltage and high voltages respectively. Results shows that the developed scheme produced a good response time in the detection of these faults.

Keywords: Fault Detection, low voltage distribution feeders, outage times, sustained faults

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17 Fault Detection and Isolation of a Three-Tank System using Analytical Temporal Redundancy, Parity Space/Relation Based Residual Generation

Authors: A. T. Kuda, J. J. Dayya, A. Jimoh


This paper investigates the fault detection and Isolation technique of measurement data sets from a three tank system using analytical model-based temporal redundancy which is based on residual generation using parity equations/space approach. It further briefly outlines other approaches of model-based residual generation. The basic idea of parity space residual generation in temporal redundancy is dynamic relationship between sensor outputs and actuator inputs (input-output model). These residuals where then used to detect whether or not the system is faulty and indicate the location of the fault when it is faulty. The method obtains good results by detecting and isolating faults from the considered data sets measurements generated from the system.

Keywords: Fault Detection, Fault Isolation, disturbing influences, system failure, parity equation/relation, structured parity equations

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16 Application of Support Vector Machines in Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Power Transmission Lines

Authors: I. A. Farhat, M. Bin Hasan


A developed approach for the protection of power transmission lines using Support Vector Machines (SVM) technique is presented. In this paper, the SVM technique is utilized for the classification and isolation of faults in power transmission lines. Accurate fault classification and location results are obtained for all possible types of short circuit faults. As in distance protection, the approach utilizes the voltage and current post-fault samples as inputs. The main advantage of the method introduced here is that the method could easily be extended to any power transmission line.

Keywords: Diagnosis, classification, Fault Detection, power transmission line protection, support vector machines (SVM)

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15 A Study of Adaptive Fault Detection Method for GNSS Applications

Authors: Je Young Lee, Hee Sung Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Joonhoo Lim, Sebum Chun, Hyung Keun Lee


A purpose of this study is to develop efficient detection method for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications based on adaptive estimation. Due to dependence of radio frequency signals, GNSS measurements are dominated by systematic errors in receiver’s operating environment. Thus, to utilize GNSS for aerospace or ground vehicles requiring high level of safety, unhealthy measurements should be considered seriously. For the reason, this paper proposes adaptive fault detection method to deal with unhealthy measurements in various harsh environments. By the proposed method, the test statistics for fault detection is generated by estimated measurement noise. Pseudorange and carrier-phase measurement noise are obtained at time propagations and measurement updates in process of Carrier-Smoothed Code (CSC) filtering, respectively. Performance of the proposed method was evaluated by field-collected GNSS measurements. To evaluate the fault detection capability, intentional faults were added to measurements. The experimental result shows that the proposed detection method is efficient in detecting unhealthy measurements and improves the accuracy of GNSS positioning under fault occurrence.

Keywords: GNSS, Fault Detection, adaptive estimation, residual

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14 A New Method for Fault Detection

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata, Ali Hamdan, Omer Yusuf Adam Mohamed


Consider a distributed system that delivers messages from a process to another. Such a system is often required to deliver each message to its destination regardless of whether or not the system components experience arbitrary forms of faults. In addition, each message received by the destination must be a message sent by a system process. In this paper, we first identify the necessary and sufficient conditions to detect some restricted form of Byzantine faults referred to as modifying Byzantine faults. An observable form of a Byzantine fault whose effect is limited to the modification of a message metadata or content, timing and omission faults, and message replay is referred to as a modifying Byzantine fault. We then present a distributed protocol to detect modifying Byzantine faults using optimal number of messages over node-disjoint paths.

Keywords: Distributed Systems, Network Protocols, Fault Detection, Byzantine faults, node-disjoint paths

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13 Feature Extraction and Classification Based on the Bayes Test for Minimum Error

Authors: Nasar Aldian Ambark Shashoa


Classification with a dimension reduction based on Bayesian approach is proposed in this paper . The first step is to generate a sample (parameter) of fault-free mode class and faulty mode class. The second, in order to obtain good classification performance, a selection of important features is done with the discrete karhunen-loeve expansion. Next, the Bayes test for minimum error is used to classify the classes. Finally, the results for simulated data demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Fault Detection, bayesian approach, analytical redundancy, feature extraction

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12 A Comprehensive Method of Fault Detection and Isolation based on Testability Modeling Data

