Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Factor Analysis Related Abstracts

32 Study of Influencing Factors of Shrinking Cities Based on Factor Analysis: The Example of Halle Germany

Authors: Fang Yao, Minglei Chen


City shrinkage is one of the thorny problems that many European cities have to face with nowadays. It is mainly expressed as the decrease of population in these cities. Eastern Germany is one of the pioneers of European shrinking cities with long shrinking history. Selecting one representative shrinking city Halle(Saale) in eastern Germany as research objective, collecting and investigating nearly 20 years (1993-2010) municipal data after the reunification of Germany. These data based on five dimensions, which are demographic, economic, social, spatial and environmental and total 16 eligible variables. Using Factor Analysis to dealing with these variables in order to assess the most important factors affecting shrinking Halle. The Factor Analysis shows that there are three main factors determine the shrinkage of Halle, namely demographical and economical factor, social stability factor, and city vitality factor. Three factors acts at different period of Halle’s shrinkage: from 1993 to 1997 the demographical and economical factor played an important role; from 1997 to 2004 the social stability is significant to city shrinkage; since 2005 city vitality factors determines the shrinkage of Halle. In recent years, the shrinkage in Halle mitigates that shows the sign of growing population. Thus the city Halle should focus on attaching more importance on the city vitality factor to prevent the city from shrinkage. Meanwhile, the city should possess a positive perspective that to shift the growth-oriented development to tap the potential of shrinking cities. This method is expected to apply to further research and other shrinking cities.

Keywords: Demography, Factor Analysis, Halle, shrinking cities

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31 Web 2.0 Enabling Knowledge-Sharing Practices among Students of IIUM: An Exploration of the Determinants

Authors: Shuaibu Hassan Usman, Ishaq Oyebisi Oyefolahan


This study was aimed to explore the latent factors in the web 2.0 enabled knowledge sharing practices instrument. Seven latent factors were identified through a factor analysis with orthogonal rotation and interpreted based on simple structure convergence, item loadings, and analytical statistics. The number of factors retains was based on the analysis of Kaiser Normalization criteria and Scree plot. The reliability tests revealed a satisfactory reliability scores on each of the seven latent factors of the web 2.0 enabled knowledge sharing practices. Limitation, conclusion, and future work of this study were also discussed.

Keywords: students, Factor Analysis, latent factors, knowledge sharing practices, web 2.0 enabled

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30 Towards a Systematic Evaluation of Web Design

Authors: Naoum Jamous, Holger Schrödl, Ivayla Trifonova


A good web design is a prerequisite for a successful business nowadays, especially since the internet is the most common way for people to inform themselves. Web design includes the optical composition, the structure, and the user guidance of websites. The importance of each website leads to the question if there is a way to measure its usefulness. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the evaluation of web design. The desired outcome is to have an evaluation that is concentrated on a specific website and its target group.

Keywords: Web Design, Factor Analysis, evaluation methodology, target group

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29 One Plus One is More than Two: Why Nurse Recruiters Need to Use Various Multivariate Techniques to Understand the Limitations of the Concept of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Austyn Snowden


Aim: To examine the construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short form. Background: Emotional intelligence involves the identification and regulation of our own emotions and the emotions of others. It is therefore a potentially useful construct in the investigation of recruitment and retention in nursing and many questionnaires have been constructed to measure it. Design: Secondary analysis of existing dataset of responses to TEIQue-SF using concurrent application of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Method: First year undergraduate nursing and computing students completed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Responses were analysed by synthesising results of Rasch analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Factor Analysis, rasch analysis, nurse recruiters

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28 Development and Validation of the University of Mindanao Needs Assessment Scale (UMNAS) for College Students

Authors: Ryan Dale B. Elnar


This study developed a multidimensional need assessment scale for college students called The University of Mindanao Needs Assessment Scale (UMNAS). Although there are context-specific instruments measuring the needs of clinical and non-clinical samples, literature reveals no standardized scales to measure the needs of the college students thus a four-phase item development process was initiated to support its content validity. Comprising seven broad facets namely spiritual-moral, intrapersonal, socio-personal, psycho-emotional, cognitive, physical and sexual, a pyramid model of college needs was deconstructed through FGD sample to support the literature review. Using various construct validity procedures, the model was further tested using a total of 881 Filipino college samples. The result of the study revealed evidences of the reliability and validity of the UMNAS. The reliability indices range from .929-.933. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a one-factor-six-dimensional instrument to measure the needs of the college students. Using multivariate regression analysis, year level and course are found predictors of students’ needs. Content analysis attested the usefulness of the instrument to diagnose students’ personal and academic issues and concerns in conjunction with other measures. The norming process includes 1728 students from the different colleges of the University of Mindanao. Further validation is recommended to establish a national norm for the instrument.

Keywords: Validity, Factor Analysis, college students, needs assessment scale

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27 Mental Well-Being and Quality of Life: A Comparative Study of Male Leather Tannery and Non-Tannery Workers of Kanpur City, India

