Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

extract Related Abstracts

15 Analysis and Rule Extraction of Coronary Artery Disease Data Using Data Mining

Authors: Rezaei Hachesu Peyman, Oliyaee Azadeh, Salahzadeh Zahra, Alizadeh Somayyeh, Safaei Naser

Abstract:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one major cause of disability in adults and one main cause of death in developed. In this study, data mining techniques including Decision Trees, Artificial neural networks (ANNs), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) analyze CAD data. Data of 4948 patients who had suffered from heart diseases were included in the analysis. CAD is the target variable, and 24 inputs or predictor variables are used for the classification. The performance of these techniques is compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The most significant factor influencing CAD is chest pain. Elderly males (age > 53) have a high probability to be diagnosed with CAD. SVM algorithm is the most useful way for evaluation and prediction of CAD patients as compared to non-CAD ones. Application of data mining techniques in analyzing coronary artery diseases is a good method for investigating the existing relationships between variables.

Keywords: Knowledge Discovery, classification, coronary artery disease, data-mining, extract

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14 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum

Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann

Abstract:

Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Phytochemicals, extract, Chrysanthlum indicum

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13 Use of Different Plant Extracts in Fungal Disease Management of Onion (Allium cepa. L)

Authors: Shobha U. Jadhav

Abstract:

Onion is most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Onion suffers from pest and fungal diseases but these fungicides cause pollution and disturb microbial balance of soil. Under integrated fungal disease management programme cost effective and eco- friendly component like plant extract are used to control plant pathogens. Alternaria porri, Fusarium oxysporium, Stemphylium vesicarium are soil-borne pathogens of onion. Effect of three different plant extracts (Ocimum sanctum L., Xanthium strumarium B. and H. Withania somnifera Dunal)at five different concentration Viz, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 percentage on these pathogens was studied by food poisoning technique. Ocimum sanctum gave 84.21% growth of Alternaria porri at 10% extract concentration and 10.52% growth in 100% extract concentration. As compared to Fusarium oxysporium and Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria porri give good inhibitory response. In Xanthium strumarium B. and H. at 10% extract concentration 46.42% growth and at 100% extract concentration 28.57% growth of Fusarium oxysporum was observed. Fusarium oxysporum give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. In Withania somnifera Dunal in 10% extract concentration 84.21% growth and in 100% extract concentration 21.05% growth of Stemphylium vesicarium was recorded. Stemphylium vesicarium give good inhibitory response as compared to Alternaria porri and Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: pathogen, Plant, extract, onion

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12 Evaluation of Pelargonium Extract and Oil as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Chloride Solutions and Pharmacological Properties

Authors: Ahmed Chetouani

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Corrosion is a natural occurring process where it can be defined as the deterioration of materials properties due to its interaction with its environment. Corrosion can lead to failures in plant infrastructure and machines which are usually costly to repair. In terms of loss of contaminated products which will cause environmental damage and possibly costly in terms of human health. The driving force that causes metals to corrode is due to the natural consequence of their temporary existence in metallic form. There is a growing trend in utilizing plant extracts and pharmaceutical compounds as corrosion inhibitors. Exquisite identification of the essential oil of aerial parts of Pelargonium was obtained using hydrodistillation and identification using GC (gas chromatography) and GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The oil was predominated by Citronellol (22.8%). The inhibitory effect of essential oil and extract of Pelargonium was estimated on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) using weight loss, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization curves. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the essential oil and extract of Pelargonium. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in 1M HCl with addition of essential oil and extract was also studied and the thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. Values of inhibition efficiency were calculated from weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, and EIS. All results are in good agreement. Polarization curves showed that essential oil and extract of Pelargonium behave as mixed type inhibitors in hydrochloric acid. The results obtained showed that the essential oil and extract of Pelargonium could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in Hydrochloric acid solution. To avoid any surprise of toxicity, the majority compounds have been studied by using POM analyses.

Keywords: Side Effects, extract, mild steel, corrosion inhibition, pelargonium oil, electrochemical system, hydrodistillation, POM Analyses

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11 Phenolic Compounds, Antiradical Activity, and Antioxidant Efficacy of Satureja hortensisl - Extracts in Vegetable Oil Protection

Authors: Abolfazl Kamkar

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Vegetable oils and fats are recognized as important components of our diet. They provide essential fatty acids, which are precursors of important hormones and control many physiological factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol level, and the reproductive system.Vegetable oils with higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are more susceptible to oxidation.Protective effects of Sature jahortensis(SE) extracts in stabilizing soybean oil at different concentrations (200 and 400 ppm) were tested. Results showed that plant extracts could significantly (P< 0.05) lower the peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of oil during storage at 60 oC. The IC50 values for methanol and ethanol extracts were 31.5 ± 0.7 and 37.00 ± 0 µg/ml, respectively. In the β- carotene/linoleic acid system, methanol and ethanol extracts exhibited 87.5 ± 1.41% and 74.0 ±2.25 % inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol and ethanol extracts were (101.58 ± 0. 26m g/ g) and (96.00 ± 0.027 mg/ g), (44.91 ± 0.14 m g/ g) and (14.30 ± 0.12 mg/ g) expressed in Gallic acid and Quercetin equivalents, respectively.These findings suggest that Satureja extracts may have potential application as natural antioxidants in the edible oil and food industry.

