Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Facebook Related Abstracts

34 Use of Social Media in Political Communications: Example of Facebook

Authors: Bahar Urhan Torun, Havva Nur Tarakci

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The transformation that is seen in every area of life by technology, especially internet technology changes the structure of political communications too. Internet, which is at the top of new communication technologies, affects political communications with its structure in a way that no traditional communication tools ever have and enables interaction and the channel between receiver and sender, and it becomes one of the most effective tools preferred among the political communication applications. This state as a result of technological convergence makes Internet an unobtainable place for political communication campaigns. Political communications, which means every kind of communication strategies that political parties called 'actors of political communications' use with the aim of messaging their opinions and party programmes to their present and potential voters who are a target group for them, is a type of communication that is frequently used also among social media tools at the present day. The electorate consisting of different structures is informed, directed, and managed by social media tools. Political parties easily reach their electorate by these tools without any limitations of both time and place and also are able to take the opinions and reactions of their electorate by the element of interaction that is a feature of social media. In this context, Facebook, which is a place that political parties use in social media at most, is a communication network including in our daily life since 2004. As it is one of the most popular social networks today, it is among the most-visited websites in the global scale. In this way, the research is based on the question, “How do the political parties use Facebook at the campaigns, which they conduct during the election periods, for informing their voters?” and it aims at clarifying the Facebook using practices of the political parties. In direction of this objective the official Facebook accounts of the four political parties (JDP–AKParti, PDP–BDP, RPP-CHP, NMP-MHP), which reach their voters by social media besides other communication tools, are treated, and a frame for the politics of Turkey is formed. The time of examination is constricted with totally two weeks, one week before the mayoral elections and one week after the mayoral elections, when it is supposed that the political parties use their Facebook accounts in full swing. As a research method, the method of content analysis is preferred, and the texts and the visual elements that are gotten are interpreted based on this analysis.

Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, political communications, electrorate

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33 Effectiveness of Internet Psychological Counseling in Reducing Social Shyness Symptoms among Students of University of Tabuk

Authors: Khawla Saad Albalawi

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The aim of this research was to explore the effectiveness of the internet counseling in reducing social shyness among the university's students. The sample consisted of 40 students and was divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The social shyness scale (SSS) was administered to both groups before applying the counseling to the experimental group (as a pre-test). After that, the internet counseling was applied to the experimental group. Next, the SSS was administered to both groups (as a post-test). Finally, the SSS was administered to the experimental group (as an iterative application). Results suggest that: 1. There is a significant difference between the two groups in the post-test in all dimensions and the total score of the (SSS) in favor of the experimental group in all cases. 2. There is a significant difference between the pre- and the post-test of the experimental group in all dimensions and the total score of the (SSS) in favor of the post-test in all cases. 3. There is no significant difference between the post-test and the iterative application of the experimental group in all dimensions and the total score of the (SSS). The above results were discussed in light of previous research. Recommendations and future researches were suggested.

Keywords: Shyness, Twitter, Facebook, internet psychological clinics, social interaction disorders

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32 Towards an Understanding of Social Capital in an Online Community of Filipino Music Artists

Authors: Jerome V. Cleofas

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Cyberspace has become a more viable arena for budding artists to share musical acts through digital forms. The increasing relevance of online communities has attracted scholars from various fields demonstrating its influence on social capital. This paper extends this understanding of social capital among Filipino music artists belonging to the SoundCloud Philippines Facebook Group. The study makes use of various qualitative data obtained from key-informant interviews and participant observation of online and physical encounters, analyzed using the case study approach. Soundcloud Philippines has over seven-hundred members and is composed of Filipino singers, instrumentalists, composers, arrangers, producers, multimedia artists, and event managers. Group interactions are a mix of online encounters based on Facebook and SoundCloud and physical encounters through meet-ups and events. Benefits reaped from the community are informational, technical, instrumental, promotional, motivational, and social support. Under the guidance of online group administrators, collaborative activities such as music productions, concerts and events transpire. Most conflicts and problems arising are resolved peacefully. Social capital in SoundCloud Philippines is mobilized through recognition, respect and reciprocity.