Authors: Weiwei Cui, Junyou Shi


Testability modeling is a commonly used method in testability design and analysis of system. A dependency matrix will be obtained from testability modeling, and we will give a quantitative evaluation about fault detection and isolation. Based on the dependency matrix, we can obtain the diagnosis tree. The tree provides the procedures of the fault detection and isolation. But the dependency matrix usually includes built-in test (BIT) and manual test in fact. BIT runs the test automatically and is not limited by the procedures. The method above cannot give a more efficient diagnosis and use the advantages of the BIT. A Comprehensive method of fault detection and isolation is proposed. This method combines the advantages of the BIT and Manual test by splitting the matrix. The result of the case study shows that the method is effective.

Keywords: Fault Detection, Fault Isolation, testability modeling, BIT

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11 Modifying Byzantine Fault Detection Using Disjoint Paths

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata, Ali Hamdan, Omer Yusuf Adam Mohamed


Consider a distributed system that delivers messages from a process to another. Such a system is often required to deliver each message to its destination regardless of whether or not the system components experience arbitrary forms of faults. In addition, each message received by the destination must be a message sent by a system process. In this paper, we first identify the necessary and sufficient conditions to detect some restricted form of Byzantine faults referred to as modifying Byzantine faults. An observable form of a Byzantine fault whose effect is limited to the modification of a message metadata or content, timing and omission faults, and message replay is referred to as a modifying Byzantine fault. We then present a distributed protocol to detect modifying Byzantine faults using optimal number of messages over node-disjoint paths.

Keywords: Distributed Systems, Fault Detection, Byzantine faults, node-disjoint paths, network pro- tocols

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10 Time Parameter Based for the Detection of Catastrophic Faults in Analog Circuits

Authors: Arabi Abderrazak, Bourouba Nacerdine, Ayad Mouloud, Belaout Abdeslam


In this paper, a new test technique of analog circuits using time mode simulation is proposed for the single catastrophic faults detection in analog circuits. This test process is performed to overcome the problem of catastrophic faults being escaped in a DC mode test applied to the inverter amplifier in previous research works. The circuit under test is a second-order low pass filter constructed around this type of amplifier but performing a function that differs from that of the previous test. The test approach performed in this work is based on two key- elements where the first one concerns the unique square pulse signal selected as an input vector test signal to stimulate the fault effect at the circuit output response. The second element is the filter response conversion to a square pulses sequence obtained from an analog comparator. This signal conversion is achieved through a fixed reference threshold voltage of this comparison circuit. The measurement of the three first response signal pulses durations is regarded as fault effect detection parameter on one hand, and as a fault signature helping to hence fully establish an analog circuit fault diagnosis on another hand. The results obtained so far are very promising since the approach has lifted up the fault coverage ratio in both modes to over 90% and has revealed the harmful side of faults that has been masked in a DC mode test.

Keywords: Analog Circuits, Fault Detection, analog faults diagnosis, catastrophic faults

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9 Neighbor Caring Environment System (NCE) Using Parallel Replication Mechanism

Authors: Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Emma Ahmad Sirajudin, Rabiei Mamat


Pertaining to a particular Marine interest, the process of data sampling could take years before a study can be concluded. Therefore, the need for a robust backup system for the data is invariably implicit. In recent advancement of Marine applications, more functionalities and tools are integrated to assist the work of the researchers. It is anticipated that this modality will continue as research scope widens and intensifies and at the same to follow suit with current technologies and lifestyles. The convenience to collect and share information these days also applies to the work in Marine research. Therefore, Marine system designers should be aware that high availability is a necessary attribute in Marine repository applications as well as a robust backup system for the data. In this paper, the approach to high availability is related both to hardware and software but the focus is more on software. We consider a NABTIC repository system that is primitively built on a single server and does not have replicated components. First, the system is decomposed into separate modules. The modules are placed on multiple servers to create a distributed system. Redundancy is added by placing the copies of the modules on different servers using Neighbor Caring Environment System(NCES) technique. NCER is utilizing parallel replication components mechanism. A background monitoring is established to check servers’ heartbeats to confirm their aliveness. At the same time, a critical adaptive threshold is maintained to make sure a failure is timely detected using Adaptive Fault Detection (AFD). A confirmed failure will set the recovery mode where a selection process will be done before a fail-over server is instructed. In effect, the Marine repository service is continued as the fail-over masks a recent failure. The performance of the new prototype is tested and is confirmed to be more highly available. Furthermore, the downtime is not noticeable as service is immediately restored automatically. The Marine repository system is said to have achieved fault tolerance.