Keywords: extract, antioxidant activity, oxidative stability, vegetable oil, satureja hortensis

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10 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

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The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: Oil, Seed, Rice, extract, soybeans, malted, okra

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9 Antimicrobial Activity of Nauclea lotifolia (African Peach) Crude Extracts against Some Pathogenic Microorganism

Authors: Muhammad Isah Legbo

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The phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Nauclea lotifolia fruit, leaf and stem-bark extracts at various concentration of (20.0,10.0, 5.0, and 2.5 mg/ml) were evaluated against some pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar well diffusion method. The result obtained show appreciable inhibitory effort of acetone, aqueous and methanolic extracts of Nauclea lotifolia. However, result obtained was less active compared to that of the control antibiotic (Ciprofloxacillin). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial doubling dilution method and ranged from 5.0-10.0mg/ml, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by plating various dilution of extracts without turbidity and the result ranged from 5.0-7.5mg/ml. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinones, flavonoids, resin, steroid and saponin. The activities of the plant extract therefore justify their utilization in the treatment of various ailments associated with the test organism.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Pathogens, extract, saponin, Nauclea, lotifolia

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8 Effects of Green Walnut Husk and Olive Pomace Extracts on Growth of Tomato Plants and Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

Authors: Yasemin Kavdir, Ugur Gozel

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This study was conducted to determine the nematicidal activity of green walnut husk (GWH) and olive pomace (OP) extracts against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Aqueous extracts of GWH and OP were mixed with sandy loam soil at the rates of 0, 6,12,18,24, 60 and 120 ml kg-1. All pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times under controlled atmosphere conditions. Tomato seedlings were grown in sterilized soil then they were transplanted to pots. Inoculation was done by pouring the 20 ml suspension including 1000 M. incognita juvenile pot-1 into 3 cm deep hole made around the base of the plant root. Tomato root and shoot growth and nematode populations have been determined. In general, both GWH and OP extracts resulted in better growth parameters compared to the control plants. However, GWH extract was the most effective in improving growth parameters. Applications of 24 ml kg-1 OP extract enhanced plant growth compared to other OP treatments while 60 ml kg-1 application rate had the lowest nematode number and root galling. In this study, applications of GWH and OP extracts reduced the number of Meloidogyne incognita and root galling compared to control soils. Additionally GWH and OP extracts can be used safely for tomato growth. It could be concluded that OP and GWH extracts used as organic amendments showed promising nematicidal activity in the control of M. incognita. This research was supported by TUBİTAK Grant Number 214O422.

Keywords: Soil, extract, tomato, olive pomace, green walnut husk, Meloidogyne incognita

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7 Effect of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Extract on Damaged Brain Cells

Authors: Batul Kagalwala

Abstract:

The nervous system is made up of complex delicate structures such as the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the brain. These are prone to various types of injury ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to trauma leading to diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple system atrophy etc. Unfortunately, because of the complicated structure of nervous system, spontaneous regeneration, repair and healing is seldom seen due to which brain damage, peripheral nerve damage and paralysis from spinal cord injury are often permanent and incapacitating. Hence, innovative and standardized approach is required for advance treatment of neurological injury. Nigella sativa (N. sativa), an annual flowering plant native to regions of southern Europe and Asia; has been suggested to have neuroprotective and anti-seizures properties. Neuroregeneration is found to occur in damaged cells when treated using extract of N. sativa. Due to its proven health benefits, lots of experiments are being conducted to extract all the benefits from the plant. The flowers are delicate and are usually pale blue and white in color with small black seeds. These seeds are the source of active components such as 30–40% fixed oils, 0.5–1.5% essential oils, pharmacologically active components containing thymoquinone (TQ), ditimoquinone (DTQ) and nigellin. In traditional medicine, this herb was identified to have healing properties and was extensively used Middle East and Far East for treating diseases such as head ache, back pain, asthma, infections, dysentery, hypertension, obesity and gastrointestinal problems. Literature studies have confirmed the extract of N. sativa seeds and TQ have inhibitory effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide as well as anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Experimental investigation will be conducted to understand which ingredient of N. sativa causes neuroregeneration and roots to its healing property. An aqueous/ alcoholic extract of N. sativa will be made. Seed oil is also found to have used by researchers to prepare such extracts. For the alcoholic extracts, the seeds need to be powdered and soaked in alcohol for a period of time and the alcohol must be evaporated using rotary evaporator. For aqueous extracts, the powder must be dissolved in distilled water to obtain a pure extract. The mobile phase will be the extract while the suitable stationary phase (substance that is a good adsorbent e.g. silica gels, alumina, cellulose etc.) will be selected. Different ingredients of N. sativa will be separated using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for treating damaged cells. Damaged brain cells will be treated individually and in different combinations of 2 or 3 compounds for different intervals of time. The most suitable compound or a combination of compounds for the regeneration of cells will be determined using DOE methodology. Later the gene will also be determined and using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) it will be replicated in a plasmid vector. This plasmid vector shall be inserted in the brain of the organism used and replicated within. The gene insertion can also be done by the gene gun method. The gene in question can be coated on a micro bullet of tungsten and bombarded in the area of interest and gene replication and coding shall be studied. Investigation on whether the gene replicates in the organism or not will be examined.

