Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

eye-tracking Related Abstracts

9 A New Categorization of Image Quality Metrics Based on a Model of Human Quality Perception

Authors: Riccardo Amadeo, Maria Grazia Albanesi

Abstract:

This study presents a new model of the human image quality assessment process: the aim is to highlight the foundations of the image quality metrics proposed in literature, by identifying the cognitive/physiological or mathematical principles of their development and the relation with the actual human quality assessment process. The model allows to create a novel categorization of objective and subjective image quality metrics. Our work includes an overview of the most used or effective objective metrics in literature, and, for each of them, we underline its main characteristics, with reference to the rationale of the proposed model and categorization. From the results of this operation, we underline a problem that affects all the presented metrics: the fact that many aspects of human biases are not taken in account at all. We then propose a possible methodology to address this issue.

Keywords: Visual Perception, MOS, eye-tracking, image quality assessment metric, quality of user experience

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8 Using Eye-Tracking Technology to Understand Consumers’ Comprehension of Multimedia Health Information

Authors: Samiullah Paracha, Sania Jehanzeb, M. H. Gharanai, A. R. Ahmadi, H.Sokout, Toshiro Takahara

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine how health consumers utilize pictures when developing an understanding of multimedia health documents, and whether attentional processes, measured by eye-tracking, relate to differences in health-related cognitive resources and passage comprehension. To investigate these issues, we will present health-related text-picture passages to elders and collect eye movement data to measure readers’ looking behaviors.

Keywords: Multimedia, Human-Computer Interaction, Consumer health informatics, eye-tracking

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7 Characterising the Processes Underlying Emotion Recognition Deficits in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

Authors: Nayra Martin-Key, Erich Graf, Wendy Adams, Graeme Fairchild

Abstract:

Children and adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD) have been shown to demonstrate impairments in emotion recognition, but it is currently unclear whether this deficit is related to specific emotions or whether it represents a global deficit in emotion recognition. An emotion recognition task with concurrent eye-tracking was employed to further explore this relationship in a sample of male and female adolescents with CD. Participants made emotion categorization judgements for presented dynamic and morphed static facial expressions. The results demonstrated that males with CD, and to a lesser extent, females with CD, displayed impaired facial expression recognition in general, whereas callous-unemotional (CU) traits were linked to specific problems in sadness recognition in females with CD. A region-of-interest analysis of the eye-tracking data indicated that males with CD exhibited reduced fixation times for the eye-region of the face compared to typically-developing (TD) females, but not TD males. Females with CD did not show reduced fixation to the eye-region of the face relative to TD females. In addition, CU traits did not influence CD subjects’ attention to the eye-region of the face. These findings suggest that the emotion recognition deficits found in CD males, the worst performing group in the behavioural tasks, are partly driven by reduced attention to the eyes.

Keywords: Attention, Emotion recognition, Sex Differences, eye-tracking, conduct disorder, callous-unemotional traits, eye-region

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6 Integrating Eye-Tracking Analysis to Enhance Web Usability Evaluation

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Meliana Nurdin, Ignatius Kevin Kurniawan, Ricca Aksara

Abstract:

It is widely believed that usability evaluation is necessary to evaluate a website design for further improvement. Traditional methods of usability evaluation have given sufficient insights to reveal usability problems of websites. Eye-tracking analysis has been considered as a useful method that adds a powerful dimension to web usability evaluation. It allows web designers and usability researchers to understand exactly what users do and do not see on a web page, thus disclose more information on web usability and provide a more complete insights on a website design. This paper elaborates on moving beyond traditional methods of web usability evaluation by integrating eye-tracking analysis to enhance the evaluation of website design, and presents three case studies to support this approach. In these case studies, eye movement metrics such as gaze plots and fixation-derived metrics, and user performance data such as task completion times and number of errors were recorded as objective measurements that can inform the necessity for website design improvements.