Authors: Gyan Kashyap, Shri Kant Singh


Improved mental health can be articulated as a good physical health and quality of life. Mental health plays an important role in survival of any one’s life. In today’s time people living with stress in life due to their personal matters, health problems, unemployment, work environment, living environment, substance use, life style and many more important reasons. Many studies confirmed that the significant proportion of mental health people increasing in India. This study is focused on mental well-being of male leather tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. Environment at work place as well as living environment plays an important health risk factors among leather tannery workers. Leather tannery workers are more susceptible to many chemicals and physical hazards, just because they are liable to be affected by their exposure to lots of hazardous materials and processes during tanning work in very hazardous work environment. The aim of this study to determine the level of mental health disorder and quality of life among male leather tannery and non-tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. This study utilized the primary data from the cross- sectional household study which was conducted from January to June, 2015 on tannery and non-tannery workers as a part of PhD program from the Jajmau area of Kanpur city, India. The sample of 286 tannery and 295 non-tannery workers has been collected from the study area. We have collected information from the workers of age group 15-70 those who were working at the time of survey for at least one year. This study utilized the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and work related stress scale to test the mental wellbeing of male tannery and non-tannery workers. By using GHQ-12 and work related stress scale, Polychoric factor analysis method has been used for best threshold and scoring. Some of important question like ‘How would you rate your overall quality of life’ on Likert scale to measure the quality of life, their earnings, education, family size, living condition, household assets, media exposure, health expenditure, treatment seeking behavior and food habits etc. Results from the study revealed that around one third of tannery workers had severe mental health problems then non-tannery workers. Mental health problem shown the statistically significant association with wealth quintile, 56 percent tannery workers had severe mental health problem those belong to medium wealth quintile. And 42 percent tannery workers had moderate mental health problem among those from the low wealth quintile. Work related stress scale found the statistically significant results for tannery workers. Large proportion of tannery and non-tannery workers reported they are unable to meet their basic needs from their earnings and living in worst condition. Important result from the study, tannery workers who were involved in beam house work in tannery (58%) had severe mental health problem. This study found the statistically significant association with tannery work and mental health problem among tannery workers.

Keywords: Quality of Life, Factor Analysis, mental well-being, GHQ-12, tannery workers

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26 Identifying Principle Components Affecting Competitiveness of Thai Automotive Parts Industry

Authors: Tuanjai Somboonwiwat, Thanatip Lerttanaporn, Charoenchai Khompatraporn


The automotive parts industry is one of the vital sectors in Thai economy and now is facing a greater competition from ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). This article identifies important factors that impact the competitiveness of Thai automotive parts industry. There are eight groups of factors with a total of 58 factors. Due to a variety of factors, the Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principle Component Analysis have been applied to classify factors into groups or principle components. The results show that there are 15 groups and four of them are critical, covering 80% of important value. These four critical groups are then used to formulate strategies to improve the competitiveness of the Thai automotive parts industry.

Keywords: Factor Analysis, ASEAN Economic Community, Thai automotive parts, principle components, exploratory factor

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25 Identification of Lean Implementation Hurdles in Indian Industries

Authors: Bhim Singh


Due to increased pressure from global competitors, manufacturing organizations are switching over to lean philosophies from traditional mass production. Lean manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy which focuses on elimination of various types of wastes and creates maximum value for the end customers. Lean thinking aims to produce high quality products and services at the lowest possible cost with maximum customer responsiveness. Indian Industry is facing lot of problems in this transformation from traditional mass production to lean production. Through this paper an attempt has been made to identify various lean implementation hurdles in Indian industries with the help of a structured survey. Identified hurdles are grouped with the help of factor analysis and rated by calculating descriptive statistics. To show the effect of lean implementation hurdles a hypothesis “Organizations having higher level of lean implementation hurdles will have poor (negative) performance” has been postulated and tested using correlation matrix between performance parameters of the organizations and identified hurdles. The findings of the paper will be helpful to prepare road map to identify and eradicate the lean implementation hurdles.

Keywords: Global Competition, Lean Implementation, Factor Analysis, lean hurdles

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24 Radiation Safety Factor of Education and Research Institution in Republic of Korea

Authors: Yeo Ryeong Jeon, Pyong Kon Cho, Eun Ok Han, Hyon Chul Jang, Yong Min Kim


This study surveyed on recognition related to radiation safety for radiation safety managers and workers those who have been worked in Republic of Korea education and research institution. At present, South Korea has no guideline and manual of radiation safety for education and research institution. Therefore, we tried to find an educational basis for development of radiation safety guideline and manual. To check the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about radiation safety, we used the questionnaire that consisted of 29 questions against knowledge, attitude and behavior, 4 questions against self-efficacy and expectation based on four factors (radiation source, human, organizational and physical environment) of the Haddon's matrix. Responses were collected between May 4 and June 30, 2015. We analyzed questionnaire by means of IBM SPSS/WIN 15 which well known as statistical package for social science. The data were compared with mean, standard deviation, Pearson's correlation, ANOVA (analysis of variance) and regression analysis. 180 copies of the questionnaire were returned from 60 workplaces. The overall mean results for behavior level was relatively lower than knowledge and attitude level. In particular, organizational environment factor on the radiation safety management indicated the lowest behavior level. Most of the factors were correlated in Pearson’s correlation analysis, especially between knowledge of human factors and behavior of human factors (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.809, P<.01). When analysis performed in line with the main radiation source type, institutions where have been used only opened RI (radioisotope) behavior level was the lowest among all subjects. Finally, knowledge of radiation source factor (β=0.556, P<.001) and human factor(β=0.376, P<.001) had the greatest impact in terms of behavior practice. Radiation safety managers and workers think positively about radiation safety management, but are poorly informed organizational environment of their institution. Thus, each institution need to efforts to settlement of radiation safety culture. Also, pedagogical interventions for improving knowledge on radiation safety needs in terms of safety accident prevention.

