Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

factors Related Abstracts

45 Factors for Entry Timing Choices Using Principal Axis Factorial Analysis and Logistic Regression Model

Authors: C. M. Mat Isa, H. Mohd Saman, S. R. Mohd Nasir, A. Jaapar

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International market expansion involves a strategic process of market entry decision through which a firm expands its operation from domestic to the international domain. Hence, entry timing choices require the needs to balance the early entry risks and the problems in losing opportunities as a result of late entry into a new market. Questionnaire surveys administered to 115 Malaysian construction firms operating in 51 countries worldwide have resulted in 39.1 percent response rate. Factor analysis was used to determine the most significant factors affecting entry timing choices of the firms to penetrate the international market. A logistic regression analysis used to examine the firms’ entry timing choices, indicates that the model has correctly classified 89.5 per cent of cases as late movers. The findings reveal that the most significant factor influencing the construction firms’ choices as late movers was the firm factor related to the firm’s international experience, resources, competencies and financing capacity. The study also offers valuable information to construction firms with intention to internationalize their businesses.

Keywords: factors, early movers, entry timing choices, late movers, logistic regression model, principal axis factorial analysis, Malaysian construction firms

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44 Effect of Nitrogen Source on Production of CMCase by Bacillus megaterium 1295S Isolated from Sewage Treatment Plants

Authors: Adel A. S. Al-Gheethi, M. O. Abdul-Monem

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Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from wastewater and sludge, and identified as Bacillus megaterium 1295S, Sporosarcina pasteurii 586S, Bacillus subtilis 117S, Burkholderia cepacia 120S and Staphylococcus xylosus 222W. Among bacteria, B. megaterium 1295S was the best cellulase producer under the catabolic repression and was therefore selected to study the factors affecting cellulase production. The optimum conditions for cellulase production were observed in CMC-Yeast Extract (CYE) agar medium (pH 6.5) inoculated with 0.4 mL of bacterial culture and incubated at 45˚C for 72 h. Twenty amino acids were introduced into the production medium as nitrogen source to investigate the production of cellulase in presence of amino acids in comparison to peptone (as an organic source) and sodium nitrate (as an inorganic source). The results found that the maximum production of cellulase was recorded at 50 ppm when L-hydroxy proline, L-arginine, glycine, L-histidine, L-leucine, DL-isoleucine, DL-β-phenylalanine were used as sole nitrogen sources and at 100 ppm when DL-threonine, L-ornithine 12.29, L-proline were used as sole nitrogen sources. The highest biomass yield was found when glycine 5 ppm and DL-serine 100 ppm used as a nitrogen source.

Keywords: Amino Acids, factors, CMCase, Bacillus megaterium 1295S

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43 Factors Influencing Savings of People between 30-40 Years Old in Dusit District, Bangkok Metropolis

Authors: Charawee Butbumrung

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The purpose of this research were to study the factors influencing savings of people between 30-40 years old in Dusit District, Bangkok Metropolis. The statistic used in data analysis were frequency, mean and standard deviation, t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient based on social science statistic program. Result of hypothesis testing showed that married people earning different monthly salary generally saved by depositing into the bank at different level. People of different occupation saved in form of life insurance at different level at statistical significance 0.05. Result of influence testing between saving motivation was found that people saved for use upon sickness or getting older, saved for the children. Worthiness and certainty influenced saving in the same direction at high level while saving motivation in public relation, annual tax reduction, inducement by the others, bonus gift influenced saving in the same direction at moderate level at statistical significance 0.05.

Keywords: factors, Bangkok metropolis, Dusit District, saving

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42 Factors Influencing the Decision of International Tourists to Revisit Bangkok,Thailand

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee, Taksina Bunbut

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The purposes of this research were to study factors influencing the decision of international tourists to revisit Bangkok, Thailand. A random 200 samples was collected. Half the sample group was male and the other half was female. A questionnaire was used to collect data and small in-depth interviews were also used to get their opinions about importance of tourist decision making factors. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents rated these factors at medium level of importance. The ranking showed that the first three important factors were a safe place to stay, friendly people, and clean food. The three least important factors were a convenience transportation, clean country, and child friendly. In addition there was no significance difference between male and female in their ratings of the factors of influencing the decision of international tourists to revisit Bangkok, Thailand.