Keywords: Design, Usability Evaluation, website, eye-tracking

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5 Music Reading Expertise Facilitates Implicit Statistical Learning of Sentence Structures in a Novel Language: Evidence from Eye Movement Behavior

Authors: Sara T. K. Li, Belinda H. J. Chung, Jeffery C. N. Yip, Janet H. Hsiao

Abstract:

Music notation and text reading both involve statistical learning of music or linguistic structures. However, it remains unclear how music reading expertise influences text reading behavior. The present study examined this issue through an eye-tracking study. Chinese-English bilingual musicians and non-musicians read English sentences, Chinese sentences, musical phrases, and sentences in Tibetan, a language novel to the participants, with their eye movement recorded. Each set of stimuli consisted of two conditions in terms of structural regularity: syntactically correct and syntactically incorrect musical phrases/sentences. They then completed a sentence comprehension (for syntactically correct sentences) or a musical segment/word recognition task afterwards to test their comprehension/recognition abilities. The results showed that in reading musical phrases, as compared with non-musicians, musicians had a higher accuracy in the recognition task, and had shorter reading time, fewer fixations, and shorter fixation duration when reading syntactically correct (i.e., in diatonic key) than incorrect (i.e., in non-diatonic key/atonal) musical phrases. This result reflects their expertise in music reading. Interestingly, in reading Tibetan sentences, which was novel to both participant groups, while non-musicians did not show any behavior differences between reading syntactically correct or incorrect Tibetan sentences, musicians showed a shorter reading time and had marginally fewer fixations when reading syntactically correct sentences than syntactically incorrect ones. However, none of the musicians reported discovering any structural regularities in the Tibetan stimuli after the experiment when being asked explicitly, suggesting that they may have implicitly acquired the structural regularities in Tibetan sentences. This group difference was not observed when they read English or Chinese sentences. This result suggests that music reading expertise facilities reading texts in a novel language (i.e., Tibetan), but not in languages that the readers are already familiar with (i.e., English and Chinese). This phenomenon may be due to the similarities between reading music notations and reading texts in a novel language, as in both cases the stimuli follow particular statistical structures but do not involve semantic or lexical processing. Thus, musicians may transfer their statistical learning skills stemmed from music notation reading experience to implicitly discover structures of sentences in a novel language. This speculation is consistent with a recent finding showing that music reading expertise modulates the processing of English nonwords (i.e., words that do not follow morphological or orthographic rules) but not pseudo- or real words. These results suggest that the modulation of music reading expertise on language processing depends on the similarities in the cognitive processes involved. It also has important implications for the benefits of music education on language and cognitive development.

Keywords: eye-tracking, eye movement behavior, music reading expertise, sentence reading, structural regularity, visual processing

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4 The Positive Effects of Processing Instruction on the Acquisition of French as a Second Language: An Eye-Tracking Study

Authors: Cecile Laval, Harriet Lowe

Abstract:

Processing Instruction is a psycholinguistic pedagogical approach drawing insights from the Input Processing Model which establishes the initial innate strategies used by second language learners to connect form and meaning of linguistic features. With the ever-growing use of technology in Second Language Acquisition research, the present study uses eye-tracking to measure the effectiveness of Processing Instruction in the acquisition of French and its effects on learner’s cognitive strategies. The experiment was designed using a TOBII Pro-TX300 eye-tracker to measure participants’ default strategies when processing French linguistic input and any cognitive changes after receiving Processing Instruction treatment. Participants were drawn from lower intermediate adult learners of French at the University of Greenwich and randomly assigned to two groups. The study used a pre-test/post-test methodology. The pre-tests (one per linguistic item) were administered via the eye-tracker to both groups one week prior to instructional treatment. One group received full Processing Instruction treatment (explicit information on the grammatical item and on the processing strategies, and structured input activities) on the primary target linguistic feature (French past tense imperfective aspect). The second group received Processing Instruction treatment except the explicit information on the processing strategies. Three immediate post-tests on the three grammatical structures under investigation (French past tense imperfective aspect, French Subjunctive used for the expression of doubt, and the French causative construction with Faire) were administered with the eye-tracker. The eye-tracking data showed the positive change in learners’ processing of the French target features after instruction with improvement in the interpretation of the three linguistic features under investigation. 100% of participants in both groups made a statistically significant improvement (p=0.001) in the interpretation of the primary target feature (French past tense imperfective aspect) after treatment. 62.5% of participants made an improvement in the secondary target item (French Subjunctive used for the expression of doubt) and 37.5% of participants made an improvement in the cumulative target feature (French causative construction with Faire). Statistically there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the cumulative target feature; however, the variance approximately tripled between the pre-test and the post-test (3.9 pre-test and 9.6 post-test). This suggests that the treatment does not affect participants homogenously and implies a role for individual differences in the transfer-of-training effect of Processing Instruction. The use of eye-tracking provides an opportunity for the study of unconscious processing decisions made during moment-by-moment comprehension. The visual data from the eye-tracking demonstrates changes in participants’ processing strategies. Gaze plots from pre- and post-tests display participants fixation points changing from focusing on content words to focusing on the verb ending. This change in processing strategies can be clearly seen in the interpretation of sentences in both primary and secondary target features. This paper will present the research methodology, design and results of the experimental study using eye-tracking to investigate the primary effects and transfer-of-training effects of Processing Instruction. It will then provide evidence of the cognitive benefits of Processing Instruction in Second Language Acquisition and offer suggestion in second language teaching of grammar.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Second language acquisition, eye-tracking, processing instruction