Keywords: Factor Analysis, SPSS, radiation safety management, republic of Korea

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23 Data and Spatial Analysis for Economy and Education of 28 E.U. Member-States for 2014

Authors: Alexiou Dimitra, Fragkaki Maria


The objective of the paper is the study of geographic, economic and educational variables and their contribution to determine the position of each member-state among the EU-28 countries based on the values of seven variables as given by Eurostat. The Data Analysis methods of Multiple Factorial Correspondence Analysis (MFCA) Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis have been used. The cross tabulation tables of data consist of the values of seven variables for the 28 countries for 2014. The data are manipulated using the CHIC Analysis V 1.1 software package. The results of this program using MFCA and Ascending Hierarchical Classification are given in arithmetic and graphical form. For comparison reasons with the same data the Factor procedure of Statistical package IBM SPSS 20 has been used. The numerical and graphical results presented with tables and graphs, demonstrate the agreement between the two methods. The most important result is the study of the relation between the 28 countries and the position of each country in groups or clouds, which are formed according to the values of the corresponding variables.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis, Multiple Factorial Correspondence Analysis, E.U.-28 countries, Statistical package IBM SPSS 20, CHIC Analysis V 1.1 Software, Statistics

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22 Factor Analysis Based on Semantic Differential of the Public Perception of Public Art: A Case Study of the Malaysia National Monument

Authors: Yuhanis Ibrahim, Sung-Pil Lee


This study attempts to address factors that contribute to outline public art factors assessment, memorial monument specifically. Memorial monuments hold significant and rich message whether the intention of the art is to mark and commemorate important event or to inform younger generation about the past. Public monument should relate to the public and raise awareness about the significant issue. Therefore, by investigating the impact of the existing public memorial art will hopefully shed some lights to the upcoming public art projects’ stakeholders to ensure the lucid memorial message is delivered to the public directly. Public is the main actor as public is the fundamental purpose that the art was created. Perception is framed as one of the reliable evaluation tools to assess the public art impact factors. The Malaysia National Monument was selected to be the case study for the investigation. The public’s perceptions were gathered using a questionnaire that involved (n-115) participants to attain keywords, and next Semantical Differential Methodology (SDM) was adopted to evaluate the perceptions about the memorial monument. These perceptions were then measured with Reliability Factor and then were factorised using Factor Analysis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method to acquire concise factors for the monument assessment. The result revealed that there are four factors that influence public’s perception on the monument which are aesthetic, audience, topology, and public reception. The study concludes by proposing the factors for public memorial art assessment for the next future public memorial projects especially in Malaysia.

Keywords: Public Art, Factor Analysis, public perception, semantical differential methodology

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21 Measuring Social Dimension of Sustainable Development in New Zealand Cities

Authors: Taimaz Larimian


During recent years, sustainable development has increasingly influenced urban policy, housing and planning in cities all over the world. Debates about sustainability no longer consider it solely as an environmental concern, but also incorporate social and economic dimensions. However, while a social dimension of sustainability is extensively accepted, the exact definition of the concept is still vague and unclear. This study is addressing this lack of specificity through a detailed exploration of social sustainability as the least studied pillar of sustainable development and sheds light on the debate over the definition of social sustainability through developing a measurement model of the constitutive dimensions of the concept. With this aim, a conceptual framework is developed based on the existing literature, determining seven main dimensions of the social sustainability concept namely: social interaction, safety and security, social equity, social participation, neighborhood satisfaction, housing satisfaction and sense of place. The validity and reliability of the model is then tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In order to do so, five case study neighborhoods from Dunedin city with a range of urban forms and characters are investigated, to define social sustainability concept and its consisting dimensions from people’s perspective. The findings of this study present a clear definition of social sustainability at neighborhood scale and highlight all different dimensions of the concept in the context of New Zealand cities. According to the results, among the investigated dimensions, neighborhood satisfaction and safety and security had the most influence on people’s feeling of social sustainability in their neighborhood.

Keywords: Social Sustainability, Factor Analysis, neighborhood level, New Zealand cities

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20 A Factor-Analytical Approach on Identities in Environmentally Significant Behavior

Authors: Alina M. Udall, Judith de Groot, Simon de Jong, Avi Shankar


There are many ways in which environmentally significant behavior can be explained. Dominant psychological theories, namely, the theory of planned behavior, the norm-activation theory, its extension, the value-belief-norm theory, and the theory of habit do not explain large parts of environmentally significant behaviors. A new and rapidly growing approach is to focus on how consumer’s identities predict environmentally significant behavior. Identity may be relevant because consumers have many identities that are assumed to guide their behavior. Therefore, we assume that many identities will guide environmentally significant behavior. Many identities can be relevant for environmentally significant behavior. In reviewing the literature, over 200 identities have been studied making it difficult to establish the key identities for explaining environmentally significant behavior. Therefore, this paper first aims to establish the key identities previously used for explaining environmentally significant behavior. Second, the aim is to test which key identities explain environmentally significant behavior. To address the aims, an online survey study (n = 578) is conducted. First, the exploratory factor analysis reveals 15 identity factors. The identity factors are namely, environmentally concerned identity, anti-environmental self-identity, environmental place identity, connectedness with nature identity, green space visitor identity, active ethical identity, carbon off-setter identity, thoughtful self-identity, close community identity, anti-carbon off-setter identity, environmental group member identity, national identity, identification with developed countries, cyclist identity, and thoughtful organisation identity. Furthermore, to help researchers understand and operationalize the identities, the article provides theoretical definitions for each of the identities, in line with identity theory, social identity theory, and place identity theory. Second, the hierarchical regression shows only 10 factors significantly uniquely explain the variance in environmentally significant behavior. In order of predictive power the identities are namely, environmentally concerned identity, anti-environmental self-identity, thoughtful self-identity, environmental group member identity, anti-carbon off-setter identity, carbon off-setter identity, connectedness with nature identity, national identity, and green space visitor identity. The identities explain over 60% of the variance in environmentally significant behavior, a large effect size. Based on this finding, the article reveals a new, theoretical framework showing the key identities explaining environmentally significant behavior, to help improve and align the field.