Keywords: Thailand, factors, international tourists, revisit

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41 Factor Influencing the Certification to ISO 9000:2008 among SME in Malaysia

Authors: Dolhadi Bin Zainudin

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The study attempts to predict the relationship between influencing factors in the adoption of ISO 9000:2008 and to identify which how these factors play the main role in achieving ISO 9000 standard. A survey using structured questionnaire was employed. A total of 255 respondents from 255 small and medium enterprises participated in this study. With regards to influencing factors, a discriminant analysis was conducted and the results showed that three out of nine critical success factors is statistically significant between ISO 9000:2008 and non-ISO 9000 certified companies which are communication for quality, information and analysis and organizational culture.

Keywords: Quality management, factors, Malaysia, ISO 9000, small and medium enterprise, influencing factors

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40 Factors Related to Behaviors of Thai Travelers Traveling to Koh Kred Island, Nonthaburi Province

Authors: Bundit Pungnirund, Boonyada Pahasing

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The objective of this research is to study factors related to behaviors of Thai travelers traveling to Koh Kret Island, Nonthaburi Province. The subjects of this study included 400 Thai travelers coming to Koh Kred. Questionnaires were used to collect data which were analyzed by computer program to find mean and correlation coefficient by Pearson. The results showed that Thai travelers reported their opinions and attitudes in high level on the marketing service mix, product, price, place, promotion, personal, physical evidence, and process. They reported on travelling motivation factor, tourist attraction, and facility at high level. Moreover, marketing service mix, product, price, place, promotion, personal, physical, and process including travelling motivation factor, tourist attraction, and facility had positive relationship with the frequency in travelling at statistically significant level (0.01), though in a low relationship but in the same direction.

Keywords: Behaviors, factors, Thai travelers, Koh Kled, Nonthaburi Province

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39 The Appraisal of Construction Sites Productivity: In Kendall’s Concordance

Authors: Abdulkadir Abu Lawal

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For the dearth of reliable cardinal numerical data, the linked phenomena in productivity indices such as operational costs and company turnovers, etc. could not be investigated. This would not give us insight to the root of productivity problems at unique sites. So, ordinal ranking by professionals who were most directly involved with construction sites was applied for Kendall’s concordance. Responses gathered from independent architects, builders/engineers, and quantity surveyors were herein analyzed. They were responses based on factors that affect sites productivity, and these factors were categorized as head office factors, resource management effectiveness factors, motivational factors, and training/skill development factors. It was found that productivity is low and has to be improved in order to facilitate Nigerian efforts in bridging its infrastructure deficit. The significance of this work is underlined with the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance of 0.78, while remedial measures must be emphasized to stimulate better productivity. Further detailed study can be undertaken by using Fuzzy logic analysis on wider Delphi survey.

Keywords: factors, Kendall's coefficient of concordance, magnitude of agreement, percentage magnitude of dichotomy, ranking variables

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38 Labor Productivity in the Construction Industry: Factors Influencing the Spanish Construction Labor Productivity

Authors: G. Robles, A. Stifi, José L. Ponz-Tienda, S. Gentes

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This research paper aims to identify, analyze and rank factors affecting labor productivity in Spain with respect to their relative importance. Using a selected set of 35 factors, a structured questionnaire survey was utilized as the method to collect data from companies. Target population is comprised by a random representative sample of practitioners related with the Spanish construction industry. Findings reveal the top five ranked factors are as follows: (1) shortage or late supply of materials; (2) clarity of the drawings and project documents; (3) clear and daily task assignment; (4) tools or equipment shortages; (5) level of skill and experience of laborers. Additionally, this research also pretends to provide simple and comprehensive recommendations so that they could be implemented by construction managers for an effective management of construction labor forces.

Keywords: Construction Management, Labor Productivity, Lean construction, Improvement, factors

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37 Expert Based System Design for Integrated Waste Management

Authors: L. T. Kóczy, A. Buruzs, M. F. Hatwágner, A. Torma

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Recently, an increasing number of researchers have been focusing on working out realistic solutions to sustainability problems. As sustainability issues gain higher importance for organisations, the management of such decisions becomes critical. Knowledge representation is a fundamental issue of complex knowledge based systems. Many types of sustainability problems would benefit from models based on experts’ knowledge. Cognitive maps have been used for analyzing and aiding decision making. A cognitive map can be made of almost any system or problem. A fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) can successfully represent knowledge and human experience, introducing concepts to represent the essential elements and the cause and effect relationships among the concepts to model the behavior of any system. Integrated waste management systems (IWMS) are complex systems that can be decomposed to non-related and related subsystems and elements, where many factors have to be taken into consideration that may be complementary, contradictory, and competitive; these factors influence each other and determine the overall decision process of the system. The goal of the present paper is to construct an efficient IWMS which considers various factors. The authors’ intention is to propose an expert based system design approach for implementing expert decision support in the area of IWMSs and introduces an appropriate methodology for the development and analysis of group FCM. A framework for such a methodology consisting of the development and application phases is presented.