Keywords: Social Capital, Online communities, Facebook, music artists

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31 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

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Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: Social Media, Culture, Saudi Arabia, user interface design, Facebook

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30 Features for Measuring Credibility on Facebook Information

Authors: Kanda Runapongsa Saikaew, Chaluemwut Noyunsan

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Nowadays social media information, such as news, links, images, or VDOs, is shared extensively. However, the effectiveness of disseminating information through social media lacks in quality: less fact checking, more biases, and several rumors. Many researchers have investigated about credibility on Twitter, but there is no the research report about credibility information on Facebook. This paper proposes features for measuring credibility on Facebook information. We developed the system for credibility on Facebook. First, we have developed FB credibility evaluator for measuring credibility of each post by manual human’s labelling. We then collected the training data for creating a model using Support Vector Machine (SVM). Secondly, we developed a chrome extension of FB credibility for Facebook users to evaluate the credibility of each post. Based on the usage analysis of our FB credibility chrome extension, about 81% of users’ responses agree with suggested credibility automatically computed by the proposed system.

Keywords: Social Media, Internet, Facebook, credibility measurement

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29 Twitter: The New Marketing Communication Tools

Authors: Mansur Ahmed Kazaure

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The emergence of internet-based social media has made it possible for one person to communication with hundreds or even thousands of people about a company goods and services and the companies that provides them. Thus, the impact of customer-to-customer communications has been significantly magnified in the marketplace. Therefore, the essence of this paper is to critically evaluate the literature of social media and their implication for practice, but the author pay attention on twitter as a new marketing communication tools. The author found out that, despite the implication of using social media especially twitter by the companies as part of their marketing communication tool, but still it can enhance the opportunity for the companies to develop and maintain long-term customer relationship. The paper concludes that, using twitter as a marketing communication tool is a market trend and it is the best way for marketers to add value to their customer, however with the Twitter marketers can get a feedback about the performance of their product and its brand in the marketplace. The paper is purely a conceptual discourse based on secondary data.

Keywords: Social Media, Marketing Communication, Twitter, Facebook, marketing communication tools

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28 The Sociology of the Facebook: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Liana Melissa E. de la Rosa, Jayson P. Ada

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This exploratory study was conducted to determine the sociology of the Facebook. Specifically, it aimed to know the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, year level and monthly allowance; find out the common usage of Facebook to the respondents; identify the features of Facebook that are commonly used by the respondents; understand the benefits and risks of using the Facebook; determine how frequent the respondents use the Facebook; and find out if there is a significant relationship between socio-demographic profile of the respondents and their Facebook usage. This study used the exploratory research design and correlational design employing research survey questionnaire as its main data gathering instrument. Students of the University of Eastern Philippines were selected as the respondents of this study through quota sampling. Ten (10) students were randomly selected from each college of the university. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusion were drawn: The majority of the respondents are aged 18 and 21 old, female, are third year students, and have monthly allowance of P 2,000 above. On the respondents’ usage of Facebook, the majority of use the Facebook on a daily basis for one to two (1-2) hours everyday. And most users used Facebook by renting a computer in an internet cafe. On the use of Facebook, most users have created their profiles mainly to connect with people and gain new friends. The most commonly used features of Facebook, are: photos application, like button, wall, notification, friend, chat, network, groups and “like” pages status updates, messages and inbox and events. While the other Facebook features that are seldom used by the respondents are games, news feed, user name, video sharing and notes. And the least used Facebook features are questions, poke feature, credits and the market place. The respondents stated that the major benefit that the Facebook has given to its users is its ability to keep in touch with family members or friends while the main risk identified is that the users can become addicted to the Internet. On the tests of relationships between the respondents’ use of Facebook and the four (4) socio-demographic profile variables: age, sex, year level, and month allowance, were found to be not significantly related to the respondents’ use of the Facebook. While the variable found to be significantly related was gender.

Keywords: Social Networking, Sociology, exploratory study, Facebook

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27 Differences in Motivations for the Use of Facebook between Males and Females

Authors: Arti Bakhshi, Remia Mahajan

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Social networking sites have evolved with great pace and India has been no exception. Facebook is the top most rated social networking site (SNS) in India. Though this site is mostly used by younger generations, the popularity of this site is increasing among all masses and classes. The current paper explores gender differences in motivations for the use of Facebook. Of the sample (N=556), 229 male and 327 female Facebook users from India were asked to rate the motivations for the use of Facebook from ‘most preferred’ to ‘least preferred’. The five motivations studied were- time passing, information, relationship development, relationship maintenance and trend following. The cross tab chi square analyses revealed significant differences in three out of five motivations between male and female Facebook users, namely time passing, relationship development and trend following. Female Facebook users rated ‘time passing’ as a more preferred motivation in comparison to male Facebook users, while male users rated ‘relationship development’ and ‘trend following’ motivations as more preferred in comparison to female Facebook users. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Gender, Facebook, motivations, social networking sites

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26 Factors Impact Satisfaction and Continuance Intention to Use Facebook

