Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Extraction Related Abstracts

71 Identification of Coauthors in Scientific Database

Authors: Gray F. Moita, Thiago M. R Dias

Abstract:

The analysis of scientific collaboration networks has contributed significantly to improving the understanding of how does the process of collaboration between researchers and also to understand how the evolution of scientific production of researchers or research groups occurs. However, the identification of collaborations in large scientific databases is not a trivial task given the high computational cost of the methods commonly used. This paper proposes a method for identifying collaboration in large data base of curriculum researchers. The proposed method has low computational cost with satisfactory results, proving to be an interesting alternative for the modeling and characterization of large scientific collaboration networks.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, Data Integration, Extraction, scientific collaboration

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70 Modeling and Optimization of Algae Oil Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: I. F. Ejim, F. L. Kamen

Abstract:

Aims: In this experiment, algae oil extraction with a combination of n-hexane and ethanol was investigated. The effects of extraction solvent concentration, extraction time and temperature on the yield and quality of oil were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental Design: Optimization of algae oil extraction using Box-Behnken design was used to generate 17 experimental runs in a three-factor-three-level design where oil yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value were evaluated as the response. Result: In this result, a minimum oil yield of 17% and maximum of 44% was realized. The optimum values for yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value from the overlay plot were 40.79%, 0.8788, 0.5056 mg KOH/g and 180.78 mg KOH/g respectively with desirability of 0.801. The maximum point prediction was yield 40.79% at solvent concentration 66.68 n-hexane, temperature of 40.0°C and extraction time of 4 hrs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that the linear and quadratic coefficient were all significant at p<0.05. The experiment was validated and results obtained were with the predicted values. Conclusion: Algae oil extraction was successfully optimized using RSM and its quality indicated it is suitable for many industrial uses.

Keywords: Optimization, Extraction, response surface methodology, algae oil, Box-Bohnken

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69 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: Jitlada Chumee, Drenpen Seeburin

Abstract:

The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: Extraction, pomelo peel, carboxymethyl cellulose, bioplastic

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68 Technologies of Isolation and Separation of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitry Yu. Korulkin

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of extraction, separation and purification of natural and modify anthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of an isolation process is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, and polarity of extragent, catalysts and other factors on an isolation process is revealed.

Keywords: Precipitation, Chromatography, Isolation, Extraction, Bioactivity, anthraquinones, phytopreparation, polarity, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin, physcion

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67 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini

Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), and batch extraction time (τ) with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs,, ψ, φ and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively.

Keywords: Extraction, response surface methodology, lactic acid, emulsion liquid membrane, n-trioctylamine

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66 Evaluation of Medicinal Plants, Catunaregam spinosa, Houttuynia cordata, and Rhapis excelsa from Malaysia for Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Properties

Authors: Yik Sin Chan, Bee Ling Chuah, Wei Quan Chan, Ri Jin Cheng, Yan Hang Oon, Kong Soo Khoo, Nam Weng Sit

Abstract:

Traditionally, medicinal plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. They serve as a good source of lead compounds for the development of new and safer anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of the leaves of three medicinal plants, namely Catunaregam spinosa (Rubiaceae; Mountain pomegranate), Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae; "fishy-smell herb") and Rhapis excelsa (Arecaceae; “broadleaf lady palm”). The leaves extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed using a colorimetric broth microdilution method against a panel of human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive: Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus; Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans; Moulds: Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) respectively; while antiviral activity was evaluated against the Chikungunya virus on monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells by neutral red uptake assay. All the plant extracts showed bacteriostatic activity, however, only 72% of the extracts (13/18) were found to have bactericidal activity. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were given by the hexane extract of C. spinosa against S. aureus with the values of 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL respectively. All the extracts also possessed fungistatic activity. Only the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of H. cordata exerted inhibitory activity against A. fumigatus, giving the lowest fungal susceptibility index of 16.7%. In contrast, only 61% of the extracts (11/18) showed fungicidal activity. The ethanol extract of R. excelsa exhibited the strongest fungicidal activity against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and T. mentagrophytes with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.04–0.08 mg/mL, in addition to its methanol extract against T. mentagrophytes (MFC=0.02 mg/mL). For anti-Chikungunya virus activity, only chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of R. excelsa showed significant antiviral activity with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 29.9 and 78.1 g/mL respectively. Extracts of R. excelsa warrant further investigations into their active principles responsible for antifungal and antiviral properties.