Keywords: Group Decision, factors, fuzzy cognitive map, integrated waste management system

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36 Factors That Affect the Effectiveness of Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Babak Darvish Rouhani, Maryam Khanian Najafabadi, Pourya Nikfard, Mohd Nazri Mahrin

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Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a strategy that is employed by enterprises in order to align their business and Information Technology (IT). EA is managed, developed, and maintained through Enterprise Architecture Implementation Methodology (EAIM). The effectiveness of EA implementation is the degree in which EA helps to achieve the collective goals of the organization. This paper analyzes the results of a survey that aims to explore the factors that affect the effectiveness of EAIM and specifically the relationship between factors and effectiveness of the output and functionality of EA project. The exploratory factor analysis highlights a specific set of five factors: alignment, adaptiveness, support, binding, and innovation. The regression analysis shows that there is a statistically significant and positive relationship between each of the five factors and the effectiveness of EAIM. Consistent with theory and practice, the most prominent factor for developing an effective EAIM is innovation. The findings contribute to the measuring the effectiveness of EA implementation project by providing an indication of the measurement implementation approaches which is used by the Enterprise Architects, and developing an effective EAIM.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Enterprise Architecture‎, factors, enterprise architecture implementation methodology, implementation methodology

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35 Retrospective Reconstruction of Time Series Data for Integrated Waste Management

Authors: L. T. Kóczy, A. Buruzs, M. F. Hatwágner, A. Torma

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The development, operation and maintenance of Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS) affects essentially the sustainable concern of every region. The features of such systems have great influence on all of the components of sustainability. In order to reach the optimal way of processes, a comprehensive mapping of the variables affecting the future efficiency of the system is needed such as analysis of the interconnections among the components and modelling of their interactions. The planning of a IWMS is based fundamentally on technical and economical opportunities and the legal framework. Modelling the sustainability and operation effectiveness of a certain IWMS is not in the scope of the present research. The complexity of the systems and the large number of the variables require the utilization of a complex approach to model the outcomes and future risks. This complex method should be able to evaluate the logical framework of the factors composing the system and the interconnections between them. The authors of this paper studied the usability of the Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) approach modelling the future operation of IWMS’s. The approach requires two input data set. One is the connection matrix containing all the factors affecting the system in focus with all the interconnections. The other input data set is the time series, a retrospective reconstruction of the weights and roles of the factors. This paper introduces a novel method to develop time series by content analysis.

Keywords: Content Analysis, Time series, factors, integrated waste management system

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34 The Motivating and Limiting Factors of Learners’ Engagement in an Online Discussion Forum

Authors: I. N. Umar, K. Durairaj

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Lately, asynchronous discussion forum is integrated in higher educational institutions as it may increase learning process, learners’ understanding, achievement and knowledge construction. Asynchronous discussion forum is used to complement the traditional, face-to-face learning session in hybrid learning courses. However, studies have proven that students’ engagement in online forum are still unconvincing. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the motivating factors and obstacles that affect the learners’ engagement in asynchronous discussion forum. This study is carried out in one of the public higher educational institutions in Malaysia with 18 postgraduate students as samples. The authors have developed a 40-items questionnaire based on literature review. The results indicate several factors that have encouraged or limited students’ engagement in asynchronous discussion forum: (a) the practices or behaviors of peers, or instructors, (b) the needs for the discussions, (c) the learners’ personalities, (d) constraints in continuing the discussion forum, (e) lack of ideas, (f) the level of thoughts, (g) the level of knowledge construction, (h) technical problems, (i) time constraints and (j) misunderstanding. This study suggests some recommendations to increase the students’ engagement in online forums. Finally, based upon the findings, some implications are proposed for further research.