Authors: Bataineh Abdallah, Alabdallah Ghaith, Alkharabshe Abdalhameed

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Social media is an umbrella term for different types of online communication channels. The most prominent forms can be divided into four categories: Collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia, comparison-shopping sites), blogs (e.g. Twitter), content communities (e.g. Youtube), social networking sites (e.g. Facebook) social media allow consumers to share their opinions, criticisms and suggestions in public. Facebook launched in 2004, initially targeted college students and later started including everyone has become the most popular sites amongst the young generation for connecting with friends and relatives and for the communication of ideas. In 2013 Facebook penetration rate reached 41.4% of the population making it the most popular social networking site in Jordan. Accordingly, the purpose of this research is to examine the impact of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, perceived enjoyment and subjective norms on users' satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook in Jordan. Using a structured questionnaire, the primary data was collected from 584 users who have an active Facebook accounts. Multiple regression analysis was employed to test the research model and hypotheses. The research findings indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived trust, perceived enjoyment, and subjective norms have a positive and significant effect on users' satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook. The findings also indicated that the strongest predictors, based on beta values, on both users' satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook is subjective norms and respectively, perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of us, and perceived trust. Research results, recommendations, and future research opportunities are also discussed.

Keywords: continuance intention, Perceived Ease of Use, perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, Facebook, perceived trust, perceived subjective norms, users' satisfaction

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25 Social Networks in a Communication Strategy of a Large Company

Authors: Kherbache Mehdi

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Within the framework of the validation of the Master in business administration marketing and sales in INSIM institute international in management Blida, we get the opportunity to do a professional internship in Sonelgaz Enterprise and a thesis. The thesis deals with the integration of social networking in the communication strategy of a company. The problematic is: How communicate with social network can be a solution for companies? The challenges stressed by this thesis were to suggest limits and recommendations to Sonelgaz Enterprise concerning social networks. The whole social networks represent more than a billion people as a potential target for the companies. Thanks to research and a qualitative approach, we have identified tree valid hypothesis. The first hypothesis allows confirming that using social networks cannot be ignored by any company in its communication strategy. However, the second hypothesis demonstrates that it’s necessary to prepare a strategy that integrates social networks in the communication plan of the company. The risk of this strategy is very limited because failure on social networks is not a restraint for the enterprise, social networking is not expensive and, a bad image which could result from it is not as important in the long-term. Furthermore, the return on investment is difficult to evaluate. Finally, the last hypothesis shows that firms establish a new relation between consumers and brands thanks to the proximity allowed by social networks. After the validation of the hypothesis, we suggested some recommendations to Sonelgaz Enterprise regarding the communication through social networks. Firstly, the company must use the interactivity of social network in order to have fruitful exchanges with the community. We also recommended having a strategy to treat negative comments. The company must also suggest delivering resources to the community thanks to a community manager, in order to have a good relation with the community. Furthermore, we advised using social networks to do business intelligence. Sonelgaz Enterprise can have some creative and interactive contents with some amazing applications on Facebook for example. Finally, we recommended to the company to be not intrusive with “fans” or “followers” and to be open to all the platforms: Twitter, Facebook, Linked-In for example.

Keywords: Communication, Social Network, Interaction, Consumer, web 2.0, Internet Users, Twitter, Facebook, buzz, return on investment

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24 The Relationship between Facebook, Religiosity and Academic Performance

Authors: Nooraisah Katmon, Hartini Jaafar, Hazianti Abdul Halim, Jessnor Elmy Mat Jizat

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Our study empirically examines the effect of student activities on Facebook and religion on academic performance. We extend prior research in this area in a number of ways. First, given the paucity of the research in this area particularly from the Asian context, we provide the evidence from developing country like Malaysia. Second, our sample drawn from Sultan Idris Education University in Malaysia, where graduates from these universities are unique since they are expected to be able to work in both education and industry environment, and presumed to play significant roles in shaping the development of future student’s intellectual at the Malaysian secondary school and Malaysian economy in general. Third, we control for religiosity aspect when examining the association between Facebook and academic performance, something that has been predominantly neglected by the prior studies. Fourth, unlike prior studies that circulating around the Christian sphere in measuring religiosity, we provide evidence from the Islamic perspective where the act of worships and practices are much more comprehensive rather than the Christian counterparts. Fifth, we examine whether Facebook activities and religiosity are complementary or substitutive each other in improving student’s academic performance. Our sample comprise of 60 undergraduates. Our result exhibit that students with high number of friends on facebook and frequent engagement on facebook activities, such as sharing links, send message, posting photo, tagging video as well as spending long hours on facebook generally are associated with lower academic performance. Our results also reported that student’s engagement in religious activities promotes better academic performance. When we examine the potential interaction effect between facebook and religiosity, our result revealed that religiosity is effective in reducing student’s interest on facebook, hence lead to better academic achievement. In other words, religious student will be less interested in joining activities on facebook and make them more perform than their counterparts. Our findings from this study should be able to assist the university management in shaping university policies and curriculum to regulate and manage student’s activities in order to enhance overall student’s quality. Moreover, the findings from this study are also of use to the policy maker such as Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commissions to regulate the policy on the student’s access and activities on facebook.