Keywords: Social identity, Factor Analysis, Place Identity, environmentally significant behavior

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19 The Hierarchical Model of Fitness Services Quality Perception in Serbia

Authors: Mirjana Ilic, Dragan Zivotic, Aleksandra Perovic, Predrag Gavrilovic


The service quality perception depends on many factors, such as the area in which the services are provided, socioeconomic status, educational status, experience, age and gender of consumers, as well as many others. For this reason, it is not possible to apply instrument for establishing the service quality perception that is developed in other areas and in other populations. The aim of the research was to form an instrument for assessing the quality perception in the field of fitness in Serbia. After analyzing the available literature and conducting a pilot research, there were 15 isolated areas in which it was possible to observe the service quality perception. The areas included: material and technical basis, secondary facilities, coaches, programs, reliability, credibility, security, rapid response, compassion, communication, prices, satisfaction, loyalty, quality outcomes and motives. These areas were covered by a questionnaire consisted of 100 items where the number of items varied from area to area from 3 up to 11. The questionnaire was administered to 350 subjects of both genders (174 men and 176 women) aged from 18 to 68 years, being beneficiaries of fitness services for at least 1 year. In each of the areas was conducted a factor analysis in its exploratory form by principal components method. The number of significant factors has been determined in accordance with the Kaiser Guttman criterion. The initial factor solutions were simplified using the Varimax rotation. Analyses per areas have produced from 1 to 4 factors. Afterward, the factor analysis of factor scores on the first principal component of each of the respondents in each of the analyzed area was performed, and the factor structure was obtained with four latent dimensions interpreted as offer, the relationship with the coaches, the experience of quality and the initial impression. This factor structure was analysed by hierarchical analysis of Oblique factors, which in the second order space produced single factor interpreted as a general factor of the service quality perception. The resulting questionnaire represents an instrument which can serve managers in the field of fitness to optimize the centers development, raising the quality of services in line with consumers needs and expectations.

Keywords: Fitness, Factor Analysis, hierarchical model, quality perception

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18 User Acceptance Criteria for Digital Libraries

Authors: Yu-Ming Wang, Jia-Hong Jian


The Internet and digital publication technologies have brought dramatic impacts on how people collect, organize, disseminate, access, store, and use information. More and more governments, schools, and organizations spent huge funds to develop digital libraries. A digital library can be regarded as a web extension of traditional physically libraries. People can search diverse publications, find out the position of knowledge resources, and borrow or buy publications through digital libraries. People can gain knowledge and students or employees can finish their reports by using digital libraries. Since the considerable funds and energy have been invested in implementing digital libraries, it is important to understand the evaluative criteria from the users’ viewpoint in order to enhance user acceptance. This study develops a list of user acceptance criteria for digital libraries. An initial criteria list was developed based on some previously validated instruments related to digital libraries. Data were collected from user experiences of digital libraries. The exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were adopted to purify the criteria list. The reliabilities and validities were tested. After validating the criteria list, a user survey was conducted to collect the comparative importance of criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was utilized to derive the importance of each criterion. The results of this study contribute to an e understanding of the criteria and relative importance that users evaluate for digital libraries.

Keywords: Digital Library, Factor Analysis, analytic hierarchy process, user acceptance

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17 Validation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) among Adolescents in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Nguyen, Jane Fisher, Thach Tran, Anh T. T. Tran


Trait Emotional Intelligence is the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes an individual has about their own and other people’s emotions. It is believed that trait emotional intelligence is a component of personality. Petrides’ Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is well regarded and well-established, with validation data about its functioning among adults from many countries. However, there is little data yet about its use among Asian populations, including adolescents. The aims were to translate and culturally verify the Trait Emotional Intelligence Adolescent Short Form (TEIQue-ASF) and investigate content validity, construct validity, and reliability among adolescents attending high schools in Vietnam. Content of the TEIQue-ASF was translated (English to Vietnamese) and back-translated (Vietnamese to English) in consultation with bilingual and bicultural health researchers and pilot tested among 51 potential respondents. Phraseology and wording were then adjusted and the final version is named the VN-TEIQue-ASF. The VN-TEIQue-ASF’s properties were investigated in a cross-sectional elf-report survey among high school students in Central Vietnam. In total 1,546 / 1,573 (98.3%) eligible students from nine high schools in rural, urban, and coastline areas completed the survey. Explanatory Factor Analysis yielded a four-factor solution, including some with facets that loaded differently compared to the original version: Well-being, Emotion in Relationships, Emotion Self-management, and Emotion Sensitivity. The Cronbach’s alpha of the global score for the VN-TEIQue-ASF was .77. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is comprehensible and has good content and construct validity and reliability among adolescents in Vietnam. The factor structure is only partly replicated the original version. The VN-TEIQue-ASF is recommended for use in school or community surveys and professional study in education, psychology, and public health to investigate the trait emotional intelligence of adolescents in Vietnam.

Keywords: Adolescents, Factor Analysis, Vietnam, construct validity, content validity, questionnaire validity, trait emotional intelligence

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16 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Contamination Sources Using Geostatistical Methods and GIS in Miryang City, Korea

Authors: S. Y. Chung, H. E. Elzain, V. Senapathi, Kye-Hun Park


Groundwater is considered a significant source for drinking and irrigation purposes in Miryang city, and it is attributed to a limited number of a surface water reservoirs and high seasonal variations in precipitation. Population growth in addition to the expansion of agricultural land uses and industrial development may affect the quality and management of groundwater. This research utilized multidisciplinary approaches of geostatistics such as multivariate statistics, factor analysis, cluster analysis and kriging technique in order to identify the hydrogeochemical process and characterizing the control factors of the groundwater geochemistry distribution for developing risk maps, exploiting data obtained from chemical investigation of groundwater samples under the area of study. A total of 79 samples have been collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) for major and trace elements. Chemical maps using 2-D spatial Geographic Information System (GIS) of groundwater provided a powerful tool for detecting the possible potential sites of groundwater that involve the threat of contamination. GIS computer based map exhibited that the higher rate of contamination observed in the central and southern area with relatively less extent in the northern and southwestern parts. It could be attributed to the effect of irrigation, residual saline water, municipal sewage and livestock wastes. At wells elevation over than 85m, the scatter diagram represents that the groundwater of the research area was mainly influenced by saline water and NO3. Level of pH measurement revealed low acidic condition due to dissolved atmospheric CO2 in the soil, while the saline water had a major impact on the higher values of TDS and EC. Based on the cluster analysis results, the groundwater has been categorized into three group includes the CaHCO3 type of the fresh water, NaHCO3 type slightly influenced by sea water and Ca-Cl, Na-Cl types which are heavily affected by saline water. The most predominant water type was CaHCO3 in the study area. Contamination sources and chemical characteristics were identified from factor analysis interrelationship and cluster analysis. The chemical elements that belong to factor 1 analysis were related to the effect of sea water while the elements of factor 2 associated with agricultural fertilizers. The degree level, distribution, and location of groundwater contamination have been generated by using Kriging methods. Thus, geostatistics model provided more accurate results for identifying the source of contamination and evaluating the groundwater quality. GIS was also a creative tool to visualize and analyze the issues affecting water quality in the Miryang city.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Factor Analysis, groundwater characteristics, GIS chemical maps, Kriging techniques