Keywords: Engagement, factors, asynchronous discussion forum, motivating, limiting

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33 Anxiety Factors in the Saudi EFL Learners

Authors: Fariha Asif

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The Saudi EFL learners face a number of problems in EFL learning, anxiety is the most potent one among those. It means that its resolution can lead to better language skills in Saudi students. That’s why, the study is carried out and is considered to be of interest to the Saudi language learners, educators and the policy makers because of the potentially negative impact that anxiety has on English language learning. The purpose of the study is to explore the factors that cause language anxiety in the Saudi EFL learners while learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language. The investigation of the anxiety-producing factors that arise while learning to communicate in the target language will hopefully broaden the insight into the issue of language anxiety and will help language teachers in making the classroom environment less stressful. The study seeks to answer the questions such as what are the psycholinguistic factors that cause language anxiety among ESL/EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language, especially in the context of the Saudi students. What are the socio-cultural factors that cause language anxiety among Saudi EFL learners in learning and speaking English Language? How is anxiety manifested in the language learning of the Saudi EFL learners? And which strategies can be used to successfully cope with language anxiety? The scope of the study is limited to the college and university English Teachers and subject specialists (males and females) in public sectors colleges and universities in Saudi Arabia. Some of the key findings of the study are:, Anxiety plays an important role in English as foreign language learning for the Saudi EFL learners. Some teachers believe that anxiety bears negatives effects for the learners, while some others think that anxiety serves a positive outcome for the learners by giving them an extra bit of motivation to do their best in English language learning. Language teachers seem to have consensus that L1 interference is one of the major factors that cause anxiety among the Saudi EFL learners. Most of the Saudi EFL learners are found to have fear of making mistakes. They don’t take initiative and opt to keep quiet and don’t respond fearing that they would make mistakes and this would ruin their image in front of their peers. Discouraging classroom environment is also counted as one of the major anxiety causing factors. The teachers, who don’t encourage learners positively, make them anxious and they start avoiding class participation. It is also found that English language teachers have their important role to minimize the negative effects of anxiety in the classes. The teachers’ positive encouragement can do wonders in this regard. A positive, motivating and encouraging class environment is essential to produce desired results in English language learning for the Saudi EFL learners.

Keywords: Psychology, speaking, factors, EFL

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32 Health Information Technology in Developing Countries: A Structured Literature Review with Reference to the Case of Libya

Authors: Jim S. Briggs, Haythem A. Nakkas, Philip J. Scott

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This paper reports a structured literature review of the application of Health Information Technology in developing countries, defined as the World Bank categories Low-income countries, Lower-middle-income, and Upper-middle-income countries. The aim was to identify and classify the various applications of health information technology to assess its current state in developing countries and explore potential areas of research. We offer specific analysis and application of HIT in Libya as one of the developing countries. Method: A structured literature review was conducted using the following online databases: IEEE, Science Direct, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Publication dates were set for 2000-2013. For the PubMed search, publications in English, French, and Arabic were specified. Using a content analysis approach, 159 papers were analyzed and a total number of 26 factors were identified that affect the adoption of health information technology. Results: Of the 2681 retrieved articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria which were carefully analyzed and classified. Conclusion: The implementation of health information technology across developing countries is varied. Whilst it was initially expected financial constraints would have severely limited health information technology implementation, some developing countries like India have nevertheless dominated the literature and taken the lead in conducting scientific research. Comparing the number of studies to the number of countries in each category, we found that Low-income countries and Lower-middle-income had more studies carried out than Upper-middle-income countries. However, whilst IT has been used in various sectors of the economy, the healthcare sector in developing countries is still failing to benefit fully from the potential advantages that IT can offer.

Keywords: Implementation, developing countries, Health Information Technology, Developed Countries, Failure, Libya, factors, success

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31 Factors Associated with Death during Tuberculosis Treatment of Patients Co-Infected with HIV at a Tertiary Care Setting in Cameroon: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Retrospective Cohort Study (2006-2013)

Authors: A. A. Agbor, Jean Joel R. Bigna, Serges Clotaire Billong, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, Gabriel L. Ekali, Claudia S. Plottel, Jean Jacques N. Noubiap, Hortence Abessolo, Roselyne Toby, Sinata Koulla-Shiro