Keywords: religiosity, Academic Performance, Facebook, effect of student activities

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23 Social Network Impact on Self Learning in Teaching and Learning in UPSI (Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris)

Authors: Azli Bin Ariffin, Noor Amy Afiza Binti Mohd Yusof

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This study aims to identify effect of social network usage on the self-learning method in teaching and learning at Sultan Idris Education University. The study involved 270 respondents consisting of students in the pre-graduate and post-graduate levels from nine fields of study offered. Assessment instrument used is questionnaire which measures respondent’s background includes level of study, years of study and field of study. Also measured the extent to which social pages used for self-learning and effect received when using social network for self-learning in learning process. The results of the study showed that students always visit Facebook more than other social sites. But, it is not for the purpose of self-learning. Analyzed data showed that 45.5% students not sure about using social sites for self-learning. But they realize the positive effect that they will received when use social sites for self-learning to improve teaching and learning process when 72.7% respondent agreed with all the statements provided.

Keywords: Learning, Teaching, Social Network, Self-Learning, Facebook

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22 Exploring the Relationships between Cyberbullying Perceptions and Facebook Attitudes of Turkish Students

Authors: Yavuz Erdoğan, Hidayet Çiftçi

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Cyberbullying, a phenomenon among adolescents, is defined as actions that use information and communication technologies such as social media to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an individual or group. With the advancement in communication and information technology, cyberbullying has expanded its boundaries among students in schools. Thus, parents, psychologists, educators, and lawmakers must become aware of the potential risks of this phenomenon. In the light of these perspectives, this study aims to investigate the relationships between cyberbullying perception and Facebook attitudes of Turkish students. A survey method was used for the study and the data were collected by “Cyberbullying Perception Scale”, “Facebook Attitude Scale” and “Personal Information Form”. For this purpose, study has been conducted during 2014-2015 academic year, with a total of 748 students with 493 male (%65.9) and 255 female (%34.1) from randomly selected high schools. In the analysis of data Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc test has been used. At the end of the study, the results displayed a negative correlation between Turkish students’ Facebook attitudes and cyberbullying perception (r=-.210; p<0.05). In order to identify the predictors of students’ cyberbullying perception, multiple regression analysis was used. As a result, significant relations were detected between cyberbullying perception and independent variables (F=5.102; p<0.05). Independent variables together explain 11.0% of the total variance in cyberbullying scores. The variables that significantly predict the students’ cyberbullying perception are Facebook attitudes (t=-5.875; p<0.05), and gender (t=3.035; p<0.05). In order to calculate the effects of independent variables on students’ Facebook attitudes and cyberbullying perception MANOVA was conducted. The results of the MANOVA indicate that the Facebook attitudes and cyberbullying perception were significantly differed according to students’ gender, age, educational attainment of the mother, educational attainment of the father, income of the family and daily usage of internet.

Keywords: Cyberbullying, attitude, Facebook, internet usage

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21 Social Networking Sites and Employee Engagement

Authors: Sultan Ali Suleiman AlMazrouei

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of communication through social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter) on employee engagement. Methodology: A quantitative survey was used to collect data from 440 employees from the Ministry of Education in Oman. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results revealed a positive significant relationship between communication via Facebook and employee engagement. However, communication via Twitter does not influence employee engagement significantly. Practical implications: Managers can benefit from the study by understanding the importance of communication via Facebook with employees in order to increase their engagement. They should post their views and thoughts on Facebook and encourage their employees to be members which would be reflected on their psychological side positively. That gives them a feeling of belonging to a network. Originality/value: The study enriches the human resources management literature by examining a theoretical framework about the influence of social networking sites usage on employee engagement. This is one of the few studies that focus on the relationship of social networking sites usage with employees' engagement. It is the first study in an Omani context.