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15 The Study of Genetic Diversity in Canola Cultivars of Kashmar-Iran Region

Authors: Seyed Habib Shojaei, Alireza Akbari, Reza Eivazi, Mir Sajad Shojaei, Pooria Mazloom, Seyede Mitra Sadati, Mir Zeinalabedin Shojaei, Farnaz Farbakhsh


To study the genetic diversity in rapeseeds and agronomic traits, an experiment was conducted using multivariate statistical methods at Agricultural Research Station of Kashmar in 2012-2013.In this experiment, ten genotypes of rapeseed in a Randomized Complete Block designs with three replications were evaluated. The following traits were studied: seed yield, number of days to the fifty percent of flowering, plant height, number of pods on main stem, length of the pod, seed yield per plant, number of seed in pod, harvest index, weight of 100 seeds, number of pods on lateral branch, number of lateral branches. In analyzing the variance, differences between cultivars were significant. The average comparative revealed that the most valuable variety was Licord regarding to the traits while the least valuable variety was Opera. In stepwise regression, harvest index, grain yield per plant and number of pods per lateral branches were entering to model. Correlation analysis showed that the grain yield with the number of pods per lateral branches and seed yield per plant have positive and significant correlation. In the factor analysis, the first five components explained more than 83% of the variance in the data. In the first factor, seed yield and the number of pods per lateral branches were of the highest importance. The traits, seed yield per plant, and pod per main stem were of a great significance in the second factor. Moreover, in the third factor, plant height and the number of lateral branches were more important. In the fourth factor, plant height and one hundred seeds weight were of the highest variance. Finally, days to fifty percent of flowering and one hundred seeds weight were more important in fifth factor.

Keywords: Regression, Factor Analysis, rapeseed, variance analysis

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14 Assessment of the Road Safety Performance in National Scale

Authors: Abeer K. Jameel, Harry Evdorides


The Assessment of the road safety performance is a challengeable issue. This is not only because of the ineffective and unreliability of road and traffic crash data system but also because of its systematic character. Recent strategic plans and interventions implemented in some of the developed countries where a significant decline in the rate of traffic and road crashes considers that the road safety is a system. This system consists of four main elements which are: road user, road infrastructure, vehicles and speed in addition to other supporting elements such as the institutional framework and post-crash care system. To assess the performance of a system, it is required to assess all its elements. To present an understandable results of the assessment, it is required to present a unique term representing the performance of the overall system. This paper aims to develop an overall performance indicator which may be used to assess the road safety system. The variables of this indicators are the main elements of the road safety system. The data regarding these variables will be collected from the World Health Organization report. Multi-criteria analysis method is used to aggregate the four sub-indicators for the four variables. Two weighting methods will be assumed, equal weights and different weights. For the different weights method, the factor analysis method is used. The weights then will be converting to scores. The total score will be the overall indicator for the road safety performance in a national scale. This indicator will be used to compare and rank countries according to their road safety performance indicator. The country with the higher score is the country which provides most sustainable and effective interventions for successful road safety system. These indicator will be tested by comparing them with the aggregate real crash rate for each country.

Keywords: Factor Analysis, multi-criteria analysis, road safety assessment, safe system indicator

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13 Exploring Service Performance of Area-Based Bus Service for Dhaka: A Case Study of Dhaka Chaka

Authors: Md. Musfiqur Rahman Bhuiya Nidalia Islam, Hossain Mohiuddin, Md. Kawser Bin Zaman


Dhaka North City Corporation introduced first area-based bus service on 10 August 2016 to run through Gulshan and Banani area to dilute sufferings of the people which started with the ban on movement of the bus in these areas after Holy Artisan terrorist attack. This study explores service quality performance of Dhaka Chaka on the basis of information provided by its riders on a questionnaire survey. Total thirteen service quality indicators have been ranked on a scale of 1-5, and they have been classified under three latent variables based on their correlation using eigenvalue and rotated factor matrix derived through factor analysis process. Mean, and skewness has been calculated for each indicator. It has been found that ticket price and ticketing system have relatively poor average service quality rank than other factors. All other factors have moderately good performance. The study also suggests some recommendation to improve service quality of Dhaka Chaka based on the interrelation between considered parameters.