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Background: Contributors to fatal outcomes in patients undergoing tuberculosis (TB) treatment in the setting of HIV co-infection are poorly characterized, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study’s aim was to assess factors associated with death in TB/HIV co-infected patients during the first 6 months their TB treatment. Methods: We conducted a tertiary-care hospital-based retrospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2013 at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We reviewed medical records to identify hospitalized co-infected TB/HIV patients aged 15 years and older. Death was defined as any death occurring during TB treatment, as per the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with death. Magnitudes of associations were expressed by adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The 337 patients enrolled had a mean age of 39.3 (+/- 10.3) years and more (54.3%) were women. TB treatment outcomes included: treatment success in 60.8% (n=205), death in 29.4% (n=99), not evaluated in 5.3% (n=18), loss to follow-up in 5.3% (n=14), and failure in 0.3% (n=1) . After exclusion of patients lost to follow-up and not evaluated, death in TB/HIV co-infected patients during TB treatment was associated with: a TB diagnosis made before national implementation of guidelines regarding initiation of antiretroviral therapy (aOR = 2.50 [1.31-4.78]; p = 0.006), the presence of other AIDS-defining infections (aOR = 2.73 [1.27-5.86]; p = 0.010), non-AIDS comorbidities (aOR = 3.35 [1.37-8.21]; p = 0.008), not receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (aOR = 3.61 [1.71-7.63]; p = 0.001), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (aOR = 2.45 [1.18-5.08]; p = 0.016), and CD4 cell counts < 50 cells/mm3 (aOR = 16.43 [1.05-258.04]; p = 0.047). Conclusions: The success rate of anti-tuberculosis treatment among hospitalized TB/HIV co-infected patients in our setting is low. Mortality in the first 6 months of treatment was high and strongly associated with specific clinical factors including states of greater immunosuppression, highlighting the urgent need for targeted interventions, including provision of anti-retroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in order to enhance patient outcomes.

Keywords: Death, factors, TB/HIV co-infection, treatment outcomes

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30 Factors of English Language Learning and Acquisition at Bisha College of Technology

Authors: Khlaid Albishi

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This paper participates in giving new vision and explains the learning and acquisition processes of English language by analyzing a certain context. Five important factors in English language acquisition and learning are discussed and suitable solutions are provided. The factors are compared with the learners' linguistic background at Bisha College of Technology BCT attempting to link the issues faced by students and the research done on similar situations. These factors are phonology, age of acquisition, motivation, psychology and courses of English. These factors are very important; because they interfere and affect specific learning processes at BCT context and general English learning situations.

Keywords: Language Acquisition, Language Learning, factors, Bisha college

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29 Stakeholders Views on Why Childhood Obesity is Rising in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adedini, B. A. Aina, P. U. Ogbo

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Child obesity is on the rise globally. According to the World Health Organization, the number of obese children would increase to 70 million by 2025 if no intervention is made. An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst school children in Lagos State, Nigeria has been established but specific factors promoting its prevalence are unknown. This aim of this study is to identify the commonly expressed factor(s) responsible for the rise in prevalence of child overweight and obesity in Lagos, Nigeria. Five focus group discussions were conducted with different groups of stake-holders involved in child care, namely: parents, teachers and health workers. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method; a validated question guide was employed for the discussion sessions. The discussions were recorded, collated, analysed using Grounded theory to extract themes. Six themes emerged from the discussions as follows: Civilization and lifestyle imbalance resulting from busy work schedules of young mothers leading to adoption of westernized culture promoting preference for processed and fast food meals; insecurity and congestion of the state which discourages out-door activities; ignorance of the populace on the prevalence of child obesity in the state; inadequate educative and enlightenment programmes in schools and by the Nigerian government; myths on child care and body physique and societal perceptions of the children born into affluent homes. Some of the factors responsible for the rise in the prevalence of child obesity in Lagos, Nigeria have been identified. Preventive strategies to control the prevalence of obesity in children residing in Lagos state is considered for further studies.

Keywords: Childhood Obesity, Stakeholders, factors, Lagos state

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28 Factors Associated with Unintended Pregnancy amongst Currently Married Pregnant Women in Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. S. Asaolu, A. Bolorunduro

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Background: Unwanted, mistimed and unintended pregnancy is an important public health issue and the most common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. Unintended pregnancy is a potential hazard for every sexually active woman as it most times ends in unsafe abortion. The study aimed at assessing the pre-conception contraceptive use, prevalence of unintended pregnancies and the non-contraceptive factors associated with unintended pregnancy amongst currently married women in Osun state. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study among randomly selected 341 currently married pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ilesa town of Osun state was conducted in 5 health facilities. A random selection of 5 of the 22 health facilities in the state was done. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire and all completed questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS. Result: About two-fifth of the currently pregnant women (40%) who has never used an FP method reported that their current pregnancy was unintended. The results indicate that age of women, age at first sex, substance use, total children ever born of children, religion, and extramarital affairs were key predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women who have higher parity are more likely to experience unintended pregnancy compared to women with lower parity (odds ratio, 0.25). Furthermore, those women who don’t engage in extra marital affairs were less likely to experience unintended pregnancy (odds ratio, 0.3) compared to those who do not. Contribution to knowledge: The predicted probability, using logistic regression, has shown that women who engage in extramarital affairs and women with high parity are more likely to have unintended pregnancy. Conclusion: Behaviour change programs should aim to reduce unintended pregnancy by focusing mostly on identified factors so that the need for abortion is decreased and the overall well-being of the family is maintained and enhanced.