Keywords: Employee Engagement, Twitter, Facebook, social networking sites

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20 A Study to Explore the Views of Students regarding E-Learning as an Instructional Tool at University Level

Authors: Zafar Iqbal

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This study involved students of 6th semester enrolled in a Bachelor of Computer Science Program at university level. In this era of science and technology, e-learning can be helpful for grassroots in providing them access to education tenant in less developed areas. It is a potential substitute of face-to-face teaching being used in different countries. The purpose of the study was to explore the views of students about e-learning (Facebook) as an instructional tool. By using purposive sampling technique an intact class of 30 students included both male and female were selected where e-learning was used as an instructional tool. The views of students were explored through qualitative approach by using focus group interviews. The approach was helpful to develop comprehensive understanding of students’ views towards e- learning. In addition, probing questions were also asked and recorded. Data was transcribed, generated nodes and then coded text against these nodes. For this purpose and further analysis, NVivo 10 software was used. Themes were generated and tangibly presented through cluster analysis. Findings were interesting and provide sufficient evidence that face book is a subsequent e-learning source for students of higher education. Students acknowledged it as best source of learning and it was aligned with their academic and social behavior. It was not time specific and therefore, feasible for students who work day time and can get on line access to the material when they got free time. There were some distracters (time wasters) reported by the students but can be minimized by little effort. In short, e-learning is need of the day and potential learning source for every individual who have access to internet living at any part of the globe.

Keywords: Higher Education, e-Learning, Facebook, instructional tool

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19 The Use of Facebook as a Social Media by Political Parties in the June 7 Election in Konya

Authors: Süleyman Hakan Yılmaz, Yasemin Gülşen Yılmaz, Muhammet Erbay

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Social media is among the most important means of communication. Social media offers individuals and groups with an opportunity for participatory socialization over the internet, which is free of any time and place restrictions. Social media is a kind of interactive communication and bilateral social network. Various communication contents can be shared and put into mass circulation easily and quickly through social media. These sharings are not only limited to individuals but also happen to groups, institutions, and different constitutions. Their contents consist of any type of written message, audio and video files. We are living in the social media era now. It is not surprising that social media which has extensive communication facilities and massive prevalence is used in politics. Therefore, the use of social media (Facebook) by political parties during the Turkish general elections held on June 7, 2015, has been chosen as our research subject. Four parties namely, AKP, CHP, MHP and HDP who have the majority of votes in Turkey and participate in elections in Konya have been selected for our study. Their provincial centers’ and parliamentary candidates` use of social media (Facebook) on the last three days prior to the election have been examined and subjected to a qualitative analysis by means of content analysis.

Keywords: Social Media, Politics, Facebook, June 7 general elections

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18 Social Data Aggregator and Locator of Knowledge (STALK)

Authors: Rashmi Raghunandan, Sanjana Shankar, Rakshitha K. Bhat

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Social media contributes a vast amount of data and information about individuals to the internet. This project will greatly reduce the need for unnecessary manual analysis of large and diverse social media profiles by filtering out and combining the useful information from various social media profiles, eliminating irrelevant data. It differs from the existing social media aggregators in that it does not provide a consolidated view of various profiles. Instead, it provides consolidated INFORMATION derived from the subject’s posts and other activities. It also allows analysis over multiple profiles and analytics based on several profiles. We strive to provide a query system to provide a natural language answer to questions when a user does not wish to go through the entire profile. The information provided can be filtered according to the different use cases it is used for.

Keywords: Analysis, Social Network, Big Data, Facebook, LinkedIn, git

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17 The Acceptance of Online Social Network Technology for Tourism Destination

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the factors of using online social network for tourism destination in case of Bangkok area in Thailand, by extending the use of technology acceptance model (TAM). This study employed by quantitative research and the target population were entrepreneurs and local people in Bangkok who use social network-Facebook concerning tourist destinations in Bangkok. Questionnaire was used to collect data from 300 purposive samples. The multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that most people who used Facebook for promoting tourism destinations in Bangkok perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived trust in using Facebook and influenced by social normative as well as having positive attitude towards using this application. Addition, the hypothesis results indicate that acceptance of online social network-Facebook was related to the positive attitude towards using of Facebook and related to their intention to use this application for tourism.

Keywords: Tourism Destination, online social network, technology acceptance model, Facebook

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16 From News Breakers to News Followers: The Influence of Facebook on the Coverage of the January 2010 Crisis in Jos

