Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

eye tracking Related Abstracts

16 A Multimodal Measurement Approach Using Narratives and Eye Tracking to Investigate Visual Behaviour in Perceiving Naturalistic and Urban Environments

Authors: Khizar Z. Choudhrya, Richard Coles, Salman Qureshi, Robert Ashford, Salim Khan, Rabia R. Mir

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Abstract: The majority of existing landscape research has been derived by conducting heuristic evaluations, without having empirical insight of real participant visual response. In this research, a modern multimodal measurement approach (using narratives and eye tracking) was applied to investigate visual behaviour in perceiving naturalistic and urban environments. This research is unique in exploring gaze behaviour on environmental images possessing different levels of saliency. Eye behaviour is predominantly attracted by salient locations. The concept of methodology of this research on naturalistic and urban environments is drawn from the approaches in market research. Borrowing methodologies from market research that examine visual responses and qualities provided a critical and hitherto unexplored approach. This research has been conducted by using mixed methodological quantitative and qualitative approaches. On the whole, the results of this research corroborated existing landscape research findings, but they also identified potential refinements. The research contributes both methodologically and empirically to human-environment interaction (HEI). This study focused on initial impressions of environmental images with the help of eye tracking. Taking under consideration the importance of the image, this study explored the factors that influence initial fixations in relation to expectations and preferences. In terms of key findings of this research it is noticed that each participant has his own unique navigation style while surfing through different elements of landscape images. This individual navigation style is given the name of ‘visual signature’. This study adds the necessary clarity that would complete the picture and bring an insight for future landscape researchers.

Keywords: Narratives, human-environment interaction (HEI), multimodal measurement, eye tracking

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15 Regression Model Evaluation on Depth Camera Data for Gaze Estimation

Authors: Riri Fitri Sari, James Purnama

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We investigate the machine learning algorithm selection problem in the term of a depth image based eye gaze estimation, with respect to its essential difficulty in reducing the number of required training samples and duration time of training. Statistics based prediction accuracy are increasingly used to assess and evaluate prediction or estimation in gaze estimation. This article evaluates Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and R-Squared statistical analysis to assess machine learning methods on depth camera data for gaze estimation. There are 4 machines learning methods have been evaluated: Random Forest Regression, Regression Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Linear Regression. The experiment results show that the Random Forest Regression has the lowest RMSE and the highest R-Squared, which means that it is the best among other methods.

Keywords: regression model, gaze estimation, eye tracking, gaze tracking, kinect, orange python

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14 Affirming Students’ Attention and Perceptions on Prezi Presentation via Eye Tracking System

Authors: Mona Masood, Norshazlina Shaik Othman

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The purpose of this study was to investigate graduate students’ visual attention and perceptions of a Prezi presentation. Ten post-graduate master students were presented with a Prezi presentation at the Centre for Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The eye movement indicators such as dwell time, average fixation on the areas of interests, heat maps and focus maps were abstracted to indicate the students’ visual attention. Descriptive statistics was employed to analyze the students’ perception of the Prezi presentation in terms of text, slide design, images, layout and overall presentation. The result revealed that the students paid more attention to the text followed by the images and sub heading presented through the Prezi presentation.

Keywords: Visual Perception, Visual Attention, eye tracking, Prezi

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13 Translation Directionality: An Eye Tracking Study

Authors: Elahe Kamari

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Research on translation process has been conducted for more than 20 years, investigating various issues and using different research methodologies. Most recently, researchers have started to use eye tracking to study translation processes. They believed that the observable, measurable data that can be gained from eye tracking are indicators of unobservable cognitive processes happening in the translators’ mind during translation tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate directionality in translation processes through using eye tracking. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) processing the target text requires more cognitive effort than processing the source text, in both directions of translation; 2) L2 translation tasks on the whole require more cognitive effort than L1 tasks; 3) cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the source text is higher in L1 translation than in L2 translation; 4) cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the target text is higher in L2 translation than in L1 translation; and 5) in both directions non-professional translators invest more cognitive effort in translation tasks than do professional translators. The performance of a group of 30 male professional translators was compared with that of a group of 30 male non-professional translators. All the participants translated two comparable texts one into their L1 (Persian) and the other into their L2 (English). The eye tracker measured gaze time, average fixation duration, total task length and pupil dilation. These variables are assumed to measure the cognitive effort allocated to the translation task. The data derived from eye tracking only confirmed the first hypothesis. This hypothesis was confirmed by all the relevant indicators: gaze time, average fixation duration and pupil dilation. The second hypothesis that L2 translation tasks requires allocation of more cognitive resources than L1 translation tasks has not been confirmed by all four indicators. The third hypothesis that source text processing requires more cognitive resources in L1 translation than in L2 translation and the fourth hypothesis that target text processing requires more cognitive effort in L2 translation than L1 translation were not confirmed. It seems that source text processing in L2 translation can be just as demanding as in L1 translation. The final hypothesis that non-professional translators allocate more cognitive resources for the same translation tasks than do the professionals was partially confirmed. One of the indicators, average fixation duration, indicated higher cognitive effort-related values for professionals.