Keywords: Pregnant Women, factors, Nigeria, unintended pregnancy

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27 Pros and Cons of Different Types of Irrigation Systems for Date Palm Production in Sebha, Libya

Authors: Ahmad Aridah, Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen, Zora Singh

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This study investigated the effectiveness of various types of irrigation systems in regards to the impact that these have on the productivity of date palms in the semi-arid and arid region of Sebha, Southwest Libya. The date palm is an economically important crop in Libya and contributes to the agriculture industry, foreign exchange earnings, farmers’ income, and employment in the country. The date palm industry relies on large amounts of water for growing the crop. Farmers in Southwest Libya use a variety of irrigation systems, but the quality and quantity of water varies between systems and this affects the productivity and income of farmers. Using survey data from 210 farmers, this study estimated and assessed the pros and cons of different types of irrigation systems for date palm production under various irrigation systems currently used in Sebha, Libya. The number of years farmers have used irrigation, the area, irrigation water consumption, time of irrigation, number of farm workers (including family labour) and inputs used were measured for surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods. Findings from this research provide new insights into the advantages and disadvantages of the various irrigation systems, problems encountered by farmers and the factors that affect the quality and quantity of the irrigation system. The paper discussed proposed solutions to deal with the problems including timing of irrigation, canal maintenance, repair of wells and water control.

Keywords: Libya, factors, date palm, irrigation method

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26 Some Factors Affecting to Farm Size of Duck Farming

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Ahmad Ramadhan Siregar

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The purpose of this research was to know some factors affecting farm size of duck farming (case study in Pinrang district, South Sulawesi). This research was conducted in 2013. Total sample was 45 duck farmers which were selected from 6 regions in Mattiro Sompe sub district, Pinrang district, South Sulawesi province through stratified random sampling. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires and observation. Multiple regression equation was used to analyze the data. Dependent variable was duck population, while age of respondents, farming experience, land size, education, and income level as independent variables. This research revealed that R2 was 0.920. Simultaneously, age of respondents, farming experience, land size, education, and income level significantly influenced farm size of duck farming (P < 1%). Only income influenced farm size of duck farming (P < 1%).

Keywords: factors, duck, dry system, farm-size

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25 Factors Affecting English Language Acquisition and Learning for Primary Schools in Nigeria

Authors: Chibuzor Dalmeida

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This paper shall discuss the factors affecting English Language Acquisition and Learning for Primary School in Nigeria. Learning English language is a difficult task mostly those at the primary school level. Pupils find it more difficult on vocabulary, grammar and sentence structure, idioms, pronunciation etc. Researchers have discovered the reasons behind these discrepancies and have formulated theories that could be of utmost assistance to English language teachers and students. This paper further looked at the following factors that include Learner Characteristics and Personal Traits, Situational and Environmental Factors, Prior Language Development and Competence and Age and Brain Development. It further recommended that pupils must learn new vocabulary, rules for grammar and sentence structure, idioms, pronunciation. Pupils whose families and communities set high standards for language acquisition learn more quickly than those who do not. Exposure to high-quality programs also essential. Pupils do best when they are allowed to speak their native language.

Keywords: Learning, Acquisition, factors, affecting

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24 Cadmium Concentrations in Breast Milk and Factors of Exposition: Systematic Review

Authors: Abha Cherkani Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Nezha Mouane