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3 Enabling and Ageing-Friendly Neighbourhoods: An Eye-Tracking Study of Multi-Sensory Experience of Senior Citizens in Singapore

Authors: Zdravko Trivic, Kelvin E. Y. Low, Darko Radovic, Raymond Lucas

Abstract:

Our understanding and experience of the built environment are primarily shaped by multi‐sensory, emotional and symbolic modes of exchange with spaces. Associated sensory and cognitive declines that come with ageing substantially affect the overall quality of life of the elderly citizens and the ways they perceive and use urban environment. Reduced mobility and increased risk of falls, problems with spatial orientation and communication, lower confidence and independence levels, decreased willingness to go out and social withdrawal are some of the major consequences of sensory declines that challenge almost all segments of the seniors’ everyday living. However, contemporary urban environments are often either sensory overwhelming or depleting, resulting in physical, mental and emotional stress. Moreover, the design and planning of housing neighbourhoods hardly go beyond the passive 'do-no-harm' and universal design principles, and the limited provision of often non-integrated eldercare and inter-generational facilities. This paper explores and discusses the largely neglected relationships between the 'hard' and 'soft' aspects of housing neighbourhoods and urban experience, focusing on seniors’ perception and multi-sensory experience as vehicles for design and planning of high-density housing neighbourhoods that are inclusive and empathetic yet build senior residents’ physical and mental abilities at different stages of ageing. The paper outlines methods and key findings from research conducted in two high-density housing neighbourhoods in Singapore with aims to capture and evaluate multi-sensorial qualities of two neighbourhoods from the perspective of senior residents. Research methods employed included: on-site sensory recordings of 'objective' quantitative sensory data (air temperature and humidity, sound level and luminance) using multi-function environment meter, spatial mapping of patterns of elderly users’ transient and stationary activity, socio-sensory perception surveys and sensorial journeys with local residents using eye-tracking glasses, and supplemented by walk-along or post-walk interviews. The paper develops a multi-sensory framework to synthetize, cross-reference, and visualise the activity and spatio-sensory rhythms and patterns and distill key issues pertinent to ageing-friendly and health-supportive neighbourhood design. Key findings show senior residents’ concerns with walkability, safety, and wayfinding, overall aesthetic qualities, cleanliness, smell, noise, and crowdedness in their neighbourhoods, as well as the lack of design support for all-day use in the context of Singaporean tropical climate and for inter-generational social interaction. The (ongoing) analysis of eye-tracking data reveals the spatial elements of senior residents’ look at and interact with the most frequently, with the visual range often directed towards the ground. With capacities to meaningfully combine quantitative and qualitative, measured and experienced sensory data, multi-sensory framework shows to be fruitful for distilling key design opportunities based on often ignored aspects of subjective and often taken-for-granted interactions with the familiar outdoor environment. It offers an alternative way of leveraging the potentials of housing neighbourhoods to take a more active role in enabling healthful living at all stages of ageing.