Authors: T. Obateru, Samuel Olaniran

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In an era when the new media is affording easy access to packaging and dissemination of information, the social media have become a popular avenue for sharing information for good or ill. It is evident that the traditional role of journalists as ‘news breakers’ is fast being eroded. People now share information on happenings via the social media like Facebook, Twitter and the rest, such that journalists themselves now get leads on happenings from such sources. Beyond the access to information provided by the new media is the erosion of the gatekeeping role of journalists who by their training and calling, are supposed to handle information with responsibility. Thus, sensitive information that journalists would normally filter is randomly shared by social media activists. This was the experience of journalists in Jos, Plateau State in January 2010 when another of the recurring ethnoreligious crisis that engulfed the state resulted in another widespread killing, vandalism, looting, and displacements. Considered as one of the high points of crises in the state, journalists who had the duty of covering the crisis also relied on some of these sources to get their bearing on the violence. This paper examined the role of Facebook in the work of journalists who covered the 2010 crisis. Taking the gatekeeping perspective, it interrogated the extent to which Facebook impacted their professional duty positively or negatively vis-à-vis the peace journalism model. It employed survey to elicit information from 50 journalists who covered the crisis using questionnaire as instrument. The paper revealed that the dissemination of hate information via mobile phones and social media, especially Facebook, aggravated the crisis situation. Journalists became news followers rather than news breakers because a lot of them were put on their toes by information (many of which were inaccurate or false) circulated on Facebook. It recommended that journalists must remain true to their calling by upholding their ‘gatekeeping’ role of disseminating only accurate and responsible information if they would remain the main source of credible information on which their audience rely.

Keywords: Crisis, Facebook, ethnoreligious, journalists

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15 Investigating Customer Engagement through the Prism of Congruity Theory

Authors: Jamid Ul Islam, Zillur Rahman

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The impulse for customer engagement research in online brand communities (OBCs) is largely acknowledged in the literature. Applying congruity theory, this study proposes a model of customer engagement by examining how two congruities viz. self-brand image congruity and value congruity influence customers’ engagement in online brand communities. The consequent effect of customer engagement on brand loyalty is also studied. This study collected data through a questionnaire survey of 395 students of a higher educational institute in India, who were active on Facebook and followed a brand community (at least one). The data were analyzed using structure equation modelling. The results revealed that both the types of congruity i.e., self-brand image congruity and value congruity significantly affect customer engagement. A positive effect of customer engagement on brand loyalty was also affirmed by the results. This study integrates and broadens extant explanations of different congruity effects on consumer behavior-an area that has received little attention. This study is expected to add new trends to engage customers in online brand communities and offer realistic insights to the domain of social media marketing.

Keywords: Customer Engagement, Facebook, congruity theory, online brand communities

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14 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

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Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, digital discourse, digital rhetoric

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13 Higher Education Institution Students’ Perception on Educational Technology

Authors: Kuek Teik Sheng, Leaw Zee Guan, Lim Wah Kien, Ting Tin Tin

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Educational technology such as YouTube and Kahoot have arisen as an alternative to effective learning among higher education institutions. There are many researches done in carrying out experiments to test different educational technologies and received positive feedback from students. Yet, similar study is hardly found in Malaysia especially study that includes the latest educational technologies. As a developing country, it is crucial to ensure that these emerging technologies are assisting students in learning process before it is widely adopted in institutions. This paper conducted a study to explore the perception of higher education institution students on the current educational technologies in Malaysia which include online educational games, online videos/course, social media, presentation tools and resource management tool. Some of these technologies have not been looked into its potential in effective learning process. An online survey using questionnaire is conducted among a target of 300 university/college. In the survey, the result shows that majority of the target students in Malaysia agree that the current educational technologies help them in learning, understanding and manage their studies. It is necessary to discover students’ perceptions on the educational technologies in order to provide guidelines for the educators/institutions in selecting appropriate technology to conduct the lecture/tutorial efficiently and effectively.

Keywords: Education, Educational Technology, Facebook, YouTube, PowerPoint

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12 Other-Generated Disclosure: A Challenge to Privacy on Social Network Sites

Authors: Dragana Calic, Maumita Bhattacharya, Tharntip Tawnie Chutikulrungsee, Oliver Kisalay Burmeister

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Sharing on social network sites (SNSs) has rapidly emerged as a new social norm and has become a global phenomenon. Billions of users reveal not only their own information (self disclosure) but also information about others (other-generated disclosure), resulting in a risk and a serious threat to either personal or informational privacy. Self-disclosure (SD) has been extensively researched in the literature, particularly regarding control of individual and existing privacy management. However, far too little attention has been paid to other-generated disclosure (OGD), especially by insiders. OGD has a strong influence on self-presentation, self-image, and electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Moreover, OGD is more credible and less likely manipulated than SD, but lacks privacy control and legal protection to some extent. This article examines OGD in depth, ranging from motivation to both online and offline impacts, based upon lived experiences from both ‘the disclosed’ and ‘the discloser’. Using purposive sampling, this phenomenological study involves an online survey and in-depth interviews. The findings report the influence of peer disclosure as well as users’ strategies to mitigate privacy issues. This article also calls attention to the challenge of OGD privacy and inadequacies in the law related to privacy protection in the digital domain.