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Background: This is the first systematic review summarizing 43 years of research from 36 countries in the assessment of cadmium in breast milk; a suitable matrix in human biomonitoring. Objectives: To report from the published literature the levels of cadmium in breast milk and the affecting factors causing the increase of cadmium concentrations; also to gather several quantitative data which might be useful to evaluate the international degrees of maternal and infant exposure. Methods: We reviewed the literature for studies reporting quantitative data about cadmium levels in human breast milk in the world that have been published between 1971 and 2014 and that are available on Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar. The aim of the study, country, period of samples collection, size of samples, sampling method, time of lactation, mother’s age, area of residence, cadmium concentration and other information were extracted. Results: 67 studies were selected and included in this systematic review. Some concentrations greatly exceed the limit of the WHO, However about 50% of the studies had less than 1 µg/l cadmium concentration (the recommendation of the WHO); as well many factors have shown their implication in breast milk contamination by Cadmium as lactation stage, smoking, diet, supplement intake, interaction with other mineral elements, age of mothers, parity and other parameters. Conclusion: Breast milk is a pathway of maternal excretion of cadmium. It is also a biological indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and cadmium exposure of the lactating women and the nourished infant. Therefore preventive measures and continuous monitoring are necessary.

Keywords: factors, breast milk, systematic review, cadmium level

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23 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur

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Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: Risk, correlation, factors, coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), cathetarization

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22 Factors Leading to Teenage Pregnancy in the Selected Villages of Mopani District, in Limpopo Province

Authors: Z. N. Salim, R. T. Lebese, M. S. Maputle

Abstract:

Background: The international community has been concerned about population growth for more than a century. Teenagers in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at high risk of HIV infection, and this is exacerbated by poverty, whereby many teenagers in Africa come from disadvantaged families/background, which leads them to engage in sexual activities at an early age for survival hence leading to increased rate of teenage pregnancy. Purpose: The study sought to explore, describe and to identify the factors that lead to teenage pregnancy in the selected villages in Mopani District. Design: The study was conducted using a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual approach. A non-probability purposive sampling approach was used. Researcher collected the data with the assistance of research assistant. Participants were interviewed and information was captured on a tape recorder and analysed using open coding and thereafter collected into main themes, themes and sub-themes. The researcher conducted four focus groups, Participants aged between 10-19 years of age. Results: The finding of the study revealed that there are several factors that is contributing to teenagers falling pregnant. Personal, intuitional, and cultural were identified to be the factors leading to teenage pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, factors, leading, teenage

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21 Determinants of Smallholder Farmers' Intention to Adopt Jatropha as Raw Material for Biodiesel Production: A Proposed Model for Nigeria

Authors: Abdulsalam Mas’ud

Abstract:

Though Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentive was introduced in 2007, however, little if any is known about the impact of such policy for biodiesel development in Nigeria. It can be argued that lack of raw materials is one of the important factors that hinder the proper implementation of the policy. In line with this argument, this study aims to explore the determinants of smallholder farmers’ intention to adopt Jatropha as raw materials for biodiesel development in northern Nigeria, with Jigawa State as area of study. The determinants proposed for investigation covers personal factors, physical factors, institutional factors, economic factors, risk and uncertainty factors as well as social factors. The validation of the proposed model will have the implication of guiding policymakers towards enhancement of farmers’ participation in the Jatropha project for biodiesel raw materials production. The eventual byproducts of the proposed model validation and implementation will be employment generation, poverty reduction, combating dessert encroachment, economic diversification to renewable energy sources and electricity generation.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Adoption, factors, jatropha

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20 Factors Affecting Corruption in Ethiopia from Higher Education Instructors' Perceptions: Evidence from Business and Economics College, Bahir Dar University

Authors: Asmamaw Yigzaw Chirkos

Abstract:

Corruption increasingly has become one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. It undermines good government and rule of law and in turn leads to the misallocation of public resources, harms both the private and public sector and particularly hurts the poor. Corruption is found everywhere, but it is deep-rooted in the poor countries of Sub-Saharan Africa countries. Corruption in developing countries continues to be one of the greatest factors of poverty and underdevelopment. As it is the case in other developing countries, in Ethiopia, the culture of corruption has grown roots in the society at large and become endemic. Institutions, which were designed for the regulation of the relationships between citizens and the State, are being used instead for the personal enrichment of public officials and other corrupt private agents. This paper, therefore, assesses the major factors affecting Corruption in Ethiopia from higher education instructors’ Perceptions with special reference to Business and Economics College of Bahir Dar University. The findings of the study support several previously conducted studies in that each factor examined had a moderate to high positive correlation with corruption, where r ranged between .35 and .54. In addition, the 13 variables together explain about 37 percent change in perceived corruption in Ethiopia (R²= .37).