Keywords: eye tracking, directionality, translation processes, cognitive resources

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12 Usability Testing on Information Design through Single-Lens Wearable Device

Authors: Jae-Hyun Choi, Sung-Soo Bae, Sangyoung Yoon, Hong-Ku Yun, Jiyoung Kwahk

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ocular dominance on recognition performance using a single-lens smart display designed for cycling. A total of 36 bicycle riders who have been cycling consistently were recruited and participated in the experiment. The participants were asked to perform tasks riding a bicycle on a stationary stand for safety reasons. Independent variables of interest include ocular dominance, bike usage, age group, and information layout. Recognition time (i.e., the time required to identify specific information measured with an eye-tracker), error rate (i.e. false answer or failure to identify the information in 5 seconds), and user preference scores were measured and statistical tests were conducted to identify significant results. Recognition time and error ratio showed significant difference by ocular dominance factor, while the preference score did not. Recognition time was faster when the single-lens see-through display on the dominant eye (average 1.12sec) than on the non-dominant eye (average 1.38sec). Error ratio of the information recognition task was significantly lower when the see-through display was worn on the dominant eye (average 4.86%) than on the non-dominant eye (average 14.04%). The interaction effect of ocular dominance and age group was significant with respect to recognition time and error ratio. The recognition time of the users in their 40s was significantly longer than the other age groups when the display was placed on the non-dominant eye, while no difference was observed on the dominant eye. Error ratio also showed the same pattern. Although no difference was observed for the main effect of ocular dominance and bike usage, the interaction effect between the two variables was significant with respect to preference score. Preference score of daily bike users was higher when the display was placed on the dominant eye, whereas participants who use bikes for leisure purposes showed the opposite preference patterns. It was found more effective and efficient to wear a see-through display on the dominant eye than on the non-dominant eye, although user preference was not affected by ocular dominance. It is recommended to wear a see-through display on the dominant eye since it is safer by helping the user recognize the presented information faster and more accurately, even if the user may not notice the difference.

Keywords: eye tracking, wearable device, information recognition, ocular dominance, smart headware

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11 Human Factors as the Main Reason of the Accident in Scaffold Use Assessment

Authors: Krzysztof J. Czarnocki, E. Czarnocka, K. Szaniawska

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Main goal of the research project is Scaffold Use Risk Assessment Model (SURAM) formulation, developed for the assessment of risk levels as a various construction process stages with various work trades. Finally, in 2016, the project received financing by the National Center for Research and development according to PBS3/A2/19/2015–Research Grant. The presented data, calculations and analyzes discussed in this paper were created as a result of the completion on the first and second phase of the PBS3/A2/19/2015 project. Method: One of the arms of the research project is the assessment of worker visual concentration on the sight zones as well as risky visual point inadequate observation. In this part of research, the mobile eye-tracker was used to monitor the worker observation zones. SMI Eye Tracking Glasses is a tool, which allows us to analyze in real time and place where our eyesight is concentrated on and consequently build the map of worker's eyesight concentration during a shift. While the project is still running, currently 64 construction sites have been examined, and more than 600 workers took part in the experiment including monitoring of typical parameters of the work regimen, workload, microclimate, sound vibration, etc. Full equipment can also be useful in more advanced analyses. Because of that technology we have verified not only main focus of workers eyes during work on or next to scaffolding, but we have also examined which changes in the surrounding environment during their shift influenced their concentration. In the result of this study it has been proven that only up to 45.75% of the shift time, workers’ eye concentration was on one of three work-related areas. Workers seem to be distracted by noisy vehicles or people nearby. In opposite to our initial assumptions and other authors’ findings, we observed that the reflective parts of the scaffoldings were not more recognized by workers in their direct workplaces. We have noticed that the red curbs were the only well recognized part on a very few scaffoldings. Surprisingly on numbers of samples, we have not recognized any significant number of concentrations on those curbs. Conclusion: We have found the eye-tracking method useful for the construction of the SURAM model in the risk perception and worker’s behavior sub-modules. We also have found that the initial worker's stress and work visual conditions seem to be more predictive for assessment of the risky developing situation or an accident than other parameters relating to a work environment.

