Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Expression Related Abstracts

9 Expression of Interferon-Lambda Receptor-(IFN-λRα) in Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs) Is Influenced by the Levels of Newly Discovered Type III IFN-λ4 in Vitro

Authors: Hashaam Akhtar

Abstract:

IFNλR1 and IL10R2 collectively construct a heterodimer, which is an acknowledged functional receptor for all type III interferons (IFNs). Expression of IFNλR1 is highly tissue specific, which can help in making type III IFNs a drug of choice as comparable to its analogue, type I IFNs, for treating hepatitis C in the near future. Although, expression of IFNλR1 also varies with the concentration of type I IFNs, but in this study it was shown that the expression of IFNλR1 varies with the protein titers of IFN-α, IFN-λ3 and the newly discovered IFN-λ4. High dosage of IFN-α reduces the expression of IFNλR1 in HepG2 cells, which can affect the antiviral activity of type III IFNs in vivo. We premeditated an experimental strategy to differentiate monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs), type I and type II macrophages in vitro and quantified the expression of the IFNλR1 by qPCR. The exposure of newly discovered IFN-λ4 to macrophages and DCs also raised the expression of its own receptor, which shows that expression of IFN-λ4 protein in hepatitis C patient may augment type I treatment and help ease off viral titers. The results of this study may contribute in some understanding towards the mechanisms involved in the selective expression of IFNLR1 and exceptionalities associated with the receptor.

Keywords: Expression, IFNLR1, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFN-λ4), Mononuclear Phagocyte Cells (MPCs)

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8 High Level Expression of Fluorinase in Escherichia Coli and Pichia Pastoris

Authors: Lee A. Browne, K. Rumbold

Abstract:

The first fluorinating enzyme, 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine synthase (fluorinase) was isolated from the soil bacterium Streptomyces cattleya. Such an enzyme, with the ability to catalyze a C-F bond, presents great potential as a biocatalyst. Naturally fluorinated compounds are extremely rare in nature. As a result, the number of fluorinases identified remains relatively few. The field of fluorination is almost completely synthetic. However, with the increasing demand for fluorinated organic compounds of commercial value in the agrochemical, pharmaceutical and materials industries, it has become necessary to utilize biologically based methods such as biocatalysts. A key step in this crucial process is the large-scale production of the fluorinase enzyme in considerable quantities for industrial applications. Thus, this study aimed to optimize expression of the fluorinase enzyme in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems in order to obtain high protein yields. The fluorinase gene was cloned into the pET 41b(+) and pPinkα-HC vectors and used to transform the expression hosts, E.coli BL21(DE3) and Pichia pastoris (PichiaPink™ strains) respectively. Expression trials were conducted to select optimal conditions for expression in both expression systems. Fluorinase catalyses a reaction between S-adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAM) and fluoride ion to produce 5'-fluorodeoxyadenosine (5'FDA) and L-Methionine. The activity of the enzyme was determined using HPLC by measuring the product of the reaction 5'FDA. A gradient mobile phase of 95:5 v/v 50mM potassium phosphate buffer to a final mobile phase containing 80:20 v/v 50mM potassium phosphate buffer and acetonitrile were used. This resulted in the complete separation of SAM and 5’-FDA which eluted at 1.3 minutes and 3.4 minutes respectively. This proved that the fluorinase enzyme was active. Optimising expression of the fluorinase enzyme was successful in both E.coli and PichiaPink™ where high expression levels in both expression systems were achieved. Protein production will be scaled up in PichiaPink™ using fermentation to achieve large-scale protein production. High level expression of protein is essential in biocatalysis for the availability of enzymes for industrial applications.

Keywords: Expression, biocatalyst, fluorinase, PichiaPink™

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7 Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern for Deformable Textured 3D Object Comparison: Application to Expression and Pose Invariant 3D Face Recognition

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Ali Cheraghian, Soheila Gheisari, Yongsheng Gao

Abstract:

This paper presents a new Surface Geodesic Derivative Pattern (SGDP) for matching textured deformable 3D surfaces. SGDP encodes micro-pattern features based on local surface higher-order derivative variation. It extracts local information by encoding various distinctive textural relationships contained in a geodesic neighborhood, hence fusing texture and range information of a surface at the data level. Geodesic texture rings are encoded into local patterns for similarity measurement between non-rigid 3D surfaces. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Bosphorus and FRGC v2 face databases. Compared to existing benchmarks, experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of combining the texture and 3D shape data at the earliest level in recognizing typical deformable faces under expression, illumination, and pose variations.