Keywords: Vectors, Plasmids, Damage, extract, PCR, black cumin, brain cells, neuroregeneration

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6 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Reham Hajomer, Amna Hamad

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Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: extract, anti-hypothyroidism, lepidium, sativum

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5 Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Hepatoprotective Activity of Geigeria alata Leaves Ethanolic Extract on Wistar Rats

Authors: Girgis Younan, Ikram Eltayeb

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Geigeria alata belongs to the family Asteraceae, is an effective plant traditionally used in Sudan as a therapy for hepatic disease and as an antiepileptic, antispasmodic and to treat cough and intestinal complaints.The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and any liver disease or injury will result in the loss of those functions leading to significant damage in the body. Liver diseases cause increase in liver enzymes (AST, ALP ALT) and total bilirubin and a decrease in total blood protein level. The objective of this study is to investigate the hepato-protective activity of Geigeria alata leaves ethanolic extract. The plant leaves were extracted using 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The hepatoprotective effect was determined using 25 wistar rats, the rats was divided to 5 groups, each group contain 5 rats: [Normal control group] receiving purified water, liver damage was induced in wistar rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg) and olive oil once at day four of the experiment [negative control group]. Two doses of extract [400mg/kg and 200mg/kg] was applied daily for 7 days, and standard drug Silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered daily for 7 days to CCl4-treated rats. The degree of hepato-protective activity was evaluated by determining the hepatic marker enzymes AST, ALP, ALT, total Bilirubin and total proteins (TP). Results have shown that, the extract of G.alata leaves reduced the level of liver enzymes ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and increased the level of total proteins. Since the levels of liver enzymes; bilirubin and total protein are considered as markers of liver function, the extract has proven to reduce the detrimental effects of liver toxicity induced using CCl4. The hepato-protective effect of extract on liver was found to be dose dependent, where the 400mg/kg dose of the extract exhibited higher activity than 200mg/kg dose. In addition, the effect of the higher dose (400mg/kg) of the extract was found to be higher than Silymarin standard drug. The result concludes that, G.alata leaves extract was found to exhibit profound hepato-protective activity, which justifies the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of hepatic diseases.

Keywords: extract, hepatoprotective, alata, geigeria

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4 Allelopathic Effects of Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) Extract on the Germination and Early Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: Amir Halabianfar, Jamshid Razmjoo

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In order to evaluate the competitive effects of Lambsqua on the germination and early growth of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties, an experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions in researches of agronomy, College of agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology in 2015. A laboratory experiment was conducted on a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete design with four replications. Testing factors include two wheat cultivars (Flat and Atila -4) and three level of Lambsqua (Chenopodium album) extract (30, 60 and 90 percent) plus control with no extract. Twenty-five seeds of each wheat varieties were placed in petri dish, then the root extract of lambsqua, which was prepared previously at three levels, was poured on the seeds in each petri dish. The result showed that allelopathic effect of Lambsquarter on germination, root, and shoot dry weight of two varieties was highly significant. Among varieties, the Atila–4 showed minimum germination at 60% while the Flat showed minimum germination at 90% concentration. In case of root dry weight, Atila–4 was more suppressed as compared to Flat at 60% concentration but at 90% concentration, the both wheat varieties were reduced non-significantly. Shoot dry weight of Flat were decreased non-significantly concentrations except Atila -4 that was more reduced at 60 % than 90% concentration.