Keywords: Extraction, bactericidal, Chikungunya virus, fungicidal

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65 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura

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Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: Crystallization, Extraction, squalene, Soxhlet

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64 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Novel Trihexyltetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

Authors: Kailas L. Wasewar, Swapnil A. Dharaskar, Mahesh N. Varma, Diwakar Z. Shende

Abstract:

Owing to the stringent environmental regulations in many countries for production of ultra low sulfur petroleum fractions intending to reduce sulfur emissions results in enormous interest in this area among the scientific community. The requirement of zero sulfur emissions enhances the prominence for more advanced techniques in desulfurization. Desulfurization by extraction is a promising approach having several advantages over conventional hydrodesulphurization. Present work is dealt with various new approaches for desulfurization of ultra clean gasoline, diesel and other liquid fuels by extraction with ionic liquids. In present paper experimental data on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride has been presented. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized ionic liquid. Further, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of ionic liquids were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on removal of dibenzothiphene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 84.5% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30OC under the mild reaction conditions. Phosphonium ionic liquids could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in present paper explore the significant insights of phosphonium based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

Keywords: Extraction, liquid fuel, desulfurization, ionic liquid, PPIL

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63 Comparative Analysis of Petroleum Ether and Aqueous Extraction Solvents on Different Stages of Anopheles Gambiae Using Neem Leaf and Neem Stem

Authors: Tochukwu Ezechi Ebe, Fechi Njoku-Tony, Ifeyinwa Mgbenena

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Comparative analysis of petroleum ether and aqueous extraction solvents on different stages of Anopheles gambiae was carried out using neem leaf and neem stem. Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract each pulverized plant part. Each plant part extract from both solvents were separately used to test their effects on the developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae. The result showed that the mean mortality of extracts from petroleum ether extraction solvent was higher than that of aqueous extract. It was also observed that mean mortality decreases with increase in developmental stage. Furthermore, extracts from neem leaf was found to be more susceptible than extracts from neem stem using same extraction solvent.

Keywords: Extraction, developmental, petroleum ether, aqueous, stages, Anopheles gambiae

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62 Introduction of Artificial Intelligence for Estimating Fractal Dimension and Its Applications in the Medical Field

Authors: Zerroug Abdelhamid, Danielle Chassoux

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Various models are given to simulate homogeneous or heterogeneous cancerous tumors and extract in each case the boundary. The fractal dimension is then estimated by least squares method and compared to some previous methods.

Keywords: Simulation, Extraction, fractal dimension, cancerous tumor, Markov fields, recovering

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61 Identification of Phenolic Compounds with Antibacterial Activity in Raisin Extract

Authors: Yousef M. Abouzeed A. Elfahem, F. Zgheel, M. A. Saad, Mohamed O. Ahmed

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The bioactive properties of phytochemicals indicate their potential as natural drug products to prevent and treat human disease; in particular, compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities may represent a novel class of safe and effective drugs. Following desiccation, grapes (Vitis vinifera) become more resistant to microbial-based degradation, suggesting that raisins may be a source of antimicrobial compounds. To investigate this hypothesis, total phenolic extracts were obtained from common raisins, local market-sourced. The acetone extract was tested for antibacterial activity against four prevalent bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli). Antibiotic sensitivity and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined for each bacterium. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify compounds in the total phenolic extract. The raisin phenolic extract inhibited growth of all the tested bacteria; the greatest inhibitive effect (normalized to cefotaxime sodium control antibiotic) occurred against P. aeruginosa, followed by S. aureus > Salmonella spp.= E. coli. The phenolic extracts contained the bioactive compounds catechin, quercetin, and rutin. Thus, phytochemicals in raisin extract have antibacterial properties; this plant-based extract, or its bioactive constituents, may represent a promising natural preservative or antimicrobial agent for the food industry or anti-infective drug.