Keywords: Online Privacy, Facebook, other-generated disclosure, social networks sites (SNSs)

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11 Behavioral Experiments of Small Societies in Social Media: Facebook Expressions of Anchored Relationships

Authors: Nuran Öze

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Communities and societies have been changing towards computer mediated communication. This paper explores online and offline identities and how relationships are formed and negotiated within internet environments which offer opportunities for people who know each other offline and move into relationships online. The expectations and norms of behavior within everyday life cause people to be embodied self. According to the age categories of Turkish Cypriots, their measurements of attitudes in Facebook will be investigated. Face-to-face field research and semi-structured interview methods are used in the study. Face-to-face interview has been done with Turkish Cypriots who are using Facebook already. According to the study, in constructing a linkage between real and virtual identities mostly affected from societal relations serves as a societal grooming tool for Turkish Cypriots.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Social Media, Identity, Facebook

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10 Analyzing the Usage of Social Media: A Study on Elderly in Malaysia

Authors: Tang Mui Joo, Chan Eang Teng

Abstract:

In the beginning of the prevalence of social media, it would be an obvious trend that the young adult age group has the highest population among the users on social media. However, apart from the age group of the users are becoming younger and younger, the elderly group has become a new force on social media, and this age group has increased rapidly. On top of that, the influence of social media towards the elderly is becoming more significant and it is even trending among them. This is because basic computer knowledge is not instilled into their life when they were young. This age group tends to be engrossed more than the young as this is something new for them, and they have the mindset that it is a new platform to approach things, and they tend to be more engrossed when they start getting in touch with the social media. Generally, most of the social media has been accepted and accessed by teenagers and young adult, but it is reasonable to believe that the social media is not really accepted among the elderly. Surprisingly, the elderlies are more addicted to the social media than the teenagers. Therefore, this study is to determine and understand the relationship between the elderly and social media, and how they employ social media in their lives. An online survey on 200 elderly aged 45-80 and an interview with a media expert are conducted to answer the main questions in the research paper. Uses and Gratification Approach is employed in theoretical framework. Finding revealed that majority of the respondents use social media to connect with family, friends, and for leisure purposes. The finding concluded that the elderly use social media differently according to their needs and wants which is in par with the highlight of Uses and Gratification theory. Considering the significantly large role social media plays in our culture and daily life today, the finding will shed some light on the effect of social media on the elderly or senior citizens who are usually relegated into a minority group in today’s age where the internet and social media are of great importance to our society and humanity in general. This may also serve to be useful in understanding behavioral patterns and preference in terms of social media usage among the elderly.

Keywords: Social Media, Elderly, Malaysia, Facebook

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9 Genres of Communication and Readers’ Reactions: Popular Science Magazines on Facebook

Authors: Artur Daniel Ramos Modolo

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Popular science magazines are an important way to communicate scientific information to lay audience in science. Since the popularization of social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and Twitter, these magazines are trying to adapt their content to these new media. In this study, one hundred posts of popular science magazines on Facebook are analyzed regarding the use of genres of communication and readers’ reactions. The quantitative analysis of these features considers the variety of genres and how the users of Facebook answer to them (liking, sharing and commenting). The first hypothesis was that these magazines used the genres of communication posted on Facebook both to marketing and informational purposes and that these mixed intentions have an impact in the number of readers’ reactions. In order to analyze these features, twenty timeline posts published by five magazines: Cosmos, Galileu, New Scientist, Scientific American and Superinteressante were gathered during the period of three days (6th November 2015–8th November 2015). This research shows that the hyperlinks posted by these magazines created ways to diversify the communication genres used on their pages and, at the same time, revealed that, overall, readers react quantitatively different to these genres.

Keywords: Facebook, social networking sites, genres of communication, likes, popular science magazines

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8 Code-Switching in Facebook Chatting Among Maldivian Teenagers

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

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This study examines the phenomenon of code switching among teenagers in the Maldives while they carry out conversations through Facebook in the form of “Facebook Chatting”. The current study aims at evaluating the frequency of code-switching and it investigates between what languages code-switching occurs. Besides the study identifies the types of words that are often codeswitched and the triggers for code switching. The methodology used in this study is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approach. In this regard, the chat log of a group conversation between 10 teenagers was collected and analyzed. A questionnaire was also administered through online to 24 different teenagers from different corners of the Maldives. The age of teenagers ranged between 16 and 19 years. The findings of the current study revealed that while Maldivian teenagers chat in Facebook they very often code switch and these switches are most commonly between Dhivehi and English, but some other languages are also used to some extent. It also identified the different types of words that are being often code switched among the teenagers. Most importantly it explored different reasons behind code switching among the Maldivian teenagers in Facebook chatting.

