Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

fat Related Abstracts

8 Chemical Composition Pistachio Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nassima Behidj, Nadjiba Mezıou-Cheboutı, Amel Merabet, Yahia Cheboutı, Fatima-Zohra Bıssaad et Salahedine Doumandjı

Abstract:

Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila . Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60 ± 0.45%, the water rate is 7.21 ± 0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00 ± 0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02 ± 0.47%, the protein reached 29.88 ± 0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: Protein, fat, Sugar, dry matter, pistachio

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7 The Chemical Composition of the Pistachio (Pistacia vera) Harvested Bechloul (Algeria)

Authors: Nassima Behidj, Amel Merabet, Nadjiba Meziou-Chebouti, Yahia Chebouti, Salahedine Doumandji

Abstract:

Among the Anacardiaceae, the fruit (Pistacia vera L.) is the only species that produces edible fruits. The introduction of real pistachio was made in the early sixties by an FAO program in Algeria in several regions in the northern part of Algeria: Tlemcen, Sidi Bel Abbes, Batna, Bouira M'sila. Chemical analyzes of seeds pistachios were made on seeds from an orchard that localizes to Bechloul (Bouira) located in bioclimatic sub-humid temperate winter floor. Analyzes reveal dry matter content of 3.60±0.45%, the water rate is 7.21±0.36%. However, the fat content is 46.00±0.90%, in average blood sugar, it is 4.02±0.47%, the protein reached 29.88±0.76%. Given the very interesting that high-fat food nutritional values, culture pistachio must be considered for its extension in Algeria.

Keywords: Protein, fat, Sugar, dry matter, pistachio

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6 Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljabryn Dalal Hamad

Abstract:

The present explanatory study concerns with the relation between Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010, using published data. Results illustrated that Saudi citizen daily protein consumption (DPC) during 2005-2007 (g/capita/day) is higher than the average global consumption level of protein with 15.27%, daily fat consumption (DFC) with 24.56% and daily energy consumption (DEC) with 16.93% and increases than recommended level by International Nutrition Organizations (INO) with 56% for protein, 60.49% for fat and 27.37% for energy. On the other hand, DPC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 88.3 to 82.36 gram/ day. Moreover, DFC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 3247.90 to 3176.43 Cal/capita/ day, and daily energy consumption (DEC) of Saudi citizen increases than world consumption with 16.93%, while increases with 27.37% than INO. Despite this, DPC, DFC and DEC per capita in Saudi Arabia still higher than world mean. On the other side, results illustrated that the number of diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia during the same period (2005-2010). The curve of diabetic patient’s number in Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010 is regular ascending with increasing level ranged between 7.10% in 2005 and 12.44% in 2010. It is essential to devise Saudi National programs to educate the public about the relation of food balances and diabetes so it could be avoided, and provide citizens with healthy dietary balances tables.

Keywords: Energy, Protein, Saudi Arabia, fat, diabetes mellitus, food balance

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5 Performing Fat Activism in Australia: An Autoethnographic Exploration

Authors: Jenny Lee

Abstract:

Fat Studies is emerging as an interdisciplinary area of study, intersecting with Gender Studies, Sociology, Human Development and the Creative Arts. A focus on weight loss, and, therefore, fat hatred, has resulted in a form of discriminatory institutional practice that impacts women in the Western world. This focus is sanctioned by a large dieting industry, medical associations, the media, and at times, government initiatives. This paper will discuss the emergence of the so-called ‘Obesity Epidemic’ in Australia and the Western world and the stereotypes that thin equals healthy and fat equals unhealthy. This paper will argue that, for those with a health focus, ‘Health at every size’ is a more effective principle, which involves striving for healthy living, without a focus on weight loss. This discussion will contextualise an autoethnographic exploration of how fat acceptance and Health at Every Size can be encouraged through fat activism and fat political art. As part of this paper, a selection of the recent performance, writing and art in Australia will be presented, including Aquaporko, the fat femme synchronised swim team and VaVaBoomBah, the Melbourne fat burlesque performances.

