Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Fabrics Related Abstracts

4 Potentials of Henna Leaves as Dye and Its Fastness Properties on Fabric

Authors: Nkem Angela Udeani

Abstract:

Despite the widespread use of synthetic dyes, natural dyes are still exploited and used to enhance its inherent aesthetic qualities as a major material for the beautification of the body. Centuries before the discovery of synthetic dye, natural dyes were the only source of dye open to mankind. Dyes are extracted from plant - leaves, roots, and barks, insect secretions, and minerals. However, research findings have made it clear that of all, plant- leaves, roots, barks or flowers are the most explored and exploited. Henna (Lawsonia innermis) is one of those plants. The experiment has also shown that henna is used in body painting in conjunction with an alkaline (Ammonium Sulphate) as a fixing agent. This of course gives a clue that if colour derived from henna is properly investigated, it may not only be used as body decoration but possibly, may have affinity to fibre substrate. This paper investigates the dyeing potentials - dyeing ability and fastness qualities of henna dye extract on cotton and linen fibres using mordants like ammonium sulphate and other alkalies (hydrosulphate and caustic soda, potash, common salt and alum). Hot and cold water and ethanol solvent were used in the extraction of the dye to investigate the most effective method of extraction, dyeing ability and fastness qualities of these extracts under room temperature. The results of the experiment show that cotton have a high rate of dye intake than linen fibre. On a similar note, the colours obtained depend most on the solvent and or the mordant used. In conclusion, hot water extraction appear more effective. While the colours obtained from ethanol and both cold and hot method of extraction range from light to dark yellow, light green to army green, there are to some extent shades of brown hues.

Keywords: Fabrics, potential, dye, henna leaves

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3 Integration of Load Introduction Elements into Fabrics

Authors: Jan Schwennen, Harlad Schmid, Juergen Fleischer

Abstract:

Lightweight design plays an important role in the automotive industry. Especially the combination of metal and CFRP shows great potential for future vehicle concepts. This requires joining technologies that are cost-efficient and appropriate for the materials involved. Previous investigations show that integrating load introduction elements during CFRP part manufacturing offers great advantages in mechanical performance. However, it is not yet clear how to integrate the elements in an automated process without harming the fiber structure. In this paper, a test rig is build up to investigate the effect of different parameters during insert integration experimentally. After a short description of the experimental equipment, preliminary tests are performed to determine a set of important process parameters. Based on that, the planning of design of experiments is given. The interpretation and evaluation of the test results show that with a minimization of the insert diameter and the peak angle less harm on the fiber structure can be achieved. Furthermore, a maximization of the die diameter above the insert shows a positive effect on the fiber structure. At the end of this paper, a theoretical description of alternative peak shaping is given and then the results get validated on the basis of an industrial reference part.

Keywords: Integration, Fabrics, insert, CFRP, load introduction element

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2 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Capacity of Fabric Treated with Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato Extract

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong, Eunmi Koh

Abstract:

Wool and cotton fabrics are pretreated by a tannic acid aqueous solution to increase their dyeability and then dyed by Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato (PSP) extract. The dyed fabrics are then investigated by various analysis techniques. The results revealed that wool and cotton fabrics can be dyed bluish red through the pretreatment and dyeing process. Both wool and cotton fabrics only pretreated with tannic acid display decreased L* value but no significant changes in a* and b* values as the concentration of tannic acid increases. And, as expected, the pretreated fabrics are even darker and show a richer purple color after the dyeing process with the PSP extract. With regard to the colorfastness of wool and cotton fabrics dyed by PSP extract in cleaning circumstances, such as dry-cleaning (for wool) and washing (for cotton), the wool and cotton fabrics had a 4.0 and 4.0 grade of colorfastness to dry-cleaning and washing, respectively. However, they both exhibited significantly inferior colorfastness to light (grade of 1.5). Thus, it was found that there is still a need for improvement with regard to color fastness, particularly against light. On the other hand, the wool and cotton fabrics also showed antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics. In addition, both the wool and cotton fabrics showed potential antibacterial ability (>99%) against Staphylococcus aureus; however, they showed somewhat insufficient antibacterial ability (60.8% for wool and 94.8% for cotton) against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Also, their antioxidant abilities increased up to ca. 90% with an increase in the tannic acid concentration (up to 0.5%). However, after the dyeing process, the antibacterial and antioxidant ability tended to decrease. This is assumed to have occurred because functional moieties such as phenolic acids were detached from the pretreated fabrics into the hot water (the dyeing solution) during the dyeing process. Therefore, further study would be necessary to derive the optimum treatment and dyeing conditions so as to maximize the coloring effect and functionalities of the fabrics.

Keywords: Fabrics, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, purple-fleshed sweet potato

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1 Investigation of the Drying Times of Blood under Different Environmental Conditions and on Different Fabrics and the Transfer of Blood at Different Times of the Drying Process

Authors: Peter Parkinson

Abstract:

The research investigates the effects of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric composition on the drying times of blood and assesses the degree of blood transfer that can occur during the drying process. An assortment of fabrics, of different composition and thicknesses, were collected and stained using two blood volumes and exposed to varying environmental conditions. The conclusion reached was that temperature, humidity, wind speed, and fabric thickness do have an effect on drying times. An increase in temperature and wind speed results in a decrease in drying times while an increase in fabric thickness and humidity extended the drying times of blood under similar conditions. Transfer experimentation utilized three donor fabrics, 100% white cotton, 100% acrylic, and 100% cotton denim, which were bloodstained using two blood volumes. The fabrics were subjected to both full and low/light force contact from the donor fabrics onto the recipient fabric, under different environmental conditions. Transfer times onto the 100% white cotton (recipient fabric) from all donor fabrics were shorter than the drying times observed. The intensities of the bloodstains decreased from high to low with time during the drying process. The degree of transfer at high, medium, and low intensities varied significantly between different materials and is dependent on the environmental conditions, fabric compositions, blood volumes, the type of contact (full or light force), and the drying times observed for the respective donor fabrics. These factors should be considered collectively and conservatively when assessing the time frame of secondary transfer in casework.

Keywords: Blood, Fabrics, drying time, blood stain transfer, different environmental conditions

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