Keywords: correlation, Factor Analysis, area based bus service, eigen value

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12 Self-Regulation and School Adjustment of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong

Authors: T. S. Terence Ma, Irene T. Ho


Conducting adequate assessment of the challenges students with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) face and the support they need is imperative for promoting their school adjustment. Students with ASD often show deficits in communication, social interaction, emotional regulation, and self-management in learning. While targeting these areas in intervention is often helpful, we argue that not enough attention has been paid to weak self-regulation being a key factor underlying their manifest difficulty in all these areas. Self-regulation refers to one’s ability to moderate their behavioral or affective responses without assistance from others. Especially for students with high functioning autism, who often show problems not so much in acquiring the needed skills but rather in applying those skills appropriately in everyday problem-solving, self-regulation becomes a key to successful adjustment in daily life. Therefore, a greater understanding of the construct of self-regulation, its relationship with other daily skills, and its role in school functioning for students with ASD would generate insights on how students’ school adjustment could be promoted more effectively. There were two focuses in this study. Firstly, we examined the extent to which self-regulation is a distinct construct that is differentiable from other daily skills and the most salient indicators of this construct. Then we tested a model of relationships between self-regulation and other daily school skills as well as their relative and combined effects on school adjustment. A total of 1,345 Grade1 to Grade 6 students with ASD attending mainstream schools in Hong Kong participated in the research. In the first stage of the study, teachers filled out a questionnaire consisting of 136 items assessing a wide range of student skills in social, emotional and learning areas. Results from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with 673 participants and subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with another group of 672 participants showed that there were five distinct factors of school skills, namely (1) communication skills, (2) pro-social behavior, (3) emotional skills, (4) learning management, and (5) self-regulation. Five scales representing these skill dimensions were generated. In the second stage of the study, a model postulating the mediating role of self-regulation for the effects of the other four types of skills on school adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling (SEM). School adjustment was defined in terms of the extent to which the student is accepted well in school, with high engagement in school life and self-esteem as well as good interpersonal relationships. A 5-item scale was used to assess these aspects of school adjustment. Results showed that communication skills, pro-social behavior, emotional skills and learning management had significant effects on school adjustment only indirectly through self-regulation, and their total effects were found to be not high. The results indicate that support rendered to students with ASD focusing only on the training of well-defined skills is not adequate for promoting their inclusion in school. More attention should be paid to the training of self-management with an emphasis on the application of skills backed by self-regulation. Also, other non-skill factors are important in promoting inclusive education.

Keywords: autism, Assessment, Self-regulation, Factor Analysis, school adjustment

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11 An Automated Stock Investment System Using Machine Learning Techniques: An Application in Australia

Authors: Carol Anne Hargreaves


A key issue in stock investment is how to select representative features for stock selection. The objective of this paper is to firstly determine whether an automated stock investment system, using machine learning techniques, may be used to identify a portfolio of growth stocks that are highly likely to provide returns better than the stock market index. The second objective is to identify the technical features that best characterize whether a stock’s price is likely to go up and to identify the most important factors and their contribution to predicting the likelihood of the stock price going up. Unsupervised machine learning techniques, such as cluster analysis, were applied to the stock data to identify a cluster of stocks that was likely to go up in price – portfolio 1. Next, the principal component analysis technique was used to select stocks that were rated high on component one and component two – portfolio 2. Thirdly, a supervised machine learning technique, the logistic regression method, was used to select stocks with a high probability of their price going up – portfolio 3. The predictive models were validated with metrics such as, sensitivity (recall), specificity and overall accuracy for all models. All accuracy measures were above 70%. All portfolios outperformed the market by more than eight times. The top three stocks were selected for each of the three stock portfolios and traded in the market for one month. After one month the return for each stock portfolio was computed and compared with the stock market index returns. The returns for all three stock portfolios was 23.87% for the principal component analysis stock portfolio, 11.65% for the logistic regression portfolio and 8.88% for the K-means cluster portfolio while the stock market performance was 0.38%. This study confirms that an automated stock investment system using machine learning techniques can identify top performing stock portfolios that outperform the stock market.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Cluster Analysis, Decision trees, Logistic Regression, Factor Analysis, stock market trading, automated stock investment system

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10 Analysis of Conflict and Acceptance Factors on Water and Land Photovoltaic Facility

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park


Photovoltaic facility occurs conflicts and disputes over environmental issues such as soil runoff, landscapes damage, and ecosystems damage. Because of these problems, huge social and economic cost occurred. The purpose of this study is to analyze resident‘s acceptability and conflict factors on the location of PV facilities, and suggest ways to promote resident’s acceptability and solutions for conflicts. Literature review, cases analysis, and expert interview on the acceptance and conflict factors related to the location of PV facilities are used to derive results. The results of this study are expected to contribute to the minimization of environmental impact and social conflict due to the development of renewable energy in the future.

Keywords: Factor Analysis, acceptance factor, conflict factor, photovoltaic facility

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9 Analysis of the Factors of Local Acceptance of Wind Power Generation Facilities

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park


The government that declared 'de-nuclearization' pushes up renewable energy policies such as solar power and wind power as an alternative to nuclear power generation. However, local residents who are concerned about the development and natural disasters have been hit by opposition, and related businesses around the country are experiencing difficulties. There is also a voice saying that installing a large wind power generator will cause landslides, low frequencies and noise, which will have a bad influence. Renewal is only a harmful and disgusting facility for the residents. In this way, it is expected that extreme social conflicts will occur in the decision making process related to the locally unwanted land-use (LULU). The government's efforts to solve this problem have been steadily progressing, but the systematic methodology for bringing in active participation and opinion gathering of the residents has not yet been established except for the simple opinion poll or referendum. Therefore, it is time to identify the factors that concern the local residents about the wind power generation facilities, and to find ways to make policy decision-making possible. In this study, we analyze the perception of people about offshore and onshore wind power facilities through questionnaires or interviews, and examine quantitative and qualitative precedent studies to analyze them. In addition, the study evaluates what factors affect the local acceptance of wind power facilities. As a result of the factor analysis of the questionnaire items, factors affecting the residents' acceptance of the wind power facility were extracted from four factors such as environmental, economic, risk, social, and management factor. The study also found that the influence of the determinants of local acceptance on the regional acceptability differs according to the demographic characteristics such as gender and income level. This study will contribute to minimizing the conflict on the installation of wind power facilities through communication among the local residents.