Keywords: Availability, Fault tolerance, Replication, Fault Detection, marine application

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8 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari


In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: Topology, Trust, Fault Detection, WSN, multi-path routing

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7 Application of Computer Aided Engineering Tools in Performance Prediction and Fault Detection of Mechanical Equipment of Mining Process Line

Authors: K. Jahani, J. Razavi


Nowadays, to decrease the number of downtimes in the industries such as metal mining, petroleum and chemical industries, predictive maintenance is crucial. In order to have efficient predictive maintenance, knowing the performance of critical equipment of production line such as pumps and hydro-cyclones under variable operating parameters, selecting best indicators of this equipment health situations, best locations for instrumentation, and also measuring of these indicators are very important. In this paper, computer aided engineering (CAE) tools are implemented to study some important elements of copper process line, namely slurry pumps and cyclone to predict the performance of these components under different working conditions. These modeling and simulations can be used in predicting, for example, the damage tolerance of the main shaft of the slurry pump or wear rate and location of cyclone wall or pump case and impeller. Also, the simulations can suggest best-measuring parameters, measuring intervals, and their locations.

Keywords: Fault Detection, Predictive Maintenance, hydrocyclone, slurry pump, computer aided engineering, mining process line

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6 A Comparison of Inverse Simulation-Based Fault Detection in a Simple Robotic Rover with a Traditional Model-Based Method

Authors: Murray L. Ireland, Kevin J. Worrall, Rebecca Mackenzie, Thaleia Flessa, Euan McGookin, Douglas Thomson


Robotic rovers which are designed to work in extra-terrestrial environments present a unique challenge in terms of the reliability and availability of systems throughout the mission. Should some fault occur, with the nearest human potentially millions of kilometres away, detection and identification of the fault must be performed solely by the robot and its subsystems. Faults in the system sensors are relatively straightforward to detect, through the residuals produced by comparison of the system output with that of a simple model. However, faults in the input, that is, the actuators of the system, are harder to detect. A step change in the input signal, caused potentially by the loss of an actuator, can propagate through the system, resulting in complex residuals in multiple outputs. These residuals can be difficult to isolate or distinguish from residuals caused by environmental disturbances. While a more complex fault detection method or additional sensors could be used to solve these issues, an alternative is presented here. Using inverse simulation (InvSim), the inputs and outputs of the mathematical model of the rover system are reversed. Thus, for a desired trajectory, the corresponding actuator inputs are obtained. A step fault near the input then manifests itself as a step change in the residual between the system inputs and the input trajectory obtained through inverse simulation. This approach avoids the need for additional hardware on a mass- and power-critical system such as the rover. The InvSim fault detection method is applied to a simple four-wheeled rover in simulation. Additive system faults and an external disturbance force and are applied to the vehicle in turn, such that the dynamic response and sensor output of the rover are impacted. Basic model-based fault detection is then employed to provide output residuals which may be analysed to provide information on the fault/disturbance. InvSim-based fault detection is then employed, similarly providing input residuals which provide further information on the fault/disturbance. The input residuals are shown to provide clearer information on the location and magnitude of an input fault than the output residuals. Additionally, they can allow faults to be more clearly discriminated from environmental disturbances.

Keywords: Fault Detection, ground robot, inverse simulation, rover

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5 Health Monitoring and Failure Detection of Electronic and Structural Components in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Gopi Kandaswamy, P. Balamuralidhar


Fully autonomous small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in many commercial applications. Although a lot of research has been done to develop safe, reliable and durable UAVs, accidents due to electronic and structural failures are not uncommon and pose a huge safety risk to the UAV operators and the public. Hence there is a strong need for an automated health monitoring system for UAVs with a view to minimizing mission failures thereby increasing safety. This paper describes our approach to monitoring the electronic and structural components in a small UAV without the need for additional sensors to do the monitoring. Our system monitors data from four sources; sensors, navigation algorithms, control inputs from the operator and flight controller outputs. It then does statistical analysis on the data and applies a rule based engine to detect failures. This information can then be fed back into the UAV and a decision to continue or abort the mission can be taken automatically by the UAV and independent of the operator. Our system has been verified using data obtained from real flights over the past year from UAVs of various sizes that have been designed and deployed by us for various applications.

