Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

factorial design Related Abstracts

9 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput


The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

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8 Response Surface Methodology to Obtain Disopyramide Phosphate Loaded Controlled Release Ethyl Cellulose Microspheres

Authors: Krutika K. Sawant, Anil Solanki


The present study deals with the preparation and optimization of ethyl cellulose-containing disopyramide phosphate loaded microspheres using solvent evaporation technique. A central composite design consisting of a two-level full factorial design superimposed on a star design was employed for optimizing the preparation microspheres. The drug:polymer ratio (X1) and speed of the stirrer (X2) were chosen as the independent variables. The cumulative release of the drug at a different time (2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 hr) was selected as the dependent variable. An optimum polynomial equation was generated for the prediction of the response variable at time 10 hr. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis and F statistics, it was concluded that sustained action can be obtained when X1 and X2 are kept at high levels. The X1X2 interaction was found to be statistically significant. The drug release pattern fitted the Higuchi model well. The data of a selected batch were subjected to an optimization study using Box-Behnken design, and an optimal formulation was fabricated. Good agreement was observed between the predicted and the observed dissolution profiles of the optimal formulation.

Keywords: controlled release, Microspheres, factorial design, ethyl cellulose, Box-Behnken design, disopyramide phosphate

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7 Evaluation of the Operating Parameters for Biodiesel Production Using a Membrane Reactor

Authors: S. S. L. Andrade, E. A. Souza, L. C. L. Santos, C. Moraes, A. K. C. L. Lobato


Biodiesel production using membrane reactor has become increasingly studied, because this process minimizes some of the main problems encountered in the biodiesel purification. The membrane reactor tries to minimize post-treatment steps, resulting in cost savings and enabling the competitiveness of biodiesel produced by homogeneous alkaline catalysis. This is due to the reaction and product separation may occur simultaneously. In order to evaluate the production of biodiesel from soybean oils using a tubular membrane reactor, a factorial experimental design was conducted (2³) to evaluate the influence of following variables: temperature (45 to 60 °C), catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1% by weight) and molar ratio of oil/methanol (1/6 to 1/9). In addition, the parametric sensitivity was evaluated by the analysis of variance and model through the response surface. The results showed a tendency of influence of the variables in the reaction conversion. The significance effect was higher for the catalyst concentration followed by the molar ratio of oil/methanol and finally the temperature. The best result was obtained under the conditions of 1% catalyst (KOH), molar ratio oil/methanol of 1/9 and temperature of 60 °C, resulting in an ester content of 99.07%.

Keywords: Biodiesel production, soybean oil, factorial design, membrane reactor

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6 The Classical Conditioning Effect of Animated Spokes-Characters

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai, Ting-Hsiu Chen


This paper adopted 2X2 factorial design. One factor was experimental versus control condition. The other factor was types of animated spokescharacter, and one of the two levels was expert type, and the other level is attractive type. In the study, we use control versus experimental conditioning and types of animated spokescharacter as independent variables, and brand attitude as dependent variable to examine the conditioning effect of types of animated spokescharacter on brand attitude. There are 123 subjects participating in the experiment. The results showed conditioning group presents that animated spokescharacter has significantly superior effect of product endorsement in contrast to non-conditioning one, while there is no significant impact of types of animated spokescharacter on brand attitude.

Keywords: classical conditioning, brand attitude, factorial design, animated spokes-character

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5 Optimization Study of Adsorption of Nickel(II) on Bentonite

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen


This work concerns with the experimental study of the adsorption of the Ni(II) on bentonite. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, stirring rate, initial concentration of Ni(II), masse of clay, initial pH of aqueous solution and temperature on the adsorption yield, were carried out. The study of the effect of the ionic strength on the yield of adsorption was examined by the identification and the quantification of the present chemical species in the aqueous phase containing the metallic ion Ni(II). The adsorbed species were investigated by a calculation program using CHEAQS V. L20.1 in order to determine the relation between the percentages of the adsorbed species and the adsorption yield. The optimization process was carried out using 23 factorial designs. The individual and combined effects of three process parameters, i.e. initial Ni(II) concentration in aqueous solution (2.10−3 and 5.10−3 mol/L), initial pH of the solution (2 and 6.5), and mass of bentonite (0.03 and 0.3 g) on Ni(II) adsorption, were studied.