Keywords: Factor Analysis, local acceptance, locally unwanted land-use, LULU, wind power generation facilities

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8 The Study of Rapeseed Characteristics by Factor Analysis under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Ali Bakhtiari Gharibdosti, Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Samira Alijani


To understand internal characteristics relationships and determine factors which explain under consideration characteristics in rapeseed varieties, 10 rapeseed genotypes were implemented in complete accidental plot with three-time repetitions under drought stress in 2009-2010 in research field of agriculture college, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch. In this research, 11 characteristics include of characteristics related to growth, production and functions stages was considered. Variance analysis results showed that there is a significant difference among rapeseed varieties characteristics. By calculating simple correlation coefficient under both conditions, normal and drought stress indicate that seed function characteristics in plant and pod number have positive and significant correlation in 1% probable level with seed function and selection on the base of these characteristics was effective for improving this function. Under normal and drought stress, analyzing the main factors showed that numbers of factors which have more than one amount, had five factors under normal conditions which were 82.72% of total variance totally, but under drought stress four factors diagnosed which were 76.78% of total variance. By considering total results of this research and by assessing effective characteristics for factor analysis and selecting different components of these characteristics, they can be used for modifying works to select applicable and tolerant genotypes in drought stress conditions.

Keywords: correlation, Factor Analysis, drought stress, rapeseed

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7 Development and Testing of an Instrument to Measure Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Botswana

Authors: Ditsapelo M. McFarland


Background: Despite the availability of the Pap smear services in urban areas in Botswana, most women in such areas do not seem to screen regular for prevention of the cervical cancer disease. Reasons for non-use of the available Pap smear services are not well understood. Beliefs about cancer may influence participation in cancer screening in these women. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure beliefs about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening among Black women in Botswana, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument. Significance: Instruments that are designed to measure beliefs about cervical cancer and screening among black women in Botswana, as well as in the surrounding region, are presently not available. Valid and reliable instruments are needed for exploration of the women’s beliefs about cervical cancer. Conceptual Framework: The Health Belief Model (HBM) provided a conceptual framework for the study. Methodology: The study was done in four phases: Phase 1: item generation: 15 items were generated from literature review and qualitative data for each of four conceptually defined HBM constructs: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers (Version 1). Phase 2: content validity: Four experts who were advanced practice nurses of African descent and were familiar with the content and the HBM evaluated the content. Experts rated the items on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from: 1=not relevant, 2=somewhat relevant, 3=relevant and 4=very relevant. Fifty-five items were retained for instrument development: perceived susceptibility - 11, severity - 14, benefits - 15 and barriers - 15, all measuring on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4). (Version 2). Phase 3: pilot testing: The instrument was pilot tested on a convenient sample of 30 women in Botswana and revised as needed. Phase 4: reliability: the revised instrument (Version 3) was submitted to a larger sample of women in Botswana (n=300) for reliability testing. The sample included women who were Batswana by birth and decent, were aged 30 years and above and could complete an English questionnaire. Data were collected with the assistance of trained research assistants. Major findings: confirmatory factor analysis of the 55 items found that a number of items did not adequately load in a four-factor solution. Items that exhibited reasonable reliability and had low frequency of missing values (n=36) were retained: perceived barriers (14 items), perceived benefits (8 items), perceived severity (4 items), and perceived susceptibility (10 items). confirmatory factor analysis (principle components) for a four factor solution using varimax rotation demonstrated that these four factors explained 43% of the variation in these 36 items. Conclusion: reliability analysis using Cronbach’s Alpha gave generally satisfactory results with values from 0.53 to 0.89.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Factor Analysis, psychometric evaluation, varimax rotation

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6 Application of Multivariate Statistics and Hydro-Chemical Approach for Groundwater Quality Assessment: A Study on Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Niladri Das, N. C. Ghosh, Prolay Mondal, Ranajit Ghosh


Groundwater quality deterioration due to human activities has become a prime factor of modern life. The major concern of the study is to access spatial variation of groundwater quality and to identify the sources of groundwater chemicals and its impact on human health of the concerned area. Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster, principal component analysis, and hydrochemical fancies are been applied to measure groundwater quality data on 14 parameters from 107 sites distributed randomly throughout the Birbhum district. Five factors have been extracted using Varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization. The first factor explains 27.61% of the total variance where high positive loading have been concentrated in TH, Ca, Mg, Cl and F (Fluoride). In the studied region, due to the presence of basaltic Rajmahal trap fluoride contamination is highly concentrated and that has an adverse impact on human health such as fluorosis. The second factor explains 24.41% of the total variance which includes Na, HCO₃, EC, and SO₄. The last factor or the fifth factor explains 8.85% of the total variance, and it includes pH which maintains the acidic and alkaline character of the groundwater. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) grouped the 107 sampling station into two clusters. One cluster having high pollution and another cluster having less pollution. Moreover hydromorphological facies viz. Wilcox diagram, Doneen’s chart, and USSL diagram reveal the quality of the groundwater like the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation or water used for drinking purpose like permeability index of the groundwater, quality assessment of groundwater for irrigation. Gibb’s diagram depicts that the major portion of the groundwater of this region is rock dominated origin, as the western part of the region characterized by the Jharkhand plateau fringe comprises basalt, gneiss, granite rocks.