Keywords: Code-switching, Facebook, Facebook chatting Maldivian teenagers

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7 Investigation of the Psychological and Sociological Consequences of Facebook Usage towards Saudi Arabia University Students

Authors: Abdullah Alassiri

Abstract:

Prompted by the widespread saturation of Facebook usage in Saudi Arabia, among university students to socialize with online members, this study investigated the usage, self-presentation, psychological and sociological consequences of the Facebook social networking site among undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia. The problem statement of this study was addressed by answering the following questions: 1) What motivation do undergraduate students have for joining Facebook? 2) How do undergraduate students consume Facebook? 3) In what condition do undergraduate students need Facebook? 4) How do undergraduate students manage their self-presentation via Facebook? 5) What are the experiences obtained by the undergraduate students from Facebook psychologically? 6) What are the experiences obtained by the undergraduate students from Facebook sociologically? 7) How have Facebook activities affected the lifestyle of the undergraduate students?. These questions were answered by analyzing in-depth interview data collected from twenty male undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 years selected from King Saud University (KSU) and King Khalid University (KKU) Saudi Arabia. Using thematic analysis, informants data were coded ‘R1 to R20’, validated and was transcribed to minimize error from translating into the study items from Arabic back to the English Language. Using purposive sampling method, informant perspective within the research context were explored. Data collection was confined to students’ motivations for engaging in online activities, self-presentation, psychological and sociological consequences to their everyday life was investigated based on the theoretical and philosophical perspective underpinnings media and gratification paradigm and social influence theory. The findings contributed to the development of important study themes that supported the development of a new research framework. Based on the analysis, all the study questions were answered. The findings of this study showed that the students use Facebook for the purpose of interacting with others, getting information and as knowledge sources. In terms of self-presentation, this study revealed that the students portray themselves in the real and not fake image while socializing with others. Psychological and sociological consequences from the usage of Facebook are recorded ranging from cheerful to stress and from loneliness to having many friends. As a conclusion, this study conclusively drew that Facebook is a very persuasive medium of communication among the University students in Saudi Arabia that bridges across socio-cultural boundaries and unite students to interact as a community.

Keywords: Social Network, Saudi Arabia, Facebook, undergraduate students

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6 Sick Minds and Social Media: Treacherous Trends in Online Stalking, Aggression, and Murder

Authors: Amanda Maitland

Abstract:

This preliminary study has examined ways in which social media may help cause stalker murder by individuals with personality disorders and a strong sense of sexual propriety. A public display on social media by the intended victim was felt to be a trigger that instigated interpersonal violence. To identify behavioural paradigms, case studies of intimate partner murders were explored using news media sources and documentaries. In all of the case studies, social media interaction and social media postings occurred shortly before the murder. The evidence suggested a preponderance of correlations between the social media postings, stalking behaviours, personality disorders, and the murder of an intimate partner. In addition to this, a profile for of Facebook/social media murder was gleaned from the paradigms of behavior found in the case studies. The evidence showed a complex relationship between severe violence, stalking, borderline personality, and intimate partner violence was identified through the study. The struggle clients have in dealing with the: public, ambiguous and unrelenting nature of social media postings was also observed. The murderers anguish and rage appeared to be further intensified by attitudes of sexual propriety and entitlement. These attitudes were evident in all the case studies. The study concluded with further research on how the public can protect themselves from entering situations where social media postings might trigger a violent response. Further to this, psychological approaches were identified that might support client’s with personality disorders to cope with perceived provocative and distressing data on the internet. Thus, the findings of this study will be of interest to: therapists, psychologists, nurses, criminologists and social workers.

Keywords: Social Media, Intimate Partner Violence, murder, Facebook, borderline personality, cyberstalking, sexual propriety

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5 Digital Metroliteracies: Space, Diversity and Identity

Authors: Sender Dovchin, Alastair Pennycook

Abstract:

This paper looks at the relationship between online space, urban space and digital literacies. The everyday digital literacy practices of Facebook users (with a particular focus on young urban Mongolians) can be understood as ‘metrolingual’ because of the varied ways in which linguistic and cultural resources, spatial repertoires, and online activities are bound together to make meaning. Whereas the initial development of the term metrolingualism was dependent on a notion of physical urban space, we here argue that the digital practices of these Facebook users perform a range of social and cultural identities (sexual, ethnic, and class-based identities) that are both parts of but also adjacent to the metrolingual fabric.

Keywords: digital literacy, Facebook, Mongolia, metrolingualism

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