Keywords: Occupational Safety, Scaffolding, eye tracking, accident assessment model

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10 Implicit Responses for Assessment of Autism Based on Natural Behaviors Obtained Inside Immersive Virtual Environment

Authors: E. Olmos-Raya, A. Cascales Martínez, N. Minto de Sousa, M. Alcañiz Raya

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The late detection and subjectivity of the assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) imposed a difficulty for the children’s clinical and familiar environment. The results showed in this paper, are part of a research project about the assessment and training of social skills in children with ASD, whose overall goal is the use of virtual environments together with physiological measures in order to find a new model of objective ASD assessment based on implicit brain processes measures. In particular, this work tries to contribute by studying the differences and changes in the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) and Eye Tracking (ET) between a typical development group (TD group) and an ASD group (ASD group) after several combined stimuli using a low cost Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). Subjects were exposed to a virtual environment that showed natural scenes that stimulated visual, auditory and olfactory perceptual system. By exposing them to the IVE, subjects showed natural behaviors while measuring SCR and ET. This study compared measures of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N = 18) with a control group of subjects with typical development (N=10) when exposed to three different conditions: only visual (V), visual and auditory (VA) and visual, auditory and olfactory (VAO) stimulation. Correlations between SCR and ET measures were also correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) test. SCR measures showed significant differences among the experimental condition between groups. The ASD group presented higher level of SCR while we did not find significant differences between groups regarding DF. We found high significant correlations among all the experimental conditions in SCR measures and the subscale of ADOS test of imagination and symbolic thinking. Regarding the correlation between ET measures and ADOS test, the results showed significant relationship between VA condition and communication scores.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, autism, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, immersive virtual environment

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9 Insight into the Visual Attentional Correlates Underpinning Autistic-Like Traits in Fragile X and Down Syndrome

Authors: Jennifer M. Glennon, Hana D'Souza, Luke Mason, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Michael S. C. Thomas

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Genetic syndrome groups that feature high rates of autism comorbidity, like Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS), have been presented as useful models for understanding risk and protective factors involved in the emergence of autistic traits. Yet despite reaching clinical thresholds, these ‘syndromic’ forms of autism appear to differ in important ways from the idiopathic or ‘non-syndromic’ autism phenotype. To uncover the true nature of these comorbidities, it is necessary to extend definitions of autism to include the cognitive characteristics of the disorder and to then apply this broadened conceptualisation to the study of syndromic autism profiles. The current study employs a variety of well-established eye-tracking paradigms to assess visual attentional performance in children with DS and FXS who reach thresholds for autism on the Social Communication Questionnaire. It investigates whether autism profiles in these children are accompanied by visual orienting difficulties (‘sticky attention’), decreased social attention, and enhanced visual search performance, all of which are characteristic of the idiopathic autism phenotype. Data is collected from children with DS and FXS aged between 6 and 10 years, in addition to two control groups matched on age and intellectual ability (i.e., children with idiopathic autism and neurotypical controls). Cross-sectional developmental trajectory analyses are conducted to enable visuo-attentional profile comparisons. Significant differences in the visuo-attentional processes underpinning autism presentations in children with FXS and DS are hypothesised, supporting notions of syndrome specificity. The study provides insight into the complex heterogeneity associated with syndromic autism presentations and autism per se, with clinical implications for the utility of autism intervention programmes in DS and FXS populations.