Keywords: Adsorption, bentonite, factorial design, nickel(II)

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4 Sorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Surfactant-Modified Bentonite: Kinetic and Factorial Design Study

Authors: B. Guezzen, M. A. Didi, B. Medjahed


An organoclay (HDTMA-B) was prepared from sodium bentonite (Na-B). The starting material was modified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion (HDTMA+) in the amounts corresponding to 100 % of the CEC value. Batch experiments were carried out in order to model and optimize the sorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models have been developed to predict the rate constant and the sorption capacity at equilibrium with the effect of temperature, the solid/solution ratio and the initial dye concentration. The equilibrium time was reached within 60 min. At room temperature (20 °C), optimum dye sorption of 49.4 mg/g (98.9%) was achieved at pH 6.6, sorbent dosage of 1g/L and initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, using surfactant modified bentonite. The optimization of adsorption parameters mentioned above on dye removal was carried out using Box-Behnken design. The sorption parameters were analyzed statistically by means of variance analysis by using the Statgraphics Centurion XVI software.

Keywords: Adsorption, kinetic, factorial design, organo-bentonite, dye

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3 Experimental Design and Optimization of Diesel Oil Desulfurization Process by Adsorption Processes

Authors: M. Firoz Kalam, Wilfried Schuetz, Jan Hendrik Bredehoeft


Thiophene sulfur compounds' removal from diesel oil by batch adsorption process using commercial powdered activated carbon was designed and optimized in two-level factorial design method. This design analysis was used to find out the effects of operating parameters directing the adsorption process, such as amount of adsorbent, temperature and stirring time. The desulfurization efficiency was considered the response or output variable. Results showed that the stirring time had the largest effects on sulfur removal efficiency as compared with other operating parameters and their interactions under the experimental ranges studied. A regression model was generated to observe the closeness between predicted and experimental values. The three-dimensional plots and contour plots of main factors were generated according to the regression results to observe the optimal points.

Keywords: Process Optimization, activated carbon, factorial design, adsorptive desulfurization

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2 Effect of Naphtha in Addition to a Cycle Steam Stimulation Process Reducing the Heavy Oil Viscosity Using a Two-Level Factorial Design

Authors: Nora A. Guerrero, Adan Leon, María I. Sandoval, Romel Perez, Samuel Munoz


The addition of solvents in cyclic steam stimulation is a technique that has shown an impact on the improved recovery of heavy oils. In this technique, it is possible to reduce the steam/oil ratio in the last stages of the process, at which time this ratio increases significantly. The mobility of improved crude oil increases due to the structural changes of its components, which at the same time reflected in the decrease in density and viscosity. In the present work, the effect of the variables such as temperature, time, and weight percentage of naphtha was evaluated, using a factorial design of experiments 23. From the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pareto diagram, it was possible to identify the effect on viscosity reduction. The experimental representation of the crude-vapor-naphtha interaction was carried out in a batch reactor on a Colombian heavy oil of 12.8° API and 3500 cP. The conditions of temperature, reaction time, and percentage of naphtha were 270-300 °C, 48-66 hours, and 3-9% by weight, respectively. The results showed a decrease in density with values in the range of 0.9542 to 0.9414 g/cm³, while the viscosity decrease was in the order of 55 to 70%. On the other hand, simulated distillation results, according to ASTM 7169, revealed significant conversions of the 315°C+ fraction. From the spectroscopic techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, infrared FTIR and UV-VIS visible ultraviolet, it was determined that the increase in the performance of the light fractions in the improved crude is due to the breakdown of alkyl chains. The methodology for cyclic steam injection with naphtha and laboratory-scale characterization can be considered as a practical tool in improved recovery processes.

Keywords: factorial design, naphtha, cyclic steam stimulation, Viscosity reduction

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1 Properties of Preplaced Aggregate Concrete with Modified Binder

Authors: Kunal Krishna Das, Eddie S. S. Lam


Preplaced Aggregate Concrete (PAC) is produced by first placing the coarse aggregate into the formwork, followed by injection of grout to fill in the voids in between the coarse aggregates. In this study, tests were carried out to determine the effects of supplementary cementitious materials on the properties of PAC. Cement was partially replaced by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and silica fume (SF) at different proportions. Grout properties were determined by the flow cone test and compressive strength test. Grout proportion was optimized statistically. It was applied to form PAC. Hardened properties of PAC, comprising compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, chloride-ion penetration and drying shrinkage, were evaluated. GGBS enhanced the flowability of the grout, whereas SF enhanced the strength of PAC. Both GGBS and SF improved the resistance to chloride-ion penetration with the drawback of increased drying shrinkage. Nevertheless, drying shrinkage was within the range to be classified as low shrinkage concrete.

Keywords: silica fume, factorial design, ground granulated blast furnace slag, preplaced aggregate concrete

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