Keywords: Perception, eye-tracking, ageing-friendly neighbourhoods, high-density environment, multi-sensory approach

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2 Architectural Design Strategies and Visual Perception of Contemporary Spatial Design

Authors: Nora Geczy

Abstract:

In today’s architectural practice, during the process of designing public, educational, healthcare and cultural space, human-centered architectural designs helping spatial orientation, safe space usage and the appropriate spatial sequence of actions are gaining increasing importance. Related to the methodology of designing public buildings, several scientific experiments in spatial recognition, spatial analysis and spatial psychology with regard to the components of space producing mental and physiological effects have been going on at the Department of Architectural Design and the Interdisciplinary Student Workshop (IDM) at the Széchenyi István University, Győr since 2013. Defining the creation of preventive, anticipated spatial design and the architectural tools of spatial comfort of public buildings and their practical usability are in the limelight of our research. In the experiments applying eye-tracking cameras, we studied the way public spaces are used, especially concentrating on the characteristics of spatial behaviour, orientation, recognition, the sequence of actions, and space usage. Along with the role of mental maps, human perception, and interaction problems in public spaces (at railway stations, galleries, and educational institutions), we analyzed the spatial situations influencing psychological and ergonomic factors. We also analyzed the eye movements of the experimental subjects in dynamic situations, in spatial procession, using stairs and corridors. We monitored both the consequences and the distorting effects of the ocular dominance of the right eye on spatial orientation; we analyzed the gender-based differences of women and men’s orientation, stress-inducing spaces, spaces affecting concentration and the spatial situation influencing territorial behaviour. Based on these observations, we collected the components of creating public interior spaces, which -according to our theory- contribute to the optimal usability of public spaces. We summed up our research in criteria for design, including 10 points. Our further goals are testing design principles needed for optimizing orientation and space usage, their discussion, refinement, and practical usage.

Keywords: Architecture, Visual Perception, eye-tracking, human-centered spatial design, public interior spaces

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1 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Contexts of Reading, Using Eye-Tracking and Self-Paced Reading Tasks

Authors: Magali Mari, Misha Muller

Abstract:

The present study’s objectives were to determine how diverse implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information and linguistic inferential processes, such as presupposition accommodation. When reading a text, one constructs a representation of the described situation, which is then updated, according to new outputs and based on stereotypes inscribed within society. If the new output contradicts stereotypical expectations, the representation must be corrected, resulting in longer reading times. A similar process occurs in cases of linguistic inferential processes like presupposition accommodation. Presupposition accommodation is traditionally regarded as fast, automatic processing of background information (e.g., ‘Mary stopped eating meat’ is quickly processed as Mary used to eat meat). However, very few accounts have investigated if this process is likely to be influenced by domains of social cognition, such as implicit stereotypes. To study the effects of implicit stereotypes on presupposition accommodation, adults were recorded while they read sentences in French, combining two methods, an eye-tracking task and a classic self-paced reading task (where participants read sentence segments at their own pace by pressing a computer key). In one condition, presuppositions were activated with the French definite articles ‘le/la/les,’ whereas in the other condition, the French indefinite articles ‘un/une/des’ was used, triggering no presupposition. Using a definite article presupposes that the object has already been uttered and is thus part of background information, whereas using an indefinite article is understood as the introduction of new information. Two types of stereotypes were under examination in order to enlarge the scope of stereotypes traditionally analyzed. Study 1 investigated gender stereotypes linked to professional occupations to replicate previous findings. Study 2 focused on nationality-related stereotypes (e.g. ‘the French are seducers’ versus ‘the Japanese are seducers’) to determine if the effects of implicit stereotypes on reading are generalizable to other types of implicit stereotypes. The results show that reading is influenced by the two types of implicit stereotypes; in the two studies, the reading pace slowed down when a counter-stereotype was presented. However, presupposition accommodation did not affect participants’ processing of information. Altogether these results show that (a) implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information, regardless of the type of stereotypes presented, and (b) that implicit stereotypes prevail over the superficial linguistic treatment of presuppositions, which suggests faster processing for treating social information compared to linguistic information.

Keywords: Reading, Social Cognition, eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes

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