Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

falling weight deflectometer Related Abstracts

3 The Dynamic Cone Penetration Test: A Review of Its Correlations and Applications

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Hamid


Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) is widely used for field quality assessment of soils. Its application to predict the engineering properties of soil is globally promoted by the fact that it is difficult to obtain undisturbed soil samples, especially when loose or submerged sandy soil is encountered. Detailed discussion will be presented on the current development of DCPT correlations with resilient modulus, relative density, California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength and shear strength that have been developed for different materials in both the laboratory and field, as well as on the usage of DCPT in quality control of compaction of earth fills and performance evaluation of pavement layers. In addition, the relationship of the DCPT with other instruments such as falling weight deflectometer, nuclear gauge, soil stiffens gauge, and plate load test will be reported. Lastely, the application of DCPT in Saudi Arabia in recent years will be addressed in this manuscript.

Keywords: plate load test, dynamic cone penetration test, falling weight deflectometer, nuclear gauge, soil stiffens gauge, automated dynamic cone penetration

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2 Deterioration Prediction of Pavement Load Bearing Capacity from FWD Data

Authors: Kotaro Sasai, Daijiro Mizutani, Kiyoyuki Kaito


Expressways in Japan have been built in an accelerating manner since the 1960s with the aid of rapid economic growth. About 40 percent in length of expressways in Japan is now 30 years and older and has become superannuated. Time-related deterioration has therefore reached to a degree that administrators, from a standpoint of operation and maintenance, are forced to take prompt measures on a large scale aiming at repairing inner damage deep in pavements. These measures have already been performed for bridge management in Japan and are also expected to be embodied for pavement management. Thus, planning methods for the measures are increasingly demanded. Deterioration of layers around road surface such as surface course and binder course is brought about at the early stages of whole pavement deterioration process, around 10 to 30 years after construction. These layers have been repaired primarily because inner damage usually becomes significant after outer damage, and because surveys for measuring inner damage such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) survey and open-cut survey are costly and time-consuming process, which has made it difficult for administrators to focus on inner damage as much as they have been supposed to. As expressways today have serious time-related deterioration within them deriving from the long time span since they started to be used, it is obvious the idea of repairing layers deep in pavements such as base course and subgrade must be taken into consideration when planning maintenance on a large scale. This sort of maintenance requires precisely predicting degrees of deterioration as well as grasping the present situations of pavements. Methods for predicting deterioration are determined to be either mechanical or statistical. While few mechanical models have been presented, as far as the authors know of, previous studies have presented statistical methods for predicting deterioration in pavements. One describes deterioration process by estimating Markov deterioration hazard model, while another study illustrates it by estimating Proportional deterioration hazard model. Both of the studies analyze deflection data obtained from FWD surveys and present statistical methods for predicting deterioration process of layers around road surface. However, layers of base course and subgrade remain unanalyzed. In this study, data collected from FWD surveys are analyzed to predict deterioration process of layers deep in pavements in addition to surface layers by a means of estimating a deterioration hazard model using continuous indexes. This model can prevent the loss of information of data when setting rating categories in Markov deterioration hazard model when evaluating degrees of deterioration in roadbeds and subgrades. As a result of portraying continuous indexes, the model can predict deterioration in each layer of pavements and evaluate it quantitatively. Additionally, as the model can also depict probability distribution of the indexes at an arbitrary point and establish a risk control level arbitrarily, it is expected that this study will provide knowledge like life cycle cost and informative content during decision making process referring to where to do maintenance on as well as when.

Keywords: Pavement, load bearing capacity, falling weight deflectometer, deterioration hazard model, inner damage

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1 Development of a General Purpose Computer Programme Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm: An Application towards Predicting Elastic Properties of Pavement

Authors: Sai Sankalp Vemavarapu


This paper discusses the application of machine learning in the field of transportation engineering for predicting engineering properties of pavement more accurately and efficiently. Predicting the elastic properties aid us in assessing the current road conditions and taking appropriate measures to avoid any inconvenience to commuters. This improves the longevity and sustainability of the pavement layer while reducing its overall life-cycle cost. As an example, we have implemented differential evolution (DE) in the back-calculation of the elastic modulus of multi-layered pavement. The proposed DE global optimization back-calculation approach is integrated with a forward response model. This approach treats back-calculation as a global optimization problem where the cost function to be minimized is defined as the root mean square error in measured and computed deflections. The optimal solution which is elastic modulus, in this case, is searched for in the solution space by the DE algorithm. The best DE parameter combinations and the most optimum value is predicted so that the results are reproducible whenever the need arises. The algorithm’s performance in varied scenarios was analyzed by changing the input parameters. The prediction was well within the permissible error, establishing the supremacy of DE.

Keywords: Global optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Differential Evolution, falling weight deflectometer, cost function, metaheuristic algorithm, multilayered pavement, pavement condition assessment, pavement layer moduli back calculation

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