Keywords: autism, down syndrome, eye tracking, fragile X syndrome

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8 Applying the Eye Tracking Technique for the Evaluation of Oculomotor System in Patients Survived after Cerebellar Tumors

Authors: Marina Shurupova, Victor Anisimov, Alexander Latanov

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Background: The cerebellar lesions inevitably provoke oculomotor impairments in patients of different age. Symptoms of subtentorial tumors, particularly medulloblastomas, include static and dynamic coordination disorders (ataxia, asynergia, imbalance), hypo-muscle tonus, disruption of the cranial nerves, and within the oculomotor system - nystagmus (fine or gross). Subtentorial tumors can also affect the areas of cerebellum that control the oculomotor system. The noninvasive eye-tracking technology allows obtaining multiple oculomotor characteristics such as the number of fixations and their duration, amplitude, latency and velocity of saccades, trajectory and scan path of gaze during the process of the visual field navigation. Eye tracking could be very useful in clinical studies serving as convenient and effective tool for diagnostics. The aim: We studied the dynamics of oculomotor system functioning in patients undergoing remission from cerebellar tumors removal surgeries and following neurocognitive rehabilitation. Methods: 38 children (23 boys, 15 girls, 9-17 years old) that have recovered from the cerebellar tumor-removal surgeries, radiation therapy and chemotherapy and were undergoing course of neurocognitive rehabilitation participated in the study. Two tests were carried out to evaluate oculomotor performance - gaze stability test and counting test. The monocular eye movements were recorded with eye tracker ArringtonResearch (60 Hz). Two experimental sessions with both tests were conducted before and after rehabilitation courses. Results: Within the final session of both tests we observed remarkable improvement in oculomotor performance: 1) in the gaze stability test the spread of gaze positions significantly declined compared to the first session, and 2) the visual path in counting test significantly shortened both compared to the first session. Thus, neurocognitive rehabilitation improved the functioning of the oculomotor system in patients following the cerebellar tumor removal surgeries and subsequent therapy. Conclusions: The experimental data support the effectiveness of the utilization of the eye tracking technique as diagnostic tool in the field of neurooncology.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, eye tracking, cerebellar tumors, oculomotor system

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7 The Importance of Applying Established Web Site Design Principles on an Online Performance Management System

Authors: R. W. Brown, P. J. Blignaut

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An online performance management system was evaluated, and recommendations were made to improve the system. The study shows the effects of not adhering to the established web design principles and conventions. Furthermore, the study indicates that if the online performance management system is not well designed, it may have negative effects on the overall usability of the system and these negative effects will have consequences for both the employer and employees. The evaluation was done in terms of the usability metrics of effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. Effectiveness was measured in terms of the success rate with which users could execute prescribed tasks in a sandbox system. Efficiency was expressed in terms of the time it took participants to understand what is expected of them and to execute the tasks. Post-test questionnaires were used in order to determine the satisfaction of the participants. Recommendations were made to improve the usability of the online performance management system.

Keywords: Human resource management, Performance Management, Usability, eye tracking

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6 Product Form Bionic Design Based on Eye Tracking Data: A Case Study of Desk Lamp

Authors: Huan Lin, Liwen Pang

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In order to reduce the ambiguity and uncertainty of product form bionic design, a product form bionic design method based on eye tracking is proposed. The eye-tracking experiment is designed to calculate the average time ranking of the specific parts of the bionic shape that the subjects are looking at. Key bionic shape is explored through the experiment and then applied to a desk lamp bionic design. During the design case, FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierachy Process) and SD (Semantic Differential) method are firstly used to identify consumer emotional perception model toward desk lamp before product design. Through investigating different desk lamp design elements and consumer views, the form design factors on the desk lamp product are reflected and all design schemes are sequenced after caculation. Desk lamp form bionic design method is combined the key bionic shape extracted from eye-tracking experiment and priority of desk lamp design schemes. This study provides an objective and rational method to product form bionic design.