Keywords: Health monitoring, Vibration analysis, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Fault Detection

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4 Model-Based Fault Diagnosis in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Particle Filtering

Authors: Hong Yu, Ion Matei


Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRP) used as aircraft structure are subject to lightning strike, putting structural integrity under risk. Indirect damage may occur after a lightning strike where the internal structure can be damaged due to excessive heat induced by lightning current, while the surface of the structures remains intact. Three damage modes may be observed after a lightning strike: fiber breakage, inter-ply delamination and intra-ply cracks. The assessment of internal damage states in composite is challenging due to complicated microstructure, inherent uncertainties, and existence of multiple damage modes. In this work, a model based approach is adopted to diagnose faults in carbon composites after lighting strikes. A resistor network model is implemented to relate the overall electrical and thermal conduction behavior under simulated lightning current waveform to the intrinsic temperature dependent material properties, microstructure and degradation of materials. A fault detection and identification (FDI) module utilizes the physics based model and a particle filtering algorithm to identify damage mode as well as calculate the probability of structural failure. Extensive simulation results are provided to substantiate the proposed fault diagnosis methodology with both single fault and multiple faults cases. The approach is also demonstrated on transient resistance data collected from a IM7/Epoxy laminate under simulated lightning strike.

Keywords: Fault Detection, Fault Identification, particle filter, carbon composite

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3 Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring of Base Metal Flotation Plant Using Dissimilarity Scale-Based Singular Spectrum Analysis

Authors: Syamala Krishnannair


A multivariate statistical process monitoring methodology using dissimilarity scale-based singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is proposed for the detection and diagnosis of process faults in the base metal flotation plant. Process faults are detected based on the multi-level decomposition of process signals by SSA using the dissimilarity structure of the process data and the subsequent monitoring of the multiscale signals using the unified monitoring index which combines T² with SPE. Contribution plots are used to identify the root causes of the process faults. The overall results indicated that the proposed technique outperformed the conventional multivariate techniques in the detection and diagnosis of the process faults in the flotation plant.

Keywords: Fault diagnosis, Process monitoring, Fault Detection, dissimilarity scale

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2 1-D Convolutional Neural Network Approach for Wheel Flat Detection for Freight Wagons

Authors: Dachuan Shi, M. Hecht, Y. Ye


With the trend of digitalization in railway freight transport, a large number of freight wagons in Germany have been equipped with telematics devices, commonly placed on the wagon body. A telematics device contains a GPS module for tracking and a 3-axis accelerometer for shock detection. Besides these basic functions, it is desired to use the integrated accelerometer for condition monitoring without any additional sensors. Wheel flats as a common type of failure on wheel tread cause large impacts on wagons and infrastructure as well as impulsive noise. A large wheel flat may even cause safety issues such as derailments. In this sense, this paper proposes a machine learning approach for wheel flat detection by using car body accelerations. Due to suspension systems, impulsive signals caused by wheel flats are damped significantly and thus could be buried in signal noise and disturbances. Therefore, it is very challenging to detect wheel flats using car body accelerations. The proposed algorithm considers the envelope spectrum of car body accelerations to eliminate the effect of noise and disturbances. Subsequently, a 1-D convolutional neural network (CNN), which is well known as a deep learning method, is constructed to automatically extract features in the envelope-frequency domain and conduct classification. The constructed CNN is trained and tested on field test data, which are measured on the underframe of a tank wagon with a wheel flat of 20 mm length in the operational condition. The test results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm for real-time fault detection.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Fault Detection, convolutional neural network, wheel flat

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1 Electrical Dault Detection of Photovoltaic System: A Short-Circuit Fault Case

Authors: Moustapha H. Ibrahim, Dahir Abdourahman


This document presents a short-circuit fault detection process in a photovoltaic (PV) system. The proposed method is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. It determines whatever the size of the installation number of the short circuit module. The proposed algorithm indicates the presence or absence of an abnormality on the power of the PV system through measures of hourly global irradiation, power output, and ambient temperature. In case a fault is detected, it displays the number of modules in a short circuit. This fault detection method has been successfully tested on two different PV installations.

Keywords: Modelling, Fault Detection, short-circuit, Matlab-Simulink, PV system

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