Keywords: Obesity, Health, Performance, fat, activism

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4 The Consumption of Sodium and Fat from Processed Foods

Authors: Pil Kyoo Jo, Jee Young Kim, Yu Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Young Ha Joo, Hye Suk Kim, Semi Kang

Abstract:

When convenience drives daily food choices, the increased consumption of processed foods may be associated with the increased intakes of sodium and fat and further with the onset of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of sodium, saturated fat, and calories intakes through processed foods and the dietary patterns among adult populations in South Korea. We used the nationally representative data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) and a cross-sectional survey on the eating behaviors among university students(N=893, 380 men, 513 women) aged from 20 to 24 years. Results showed that South Koreans consumed 43.5% of their total food consumption from processed foods. The 24-hour recalls data showed that 77% of sodium, 60% of fats, 59% of saturated fat, and 44% of calories were consumed from processed food. The intake of processed foods increased by 1.7% in average since 2008 annually. Only 33% of processed food that respondents consumed had nutrition labeling. The data from university students showed that students selected processed foods in convenience store when eating alone compared to eating with someone else. Given the convenience and lack of time, more people will consume processed foods and it may impact their overall dietary intake and further their health. In order to help people to make healthier food choices, regulations and policies to reduce the potentially unhealthy nutrients of processed foods should be strengthened. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea for 2011 Korea-Japan Basic Scientific Cooperation Program. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015S1A5B6037369).

Keywords: fat, Processed Foods, sodium, diet trends

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3 Design of a Dietetic Food: Case of Lebanese Kishk

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Jessica Koura, Dona Shalhoub, Elias Atallah

Abstract:

Due to the increase of demand on dietetic food and the need for more types of diet food, the production of dietetic food is increasing and improving. This demand on dietetic food has triggered us to study the market in which we found that Kishk (Lebanese dairy product) diet is not available. Production of a low fat product which is diet Kishk was our concern. A strategy was followed to choose the right idea that will satisfy the need of the market. The whole process was studied and explained thoroughly. The percentage of fat was found to be 32.52 % in regular Kishk and 3.84 % in the diet Kishk produced. The new product has the advantage to be high in protein, low in fat.

Keywords: fat, design and industrialization, dietetic, diet Kishk

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2 Comparative Effects of Resveratrol and Energy Restriction on Liver Fat Accumulation and Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation

Authors: Leixuri Aguirre, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Maria P. Portillo

Abstract:

Introduction: Energy restriction is an effective approach in preventing liver steatosis. However, due to social and economic reasons among others, compliance with this treatment protocol is often very poor, especially in the long term. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound that belongs to stilbene group, has been widely reported to imitate the effects of energy restriction. Objective: To analyze the effects of resveratrol under normoenergetic feeding conditions and under a mild energy restriction on liver fat accumulation and hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Methods: 36 male six-week-old rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks in order to induce steatosis. Then, rats were divided into four groups and fed a standard diet for 6 additional weeks: control group (C), resveratrol group (RSV, resveratrol 30 mg/kg/d), restricted group (R, 15 % energy restriction) and combined group (RR, 15 % energy restriction and resveratrol 30 mg/kg/d). Liver triacylglycerols (TG) and total cholesterol contents were measured by using commercial kits. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT 1a) and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured spectrophotometrically. TFAM (mitochondrial transcription factor A) and peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha (PPARα) protein contents, as well as the ratio acetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α)/Total PGC1α were analyzed by Western blot. Statistical analysis was performed by using one way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as post-hoc test. Results: No differences were observed among the four groups regarding liver weight and cholesterol content, but the three treated groups showed reduced TG when compared to the control group, being the restricted groups the ones showing the lowest values (with no differences between them). Higher CPT 1a and CS activities were observed in the groups supplemented with resveratrol (RSV and RR), with no difference between them. The acetylated PGC1α /total PGC1α ratio was lower in the treated groups (RSV, R and RR) than in the control group, with no differences among them. As far as TFAM protein expression is concerned, only the RR group reached a higher value. Finally, no changes were observed in PPARα protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol administration is an effective intervention for liver triacylglycerol content reduction, but a mild energy restriction is even more effective. The mechanisms of action of these two strategies are different. Thus resveratrol, but not energy restriction, seems to act by increasing fatty acid oxidation, although mitochondriogenesis seems not to be induced. When both treatments (resveratrol administration and a mild energy restriction) were combined, no additive or synergic effects were appreciated. Acknowledgements: MINECO-FEDER (AGL2015-65719-R), Basque Government (IT-572-13), University of the Basque Country (ELDUNANOTEK UFI11/32), Institut of Health Carlos III (CIBERobn). Iñaki Milton is a fellowship from the Basque Government.