Keywords: Expression, Texture, pose, surface matching

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6 Expression Level of Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding/DREB Gene of Some Local Corn Cultivars from Kisar Island-Maluku Indonesia Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

Authors: Hermalina Sinay, Estri L. Arumingtyas

Abstract:

The research objective was to determine the expression level of dehydration responsive element binding/DREB gene of local corn cultivars from Kisar Island Maluku. The study design was a randomized block design with single factor consist of six local corn cultivars obtained from farmers in Kisar Island and one reference varieties wich has been released by the government as a drought-tolerant varieties and obtained from Cereal Crops Research Institute (ICERI) Maros South Sulawesi. Leaf samples were taken is the second leaf after the flag leaf at the 65 days after planting. Isolation of total RNA from leaf samples was carried out according to the protocols of the R & A-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit and was used as a template for cDNA synthesis. The making of cDNA from total RNA was carried out according to the protocol of One-Step Reverse Transcriptase PCR Premix Kit. Real Time-PCR was performed on cDNA from reverse transcription followed the procedures of Real MODTM Green Real-Time PCR Master Mix Kit. Data obtained from the real time-PCR results were analyzed using relative quantification method based on the critical point / Cycle Threshold (CP / CT). The results of gene expression analysis of DREB gene showed that the expression level of the gene was highest obtained at Deep Yellow local corn cultivar, and the lowest one was obtained at the Rubby Brown Cob cultivar. It can be concluded that the expression level of DREB gene of Deep Yellow local corn cultivar was highest than other local corn cultivars and Srikandi variety as a reference variety.

Keywords: Expression, level, DREB gene, local corn cultivars, Kisar Island, Maluku

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5 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma

Authors: Awf A. Al-Khan, Michael J. Day, Judith Nimmo, Mourad Tayebi, Stewart D. Ryan, Samantha J. Richardson, Janine A. Danks

Abstract:

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P<0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.

Keywords: Expression, Dog, osteosarcoma, Survival, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)

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4 Molecular Characterization of Major Isolated Organism Involved in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: S. Roy, H. K. Ratre, M. Roy, M. S. Parmar, V. Bhagat

Abstract:

Mastitis is a common problem of dairy industries. Reduction in milk production and an irreparable damage to the udder associated with the disease are common causes of culling of dairy cows. Milk from infected animals is not suitable for drinking and for making different milk products. So, it has a major economic importance in dairy cattle. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacteriological panorama in milk from udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and to carried out for the molecular characterization of the major isolated organisms, from subclinical mastitis-affected cows in and around Durg and Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh. Isolation and identification of bacteria from the milk samples of subclinical mastitis-affected cows were done by standard and routine culture procedures. A total of 78 isolates were obtained from cows and among the various bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus spp. occupied prime position with occurrence rate of 51.282%. However, other bacteria isolated includeStreptococcus spp. (20.512%), Micrococcus spp. (14.102%), E. coli (8.974%), Klebsiela spp. (2.564%), Salmonella spp. (1.282%) and Proteus spp. (1.282%). Staphylococcus spp. was isolated as the major causative agent of subclinical mastitis in the studied area. Molecular characterization of Staphylococus aureusisolates was done for genetic expression of the virulence genes like ‘nuc’ encoding thermonucleaseexoenzyme, coa and spa by PCR amplification of the respective genes in 25 Staphylococcus isolates. In the present study, 15 isolates (77.27%) out of 20 coagulase positive isolates were found to be genotypically positive for ‘nuc’ where as 20 isolates (52.63%) out of 38 CNS expressed the presence of the same virulence gene. In the present study, three Staphylococcus isolates were found to be genotypically positive for coa gene. The Amplification of the coa gene yielded two different products of 627, 710 bp. The amplification of the gene segment encoding the IgG binding region of protein A (spa) revealed a size of 220 and 253bp in twostaphylococcus isolates. The X-region binding of the spa gene produced an amplicon of 315 bp in one Staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be major isolate (51.28%) responsible for causing subclinical mastitis in cows which also showed expression of virulence genesnuc, coa and spa.

Keywords: Characterization, Expression, Bacteria, gene, Mastitis

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3 Detection and Expression of Peroxidase Genes in Trichoderma harzianum KY488466 and Its Response to Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Michael Dare Asemoloye, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Rafiq Ahmad, Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi, D. O. Adejoye

Abstract:

Fungi have potentials for degrading hydrocarbons through the secretion of different enzymes. Crude oil tolerance and degradation by Trichoderma harzianum was investigated in this study with its ability to produce peroxidase enzymes (LiP and MnP). Many fungal strains were isolated from rhizosphere of grasses growing on a crude oil spilled site, and the most frequent strain based on percentage incidence was further characterized using morphological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization was done through the amplification of Ribosomal-RNA regions of 18s (1609-1627) and 28s (287-266) using ITS1 and ITS4 combinations and it was identified using NCBI BLAST tool. The selected fungus was also subjected to an in-vitro tolerance test at crude oil concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% while 0% served as control. In addition, lignin peroxidase genes (lig1-6) and manganese peroxidase gene (mnp) were detected and expressed in this strain using RT-PCR technique, its peroxidase producing activities was also studied in aliquots (U/ml). This strain had highest incidence of 80%, it was registered in NCBI as Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ KY488466. The strain KY488466 responded to crude oil concentrations as it increase, the dose inhibition response percentage (DIRP) increased from 41.67 to 95.41 at 5 to 25 % crude oil concentrations. All the peroxidase genes are present in KY488466, and expressed with amplified 900-1000 bp through RT-PCR technique. In this strain, lig2, lig4 and mnp genes were over-expressed, lig 6 was moderately expressed, while none of the genes was under-expressed. The strain also produced 90±0.87 U/ml lignin peroxidase and 120±1.23 U/mil manganese peroxidase enzymes in aliquots. These results imply that KY488466 can tolerate and survive high crude oil concentration and could be exploited for bioremediation of oil-spilled soils, the produced peroxidase enzymes could also be exploited for other biotechnological experiments.

Keywords: Tolerance, Expression, Enzymes, crude oil, Trichoderma harzianum, peroxidase genes

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2 Correlation of Leptin with Clinico-Pathological Features of Breast Cancer

Authors: Saad Al-Shibli, Nasser Amjad, Muna Al Kubaisi, Norra Harun, Shaikh Mizan

Abstract:

Leptin is a multifunctional hormone produced mainly by adipocyte. Leptin and its receptor have long been found associated with breast cancer. The main aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between Leptin/Leptin receptor and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer. Blood samples for ELISA, tissue samples from tumors and adjacent breast tissue were taken from 51 women with breast cancer with a control group of 40 women with a negative mammogram. Leptin and Leptin receptor in the tissues were estimated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). They were localized at the subcellular level by immunocytochemistry using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed significant difference in serum leptin level between control and the patient group, but no difference between pre and post-operative serum leptin levels in the patient group. By IHC, we found that the majority of the breast cancer cells studied, stained positively for leptin and leptin receptors with co-expression of leptin and its receptors. No significant correlation was found between leptin/leptin receptors expression with the race, menopausal status, lymph node metastasis, estrogen receptor expression, progesterone receptor expression, HER2 expression and tumor size. Majority of the patients with distant metastasis were associated with high leptin and leptin receptor expression. TEM views both Leptin and Leptin receptor were found highly concentrated within and around the nucleus of the cancer breast cells, indicating nucleus is their principal seat of actions while the adjacent breast epithelial cells showed that leptin gold particles are scattered all over the cell with much less than that of the cancerous cells. However, presence of high concentration of leptin does not necessarily prove its over-expression, because it could be internalized from outside by leptin receptor in the cells. In contrast, leptin receptor is definitely over-expressed in the ductal breast cancer cells. We conclude that reducing leptin levels, blocking its downstream tissue specific signal transduction, and/or blocking the upstream leptin receptor pathway might help in prevention and therapy of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Expression, leptin, leptin receptors

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1 Understanding the Prevalence and Expression of Virulence Factors Harbored by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Debjyoti Bhakat, Indranil Mondal, Asish K. Mukhopadayay, Nabendu S. Chatterjee

Abstract:

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and travelers in developing countries. Colonization factors play an important role in pathogenesis and are one of the main targets for Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine development. However, ETEC vaccines had poorly performed in the past, as the prevalence of colonization factors is region-dependent. There are more than 25 classical colonization factors presently known to be expressed by ETEC, although all are not expressed together. Further, there are other multiple non-classical virulence factors that are also identified. Here the presence and expression of common classical and non-classical virulence factors were studied. Further studies were done on the expression of prevalent colonization factors in different strains. For the prevalence determination, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed, which was confirmed by simplex PCR. Quantitative RT-PCR was done to study the RNA expression of these virulence factors. Strains negative for colonization factors expression were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Among the clinical isolates, the most prevalent toxin was est+elt, followed by est and elt, while the pattern was reversed in the control strains. There were 29% and 40% strains negative for any classical colonization factors (CF) or non-classical virulence factors (NCVF) among the clinical and control strains, respectively. Among CF positive ETEC strains, CS6 and CS21 were the prevalent ones in the clinical strains, whereas in control strains, CS6 was the predominant one. For NCVF genes, eatA was the most prevalent among the clinical isolates and etpA for control. CS6 was the most expressed CF, and eatA was the predominantly expressed NCVF for both clinical and controlled ETEC isolates. CS6 expression was more in strains having CS6 alone. Different strains express CS6 at different levels. Not all strains expressed their respective virulence factors. Understanding the prevalent colonization factor, CS6, and its nature of expression will contribute to designing an effective vaccine against ETEC in this region of the globe. The expression pattern of CS6 also will help in examining the relatedness between the ETEC subtypes.

Keywords: Expression, Diarrhea, classical virulence factors, CS6, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, non-classical virulence factors

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