Keywords: Wheat, Allelopathy, Germination, extract, Chenopodium album, early growth

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3 The Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Aqueous, Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl Acetate and Acetone Extract of Hypericum scabrum

Authors: A. Heshmati, M. Y Alikhani, M. T. Godarzi, M. R. Sadeghimanesh

Abstract:

Herbal essential oil and extracts are a good source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Hypericum is one of the potential sources of these compounds. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of Hypericum scabrum was assessed. Flowers of Hypericum scabrum were collected from the surrounding mountains of Hamadan province and after drying in the shade, the essential oil of the plant was extracted by Clevenger and water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract was obtained by maceration method. Essential oil compounds were identified using the GC-Mass. The Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method was used to measure the amount of phenolic acid and flavonoids, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial/fungicide concentration (MBC/MFC) of essential oil and extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The essential oil yield of was 0.35%, the lowest and highest extract yield was related to ethyl acetate and water extract. The most component of essential oil was α-Pinene (46.35%). The methanol extracts had the highest phenolic acid (95.65 ± 4.72 µg galic acid equivalent/g dry plant) and flavonoids (25.39 ± 2.73 µg quercetin equivalent/g dry plant). The percentage of DPPH radical inhibition showed positive correlation with concentrations of essential oil or extract. The methanol and ethanol extract had the highest DDPH radical inhibitory. Essential oil and extracts of Hypericum had antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms studied in this research. The MIC and MBC values for essential oils were in the range of 25-25.6 and 25-50 μg/mL, respectively. For the extracts, these values were 1.5625-100 and 3.125-100 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol extracts had the highest antimicrobial activity. Essential oil and extract of Hypericum scabrum, especially methanol extract, have proper antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and it can be used to control the oxidation and inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, it can be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, extract, antioxidant, hypericum

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2 Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality of Functional Bread Enriched with Morus Alba Leaf Extract during Storage

Authors: Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Daria Szymanowska, Piotr Szulc, Oskar Szczepaniak, Marcin Dziedzinski, Szymon Byczkiewicz

Abstract:

A wide range of food products is offered on the market. However, increasing consumer awareness of the impact of food on health causes a growing interest in enriched products. Cereal products are an important element of the daily diet of man. In the literature, no data was found on the impact of Morus alba preparations on the content of active ingredients and properties of wholemeal bread. Mulberry leaves (Morus alba L) are a rich source of bioactive compounds with multidirectional antioxidant activity, which means that they can be a component of new foods that prevent disease or support therapy and improve the patient's health. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the addition of white mulberry leaf extract on the antioxidant activity of bread. It has been shown that bread can be a carrier of biologically active substances from mulberry leaves, because the addition of mulberry at a sensory acceptable level and meeting microbiological requirements significantly influenced the increase in the content of bioactive ingredients and the antioxidant activity of bread. The addition of mulberry leaf water extract to bread increased the level of flavonols and phenolic acids, in particular protocatechic, chlorogenic gallic and caffeic acid and isoquercetin and rutine, and also increased the antioxidant potential, which were microbiological stable during 5 days storage. It has been shown also that the addition of Morus alba preparations has a statistically significant effect on anti-radical activity. In addition, there were no differences in activity in DPPH · and ABTS · + tests between post-storage samples. This means that the compounds responsible for the anti-radical activity present in the bread were not inactivated during storage. It was found that the tested bread was characterized by high microbiological purity, which is indicated by the obtained results of analyzes performed for the titers of indicator microorganisms and the absence of pathogens. In the tested products from the moment of production throughout the entire storage period, no undesirable microflora was found, which proves their safety and guarantees microbiological stability during the storage period.

Keywords: Quality, Antioxidants, Bread, extract

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1 Insecticidal and Antifeedant Activity of Rosemary´s (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Different Extracts on Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa Armigera Hubner

Authors: Monireh Movahedi

Abstract:

Considering undesirable effects of chemical insecticides on environment and human health, most studies focused on insecticidal effects of plant materials. Here, the insecticidal effects of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on larval stage of the cotton bollworm were studied. From each extract, six concentrations, including 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/ml were prepared and added on larval artificial diet. Moreover, solution of distilled water and tween 2% considered as check treatment. All experiments were done in laboratory temperature of 25±3 ºC, RH =50±10% and natural photoperiod during growing season. Each treatment had four replications and each replication carried out on 10 first instar larva with <24h age. Larval mortality was recorded 3 and 7 days after treat. Based on results, LC50 of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan extracts of R. officinalis were 2.78, 15.87 and 15.70 ml/mg, respectively. On the other hand, antifeedant effect of methanol, ethylacetat and n-Hexan for R. officinalis estimated as 43.13%, 55.11% and 9.19%, respectively. All the obtained results revealed that methanol and ethylacetat extracts of R. officinalis are effective extracts for controlling the cotton bollworm population.

Keywords: methanol, extract, Helocoverpa armigera, Rosemarinus officinalis, ethylacetat, n-Hexan

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