Keywords: Liver, Oxidation, fat, Resveratrol, energy restriction

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1 Developing a GIS-Based Tool for the Management of Fats, Oils, and Grease (FOG): A Case Study of Thames Water Wastewater Catchment

Authors: Thomas D. Collin, Rachel Cunningham, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa

Abstract:

Fats, oils and grease (FOG) are by-products of food preparation and cooking processes. FOG enters wastewater systems through a variety of sources such as households, food service establishments, and industrial food facilities. Over time, if no source control is in place, FOG builds up on pipe walls, leading to blockages, and potentially to sewer overflows which are a major risk to the Environment and Human Health. UK water utilities spend millions of pounds annually trying to control FOG. Despite UK legislation specifying that discharge of such material is against the law, it is often complicated for water companies to identify and prosecute offenders. Hence, it leads to uncertainties regarding the attitude to take in terms of FOG management. Research is needed to seize the full potential of implementing current practices. The aim of this research was to undertake a comprehensive study to document the extent of FOG problems in sewer lines and reinforce existing knowledge. Data were collected to develop a model estimating quantities of FOG available for recovery within Thames Water wastewater catchments. Geographical Information System (GIS) software was used in conjunction to integrate data with a geographical component. FOG was responsible for at least 1/3 of sewer blockages in Thames Water waste area. A waste-based approach was developed through an extensive review to estimate the potential for FOG collection and recovery. Three main sources were identified: residential, commercial and industrial. Commercial properties were identified as one of the major FOG producers. The total potential FOG generated was estimated for the 354 wastewater catchments. Additionally, raw and settled sewage were sampled and analysed for FOG (as hexane extractable material) monthly at 20 sewage treatment works (STW) for three years. A good correlation was found with the sampled FOG and population equivalent (PE). On average, a difference of 43.03% was found between the estimated FOG (waste-based approach) and sampled FOG (raw sewage sampling). It was suggested that the approach undertaken could overestimate the FOG available, the sampling could only capture a fraction of FOG arriving at STW, and/or the difference could account for FOG accumulating in sewer lines. Furthermore, it was estimated that on average FOG could contribute up to 12.99% of the primary sludge removed. The model was further used to investigate the relationship between estimated FOG and number of blockages. The higher the FOG potential, the higher the number of FOG-related blockages is. The GIS-based tool was used to identify critical areas (i.e. high FOG potential and high number of FOG blockages). As reported in the literature, FOG was one of the main causes of sewer blockages. By identifying critical areas (i.e. high FOG potential and high number of FOG blockages) the model further explored the potential for source-control in terms of ‘sewer relief’ and waste recovery. Hence, it helped targeting where benefits from implementation of management strategies could be the highest. However, FOG is still likely to persist throughout the networks, and further research is needed to assess downstream impacts (i.e. at STW).

Keywords: Oil, GIS, fat, fog, grease, sewer blockages, sewer networks

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