Keywords: Extraction, Phenolic Compounds, antibacterial activity, Vitis vinifera raisin

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60 Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lub Oil Using Sursurfactant as Additive

Authors: Izza Hidaya, Korichi Mourad

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Solvent extraction is an affective method for reduction of aromatic content of lube oil. Frequently with phenol, furfural, NMP(N-methyl pyrrolidone). The solvent power and selectivity can be further increased by using surfactant as additive which facilitate phase separation and to increase raffinate yield. The aromatics in lube oil were extracted at different temperatures (ranging from 333.15 to 343.15K) and different concentration of surfactant (ranging from 0.01 to 0.1% wt).The extraction temperature and the amount of sulfate lauryl éther de sodium In phenoll were investigated systematically in order to determine their optimum values. The amounts of aromatic, paraffinic and naphthenic compounds were determined using ASTM standards by measuring refractive index (RI), viscosity, molecular weight and sulfur content. It was found that using 0,01%wt. surfactant at 343.15K yields the optimum extraction conditions.

Keywords: Hydrocarbons, Extraction, aromatics, lubricating oil

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59 Solvent extraction of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents TBP and D2EHPA under microwave irradiations

Authors: Hussein Khalaf, Ahmed Boucherit, Eduardo Paredes, José Luis Todolí

Abstract:

Solvent extraction studies of molybdenum (VI) with two organophosphorus reagents namely TBP and D2EHPA have been carried out from aqueous acidic solutions of HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 under microwave irradiations. The extraction efficiencies of the investigated extractants in the extraction of molybdenum (Vl) were compared. Extraction yield was found unchanged when microwave power varied in the range 20-100 Watts from H2SO4 or H3PO4 but it decreases in the range 20-60 Watts and increases in the range 60-100 Watts when TBP is used for extraction of molybdenum (VI) from 1 M HCl solutions. Extraction yield of molybdenum (VI) was found higher with TBP for HCl molarities greater than 1 M than with D2EHPA for H3PO4 molarities lower than 1 M. Extraction yield increases with HCl molarities in the range 0.50 - 1.80 M but it decreases with the increase in H2SO4 and H3PO4 molarities in the range of 0.05 - 1 M and 0.50 - 1 M, respectively.

Keywords: Solvent, Microwave, Extraction, Molybdenum

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58 Optimal Classifying and Extracting Fuzzy Relationship from Query Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Faisal Alshuwaier, Ali Areshey

Abstract:

Text mining techniques are generally applied for classifying the text, finding fuzzy relations and structures in data sets. This research provides plenty text mining capabilities. One common application is text classification and event extraction, which encompass deducing specific knowledge concerning incidents referred to in texts. The main contribution of this paper is the clarification of a concept graph generation mechanism, which is based on a text classification and optimal fuzzy relationship extraction. Furthermore, the work presented in this paper explains the application of fuzzy relationship extraction and branch and bound method to simplify the texts.

Keywords: Text Mining, classification, Extraction, max-prod, fuzzy relations, memberships

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57 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, Annotation, Extraction, subtitles, frames

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56 Extraction and Characterization of Kernel Oil of Acrocomia Totai

Authors: Gredson Keif Souza, Nehemias Curvelo Pereira

Abstract:

Kernel oil from Macaúba is an important source of essential fatty acids. Thus, a new knowledge of the oil of this species could be used in new applications, such as pharmaceutical drugs based in the manufacture of cosmetics, and in various industrial processes. The aim of this study was to characterize the kernel oil of macaúba (Acrocomia Totai) at different times of their maturation. The physico-chemical characteristics were determined in accordance with the official analytical methods of oils and fats. It was determined the content of water and lipids in kernel, saponification value, acid value, water content in the oil, viscosity, density, composition in fatty acids by gas chromatography and molar mass. The results submitted to Tukey test for significant value to 5%. Found for the unripe fruits values superior to unsaturated fatty acids.