Keywords: Corruption, factors, Ethiopia, Bahir Dar university, instructors perceptions

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19 Exploring Factors That Affect the Utilisation of Antenatal Care Services: Perceptions of Women in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Leoba Nyathi, Augustine K. Tugli, Takalani G. Tshitangano

Abstract:

Use of health care services is an effective way of improving maternal and child health outcomes, especially in the rural areas. The study aimed to find out the perceptions of women on factors that affect the utilisation of antenatal care services (ANC) in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Mabunga village which is situated in Mangwe Rural District, Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach using explorative and descriptive design was adopted for the study. A sample of ten women were chosen from the target population by means of convenience sampling and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into themes and subthemes. The study results showed that access factors, socio-cultural factors, demographic factors, quality of care and knowledge about antenatal care services were the major factors affecting utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe Rural District. It was discovered that the geographical location of the village to the health care centres has a great impact on utilisation of services. All the women did not initiate ANC services as recommended and they also did not adhere to the number of times they were supposed to visit the health care centres. The findings concluded that women have the knowledge about ANC and they all attended at least once during their last pregnancy. However, inconsistencies in attendance were shown due to access, socio-cultural and demographic factors.

Keywords: Women, Utilisation, Affect, factors, perceptions, antenatal care services

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18 Evaluation of Complications after Colostomy Procedure and Related Factors in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital since 2012-2014

Authors: Alldila Hendy, Agi Satria

Abstract:

Background: A colostomy procedure is an important part in the management of surgical procedures in some diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract. So it is necessary to find the factors that influence the occurrence of complications. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analytic study in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital noting medical records of patients after the colostomy from January 2012 to December 2014 at the Division of Digestive Surgery. Results: In 136 cases of post-colostomy, 66 cases have complications, 14 is early-onset, and 52 is late-onset. 70 is without complications. Most complications are dermatitis, which is 31 (22.8%), cases of infection/abscess/fistula and intestinal obstruction are 13 (9.6%) and 5 patients (4.4%). A rare complication is colostomy retraction by 2 patients (1.5%), colostomy prolapse and necrosis/gangrene, which is only 3 patients (2.2%). A colostomy procedure in emergency surgery is riskier than elective surgery for complications after colostomy (p < 0.007, OR 2.85), Based on the operator who performs a colostomy procedure, the consultant had a lower risk of complications than fellow or resident (p < 0.0001). Based on the age factor, where the age of about 50 years has a risk of complications after colostomy (p < 0.018). Conclusion: The timing of operation (emergency or elective), age, and operator who perform a colostomy procedure have a significant relationship with an increased prevalence of complications after colostomy in RSCM.

Keywords: Complications, factors, procedure, colostomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
17 Reduced Model Investigations Supported by Fuzzy Cognitive Map to Foster Circular Economy

Authors: L. T. Kóczy, A. Buruzs, M. F. Hatwágner

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to develop an integrated method that may provide assistance to decision makers during system planning, design, operation and evaluation. In order to support the realization of Circular Economy (CE), it is essential to evaluate local needs and conditions which help to select the most appropriate system components and resource needs. Each of these activities requires careful planning, however, the model of CE offers a comprehensive interdisciplinary framework. The aim of this research was to develop and to introduce a practical methodology for evaluation of local and regional opportunities to promote CE.

Keywords: Sustainability, Circular economy, factors, model reduction, fuzzy cognitive map

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16 Factors Leading to the Renegotiation of Private Finance Initiative Design-Build-Finance-Operate Road Projects in the UK

Authors: Ajibola Fatokun, Akintola Akintoye, Champika Liyanage

Abstract:

The issue of renegotiation has not received public sector applause because of the outcomes recorded over years. Numerous reasons have been adduced by the stakeholders for the renegotiation of PPP road projects. In some instances, the reason can also be the factor leading to the renegotiation of PFI (DBFO) road projects. Thus, a number of factors inform the decision of the primary stakeholders to renegotiate the contract. This paper, therefore, evaluates and assesses the factors leading to the renegotiation of PFI (DBFO) road projects in the UK. Qualitative interviews involving both public and private stakeholders were extensively adopted on five PFI (DBFO) case study road projects in order to address the aim of this study. This serves to complement the findings of the literature with respect to the factors leading to the renegotiation of PPP road projects. The findings of this research reveal the respective factors leading to the renegotiations of PFI (DBFO) road projects in the UK. However, the prominent factors are a change in scope of the works necessitating works removal and an addition of assets, change in standards and obsolete specification occasioned by the long duration of the PFI road project concession among others.

Keywords: factors, renegotiation, Private Finance Initiative (PFI), design-build-finance-operate (DBFO) road projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 190