Keywords: correlation, Hydrochemistry, Factor Analysis, hydrological facies

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5 An Investigation of Interdisciplinary Techniques for Assessment of Water Quality in an Industrial Area

Authors: Biswajit Paul, Priti Saha


Rapid urbanization and industrialization have increased the demand of groundwater. However, the present era has evident an enormous level of groundwater pollution. Therefore, water quality assessment is paramount importance to evaluate its suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. This study focus to evaluate the groundwater quality of an industrial city in eastern India through interdisciplinary techniques. The multi-purpose Water Quality Index (WQI) assess the suitability for drinking as well as irrigation of forty sampling locations, where 2.5% and 15% of sampling locations have excellent water quality (WQI:0-25) as well as 15% and 40% have good quality (WQI:25-50), which represents its suitability for drinking and irrigation respectively. However, the industrial water quality was assessed through Ryznar Stability Index (LSI), which affirmed that only 2.5% of sampling locations have neither corrosive nor scale forming properties (RSI: 6.2-6.8). These techniques with the integration of geographical information system (GIS) for spatial assessment indorsed its effectiveness to identify the regions where the water bodies are suitable to use for drinking, irrigation as well as industrial activities. Further, the sources of these contaminants were identified through factor analysis (FA), which revealed that both the geogenic as well as anthropogenic sources were responsible for groundwater pollution. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of statistical and GIS techniques for the analysis of environmental contaminants.

Keywords: Groundwater, Factor Analysis, WQI, water quality index, water quality analysis, spatial assessment

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4 Assessment of Tidal Influence in Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Quality in Masan Bay, Korea

Authors: S. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo


Slack-tide sampling was carried out at seven stations at high and low tides for a tidal cycle, in summer (7, 8, 9) and fall (10), 2016 to determine the differences of water quality according to tides in Masan Bay. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and factor analysis. The mixing state of all the water quality components investigated is well explained by the correlation with salinity (SAL). Turbidity (TURB), dissolved silica (DSi), nitrite and nitrate nitrogen (NNN) and total nitrogen (TN), which find their way into the bay from the streams and have no internal source and sink reaction, showed a strong negative correlation with SAL at low tide, indicating the property of conservative mixing. On the contrary, in summer and fall, dissolved oxygen (DO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and chemical oxygen demand with KMnO4 (CODMn) of the surface and bottom water, which were sensitive to an internal source and sink reaction, showed no significant correlation with SAL at high and low tides. The remaining water quality parameters showed a conservative or a non-conservative mixing pattern depending on the mixing characteristics at high and low tides, determined by the functional relationship between the changes of the flushing time and the changes of the characteristics of water quality components of the end-members in the bay. Factor analysis performed on the concentration difference data sets between high and low tides helped in identifying the principal latent variables for them. The concentration differences varied spatially and temporally. Principal factors (PFs) scores plots for each monitoring situation showed high associations of the variations to the monitoring sites. At sampling station 1 (ST1), temperature (TEMP), SAL, DSi, TURB, NNN and TN of the surface water in summer, TEMP, SAL, DSi, DO, TURB, NNN, TN, reactive soluble phosphorus (RSP) and total phosphorus (TP) of the bottom water in summer, TEMP, pH, SAL, DSi, DO, TURB, CODMn, particulate organic carbon (POC), ammonia nitrogen (AMN), NNN, TN and fecal coliform (FC) of the surface water in fall, TEMP, pH, SAL, DSi, H2S, TURB, CODMn, AMN, NNN and TN of the bottom water in fall commonly showed up as the most significant parameters and the large concentration differences between high and low tides. At other stations, the significant parameters showed differently according to the spatial and temporal variations of mixing pattern in the bay. In fact, there is no estuary that always maintains steady-state flow conditions. The mixing regime of an estuary might be changed at any time from linear to non-linear, due to the change of flushing time according to the combination of hydrogeometric properties, inflow of freshwater and tidal action, And furthermore the change of end-member conditions due to the internal sinks and sources makes the occurrence of concentration difference inevitable. Therefore, when investigating the water quality of the estuary, it is necessary to take a sampling method considering the tide to obtain average water quality data.

Keywords: Factor Analysis, latent variables, conservative mixing, end-member, flushing time, high and low tide, non-conservative mixing, slack-tide sampling, spatial and temporal variations, surface and bottom water

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3 Dataset Quality Index:Development of Composite Indicator Based on Standard Data Quality Indicators

Authors: Preecha Vichitthamaros, Sakda Loetpiparwanich


Nowadays, poor data quality is considered one of the majority costs for a data project. The data project with data quality awareness almost as much time to data quality processes while data project without data quality awareness negatively impacts financial resources, efficiency, productivity, and credibility. One of the processes that take a long time is defining the expectations and measurements of data quality because the expectation is different up to the purpose of each data project. Especially, big data project that maybe involves with many datasets and stakeholders, that take a long time to discuss and define quality expectations and measurements. Therefore, this study aimed at developing meaningful indicators to describe overall data quality for each dataset to quick comparison and priority. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Develop a practical data quality indicators and measurements, (2) Develop data quality dimensions based on statistical characteristics and (3) Develop Composite Indicator that can describe overall data quality for each dataset. The sample consisted of more than 500 datasets from public sources obtained by random sampling. After datasets were collected, there are five steps to develop the Dataset Quality Index (SDQI). First, we define standard data quality expectations. Second, we find any indicators that can measure directly to data within datasets. Thirdly, each indicator aggregates to dimension using factor analysis. Next, the indicators and dimensions were weighted by an effort for data preparing process and usability. Finally, the dimensions aggregate to Composite Indicator. The results of these analyses showed that: (1) The developed useful indicators and measurements contained ten indicators. (2) the developed data quality dimension based on statistical characteristics, we found that ten indicators can be reduced to 4 dimensions. (3) The developed Composite Indicator, we found that the SDQI can describe overall datasets quality of each dataset and can separate into 3 Level as Good Quality, Acceptable Quality, and Poor Quality. The conclusion, the SDQI provide an overall description of data quality within datasets and meaningful composition. We can use SQDI to assess for all data in the data project, effort estimation, and priority. The SDQI also work well with Agile Method by using SDQI to assessment in the first sprint. After passing the initial evaluation, we can add more specific data quality indicators into the next sprint.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Data Quality, Factor Analysis, composite indicator, data quality management, dataset quality

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