Keywords: Characterization, Extraction, kernel oil, acrocomia totai

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55 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate

Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede

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Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.

Keywords: Extraction, Copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate

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54 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ivan Svinyarov, Konstantza Tonova, Milen G. Bogdanov

Abstract:

Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: Ionic Liquids, Extraction, lactic acid, biphasic system

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53 Comparative Analysis of Oil Extracts from Cotton and Watermelon Seeds

Authors: S. A. Jumare, A. O. Tijani, M. F. Siraj, B. V. Babatunde

Abstract:

This research investigated the comparative analysis of oil extracted from cotton and watermelon seeds using solvent extraction process. Normal ethyl-ether was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the physiochemical properties of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined include specific gravity, refractive index, colour, odour, taste and pH. The value obtained for cottonseed oil are saponification value (187mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (5.64mgKOH/g), iodine value (95.2g/100), peroxide value (9.33meq/kg), acid value (11.22mg/KOH/g), pH value (4.62), refractive index (1.46), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a bland odour, a reddish brown colour and a mild taste. The values obtained for watermelon seed oil are saponification value (83.3mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (6.58mg/KOH/g), iodine value (122.6g/100), peroxide value (5.3meq/kg), acid value (3.74mgKOH/g), pH value (6.3), refractive index (1.47), and specific gravity (0.9) respectively, it has a nutty flavour, a golden yellow colour and a mild taste. From the result obtained, it shows that cottonseed oil has high acid value which shows the stability of the oil and its stability to rancidity. Consequently, watermelon seed oil is order wise.

Keywords: Solvent, Extraction, cotton seeds, watermelon seeds

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52 Extraction of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis by Isoelectric Point Precipitation and Salting Out for Scale Up Processes

Authors: Velasco-Rendón María Del Carmen, Cuéllar-Bermúdez Sara Paulina, Parra-Saldívar Roberto

Abstract:

Phycocyanin is a blue pigment protein with fluorescent activity produced by cyanobacteria. It has been recently studied to determine its anticancer, antioxidant and antiinflamatory potential. Since 2014 it was approved as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) proteic pigment for the food industry. Therefore, phycocyanin shows potential for the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and diagnostics industry. Conventional phycocyanin extraction includes buffer solutions and ammonium sulphate followed by chromatography or ATPS for protein separation. Therefore, further purification steps are time-requiring, energy intensive and not suitable for scale-up processing. This work presents an alternative to conventional methods that also allows large scale application with commercially available equipment. The extraction was performed by exposing the dry biomass to mechanical cavitation and salting out with NaCl to use an edible reagent. Also, isoelectric point precipitation was used by addition of HCl and neutralization with NaOH. The results were measured and compared in phycocyanin concentration, purity and extraction yield. Results showed that the best extraction condition was the extraction by salting out with 0.20 M NaCl after 30 minutes cavitation, with a concentration in the supernatant of 2.22 mg/ml, a purity of 3.28 and recovery from crude extract of 81.27%. Mechanical cavitation presumably increased the solvent-biomass contact, making the crude extract visibly dark blue after centrifugation. Compared to other systems, our process has less purification steps, similar concentrations in the phycocyanin-rich fraction and higher purity. The contaminants present in our process edible NaCl or low pHs that can be neutralized. It also can be adapted to a semi-continuous process with commercially available equipment. This characteristics make this process an appealing alternative for phycocyanin extraction as a pigment for the food industry.