Keywords: Form, Bionic Design, eye tracking, FAHP, Desk lamp

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5 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland

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Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: Biometrics, Fixation, saccades, eye tracking, heat map, area of interest, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, time to first fixation

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4 Study on Errors in Estimating the 3D Gaze Point for Different Pupil Sizes Using Eye Vergences

Authors: M. Pomianek, M. Piszczek, M. Maciejewski

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The binocular eye tracking technology is increasingly being used in industry, entertainment and marketing analysis. In the case of virtual reality, eye tracking systems are already the basis for user interaction with the environment. In such systems, the high accuracy of determining the user's eye fixation point is very important due to the specificity of the virtual reality head-mounted display (HMD). Often, however, there are unknown errors occurring in the used eye tracking technology, as well as those resulting from the positioning of the devices in relation to the user's eyes. However, can the virtual environment itself influence estimation errors? The paper presents mathematical analyses and empirical studies of the determination of the fixation point and errors resulting from the change in the size of the pupil in response to the intensity of the displayed scene. The article contains both static laboratory tests as well as on the real user. Based on the research results, optimization solutions were proposed that would reduce the errors of gaze estimation errors. Studies show that errors in estimating the fixation point of vision can be minimized both by improving the pupil positioning algorithm in the video image and by using more precise methods to calibrate the eye tracking system in three-dimensional space.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, eye tracking, fixation point, pupil size

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3 When Messages Cause Distraction from Advertising: An Eye-Tracking Study

Authors: Nilamadhab Mohanty

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It is essential to use message formats that make communication understandable and correct. It is because; the information format can influence consumer decision on the purchase of a product. This study combines information from qualitative inquiry, media trend analysis, eye tracking experiment, and questionnaire data to examine the impact of specific message format and consumer perceived risk on attention to the information and risk retention. We investigated the influence of message framing (goal framing, attribute framing, and mix framing) on consumer memory, study time, and decisional uncertainty while deciding on the purchase of drugs. Furthermore, we explored the impact of consumer perceived risk (associated with the use of the drug, i.e., RISK-AB and perceived risk associated with the non-use of the drug, i.e., RISK-EB) on message format preference. The study used eye-tracking methods to understand the differences in message processing. Findings of the study suggest that the message format influences information processing, and participants' risk perception impacts message format preference. Eye tracking can be used to understand the format differences and design effective advertisements.

Keywords: Advertising, eye tracking, message framing, consumer perceived risk

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2 Gaze Patterns of Skilled and Unskilled Sight Readers Focusing on the Cognitive Processes Involved in Reading Key and Time Signatures

Authors: Catherine Foxcroft, J. F. Viljoen

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Expert sight readers rely on their ability to recognize patterns in scores, their inner hearing and prediction skills in order to perform complex sight reading exercises. They also have the ability to observe deviations from expected patterns in musical scores. This increases the “Eye-hand span” (reading ahead of the point of playing) in order to process the elements in the score. The study aims to investigate the gaze patterns of expert and non-expert sight readers focusing on key and time signatures. Twenty musicians were tasked with playing twelve sight reading examples composed for one hand and five examples composed for two hands to be performed on a piano keyboard. These examples were composed in different keys and time signatures and included accidentals and changes of time signature to test this theory. Results showed that the experts fixating more and for longer on key and time signatures as well as deviations in examples for two hands than the non-expert group. The inverse was true for the examples for one hand, where expert sight readers showed fewer and shorter fixations on key and time signatures as well as deviations. This seems to suggest that experts focus more on the key and time signatures as well as deviations in complex scores to facilitate sight reading. The examples written for one appeared to be too easy for the expert sight readers, compromising gaze patterns.

Keywords: Cognition, eye tracking, musical notation, sight reading

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1 Effects of the Visual and Auditory Stimuli with Emotional Content on Eyewitness Testimony

Authors: İrem Bulut, Mustafa Z. Söyük, Ertuğrul Yalçın, Simge Şişman-Bal

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Eyewitness testimony is one of the most frequently used methods in criminal cases for the determination of crime and perpetrator. In the literature, the number of studies about the reliability of eyewitness testimony is increasing. The study aims to reveal the factors that affect the short-term and long-term visual memory performance of the participants in the event of an accident. In this context, the effect of the emotional content of the accident and the sounds during the accident on visual memory performance was investigated with eye-tracking. According to the results, the presence of visual and auditory stimuli with emotional content during the accident decreases the participants' both short-term and long-term recall performance. Moreover, the data obtained from the eye monitoring device showed that the participants had difficulty in answering even the questions they focused on at the time of the accident.

Keywords: eyewitness testimony, visual memory, eye tracking, long-term recall, short-term recall

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