Keywords: Precipitation, Extraction, Scale-up, phycocyanin

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51 Effect of Ultrasound and Enzyme on the Extraction of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali)

Authors: He Yuhai, Ahmad Ziad Bin Sulaiman

Abstract:

Tongkat Ali, or Eurycoma longifolia, is a traditional Malay and Orang Asli herb used as aphrodisiac, general tonic, anti-Malaria, and anti-Pyretic. It has been recognized as a cashcrop by Malaysia due to its high value for the pharmaceutical use. In Tongkat Ali, eurycomanone, a quassinoid is usually chosen as a marker phytochemical as it is the most abundant phytochemical. In this research, ultrasound and enzyme were used to enhance the extraction of Eurycomanone from Tongkat Ali. Ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) enhances extraction by facilitating the swelling and hydration of the plant material, enlarging the plant pores, breaking the plant cell, reducing the plant particle size and creating cavitation bubbles that enhance mass transfer in both the washing and diffusion phase of extraction. Enzyme hydrolyses the cell wall of the plant, loosening the structure of the cell wall, releasing more phytochemicals from the plant cell, enhancing the productivity of the extraction. Possible effects of ultrasound on the activity of the enzyme during the hydrolysis of the cell wall is under the investigation by this research. The extracts was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for the yields of Eurycomanone. In this whole process, the conventional water extraction was used as a control of comparing the performance of the ultrasound and enzyme assisted extraction.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Extraction, enzymatic, Eurycoma longifolia

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50 The Preparation of Silicon and Aluminum Extracts from Tuncbilek and Orhaneli Fly Ashes by Alkali Fusion

Authors: M. Sari Yilmaz, N. Karamahmut Mermer

Abstract:

Coal fly ash is formed as a solid waste product from the combustion of coal in coal fired power stations. Huge amounts of fly ash are produced globally every year and are predicted to increase. Nowadays, less than half of the fly ash is used as a raw material for cement manufacturing, construction and the rest of it is disposed as a waste causing yet another environmental concern. For this reason, the recycling of this kind of slurries into useful materials is quite important in terms of economical and environmental aspects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Orhaneli and Tuncbilek coal fly ashes for utilization in some industrial applications. Therefore the mineralogical and chemical compositions of these fly ashes were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the fly ashes were activated by alkali fusion technique with sodium hydroxide. The obtained extracts were analyzed for Si and Al content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

Keywords: Fusion, fly ash, Extraction, XRD

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49 Green Chemical Processing in the Teaching Laboratory: A Convenient Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Natural Products

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ferhat, Mohamed Nadjib Bouhatem, Farid Chemat

Abstract:

One of the principal aims of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry to both developed and developing nations. This paper describes one attempt to show that “north-south” collaborations yield innovative sustainable and green technologies which give major benefits for both nations. In this paper we present early results from a solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oils using fresh orange peel, a byproduct in the production of orange juice. SFME is performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. SFME increases essential oil yield and eliminate wastewater treatment. The procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, and allows the students to learn extraction, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis skills, and are expose to dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable and green extraction of essential oil, and are introduced to commercially successful sustainable and green chemical processing with microwave energy.

Keywords: Microwave, Extraction, Green Processing, Essential Oil

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48 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Ferhat Mohamed, Chemat Farid

Abstract:

Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: Distillation, Extraction, Essential Oil, carvi seeds

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47 Physical Parameters Influencing the Yield of Nigella Sativa Oil Extracted by Hydraulic Pressing

Authors: Hadjadj Naima, K. Mahdi, D. Belhachat, F. S. Ait Chaouche, A. Ferradji

Abstract:

The Nigella Sativa oil yield extracted by hydraulic pressing is influenced by the pressure temperature and size particles. The optimization of oil extraction is investigated. The rate of extraction of the whole seeds is very weak, a crushing of seeds is necessary to facilitate the extraction. This rate augments with the rise of the temperature and the pressure, and decrease of size particles. The best output (66%) is obtained for a granulometry lower than 1mm, a temperature of 50°C and a pressure of 120 bars.

Keywords: Optimization, Oil, Extraction, temperature, Pressure, Nigella sativa

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46 Economic Activities Associated with Extraction of Riverbed Materials in the Tinau River, Nepal

Authors: Khet Raj Dahal, Dhruva Dhital, Chhatra Mani Sharma

Abstract:

A study was conducted during 2012 to 2013 in the selected reach of Tinau River, Nepal. The main objective of the study was to quantify employment and income generation from the extraction of construction materials from the river. A 10 km stretch of the river was selected for the study. Sample survey with a semi-structured questionnaire and field observation were the main tools used during field investigation. Extraction of riverbed materials from the banks, beds and floodplain areas of the river has provided many kinds of job opportunities for the people living in the vicinity of the river. It has also generated an adequate amount of revenues. The collected revenue has been invested for many kinds of social and infrastructures development for years. Though extraction of riverbed materials is beneficial for income and employment generation, it has also negative environmental impacts in and around the river. Furthermore, the study concluded that river bed extraction should be continued with special monitoring and evaluation in the areas where there is still room for extraction.

Keywords: Extraction, economic activities, crusher plants, Tinau River

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45 Study on Meristem Culture of Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk.) and Its Stigmasterol Detected by Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Totik Sri Mariani, Sukrasno Isna, Tet Fatt Chia

Abstract:

Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk) is a legend plant used for increasing stamina by Kings in Java Island, Indonesia. Purpose of this study was to perform meristem culture and detected its stigmasterol by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Our result show that meristem culture could be propagated and grew into plantlet. After extracting intact acclimatized plant derived from meristem culture by hexane, we could detected stigmasterol by TLC. For suggestion, our extraction and TLC method could be used for detecting stigmasterol in others plant.

Keywords: Extraction, purwoceng (pimpinella pruatjan), meristem culture, thin layer chromatography

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44 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın

Abstract:

Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: Extraction, residue, cold press, aniseed oil

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43 Spent Paint Solvent Recoveries by Ionic Liquids: Potential for Industrial Application

Authors: Mbongeni Mabaso, Kandasamy Moodley, Gan Redhi

Abstract:

The recovery of industrially valuable organic solvents from liquid waste, generated in chemical processes, is economically crucial to countries which need to import organic solvents. In view of this, the main objective of this study was to determine the ability of selected ionic liquids, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate, [EMIM] [ESO4] and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulphate, [EMpy][ESO4] to recover aromatic components from spent paint solvents. Preliminary studies done on the liquid waste, received from a paint manufacturing company, showed that the aromatic components were present in the range 6 - 21 % by volume. The separation of the aromatic components was performed with the ionic liquids listed above. The phases, resulting from the separation of the mixtures, were analysed with a Gas Chromatograph (GC) coupled to a FID detector. Chromatograms illustrate that the chosen ZB-Wax-Plus column gave excellent separation of all components of interest from the mixtures, including the isomers of xylene. The concentrations of aromatics recovered from the spent solvents were found to be the % ranges 13-33 and 23-49 respectively for imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. These results also show that there is a significant correlation between π-character of ionic liquids and the level of extraction. It is therefore concluded that ionic liquids have the potential for macro-scale recovery of re-useable solvents present in liquid waste emanating from paint manufacture.

Keywords: Synthesis, Extraction, ionic liquid, imidazolium, pyridinium, aromatic solvents, spent paint organic solvents

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42 Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds from Coleus Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

Abstract:

Free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) have detrimental effects on human health through several mechanisms. On the other hand, antioxidant molecules reduce free radical generation in biologic systems. Synthetic antioxidants, which are used in food industry, have also negative impact on human health. Therefore recognition of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins can solve these problems simultaneously. Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides) with red leaves is a rich source of anthocyanins compounds. In this study we evaluated the effect of time (10, 20 and 30 min) and temperature (40, 50 and 60° C) on optimization of anthocyanin extraction using surface response method. In addition, the study was aimed to determine maximum extraction for anthocyanin from coleus plant using ultrasound method. The results indicated that the optimum conditions for extraction were 39.84 min at 69.25° C. At this point, total compounds were achieved 3.7451 mg 100 ml⁻¹. Furthermore, under optimum conditions, anthocyanin concentration, extraction efficiency, ferric reducing ability, total phenolic compounds and EC50 were registered 3.221931, 6.692765, 223.062, 3355.605 and 2.614045, respectively.

Keywords: Extraction, coleus, antioxidant, anthocyanin, sonication

Procedia PDF Downloads 208