Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

exposure Related Abstracts

10 A Global Fuel Combustion Data Product and Its Application

Authors: Shu Tao, Rong Wang, Huizhong Shen, Ye Huang

Abstract:

High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion is essential for reducing uncertainties in assessments of greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions. Such inventories provide valuable information for inferring carbon sinks, modeling pollutant transport, and developing control strategies. Previous inventories included only a few fuel types and were derived using national population proxies which may distort the geographical variation within countries. In this study, a global 0.1 degree by 0.1 degree geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL-2007) was developed for 64 fuel sub-types along with uncertainty analysis for the year 2007. Sub-national fuel consumption of large countries and major power-station locations were used. The disaggregation error can be reduced significantly by using the sub-nationally energy data, because the uneven distribution of per-capita fuel consumption within countries is taken into consideration. The PKU-FUEL was used to generate global emission inventories of CO2 (PKU-CO2-2007), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PKU-PAHs-2007), and black carbons (PKU-BC-2007). Atmospheric transport modeling and expsoure assessment were conducted for BC and PAHs based on the inventory.

Keywords: Emission, exposure, Fuel, PAHs, atmospheric transport

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9 Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pha) among Asphalt and Road Paving Workers

Authors: Boularas El Alia, H. Rezk-Allah, S. Chaoui, A. Chama, B. Rezk-Allah

Abstract:

Aims: To assess the current exposure to the PHA among various workers in the sector of asphalt and road paving. Methods: The assessment of the exposure to PHA has been performed on workers (n=14) belonging to two companies, allocated into several activities such as road paving, manufacturing of coated bituminous warm, manufacturing of asphalt cut-back, manufacturing of emulsion of asphalt. A group of control subjects (n=18) was associated. The internal exposure to PHA was investigated by measurement of the urinary excretion of 2-naphtol, urine metabolite of naphtalene, one of the biomarkers of total PHA exposure. Urine samples were collected from the exposed workers, at the beginning of the week, at the beginning of the work shift (BWBS) and at the end of the work shift, at the end of the week (ESEW). In the control subjects, single samples of urine were collected after the end of the work shift.Every subject was invited to answer a questionnaire for the collection of technical and medical data as well as smoking habits and food intake. The concentration of 2-naphtol in the hydrolysate of urine was determined spectrophotometrically, after its reaction with the Fast Blue BB salt (diazotized 4-benzoylamino-2,5-diethoxyaniline). Results: For all the workers included in the study, the 2-urinary naphtol concentrations were higher than those in the control subjects (Median=9,55 µg/g creatinine) whether it is at (BWBS) (Md=16,2 µg/g creatinine) or at (ESEW) (n=18,Median=32,22 µg/g creatinine). Considerable differences are observed according to the category of job. The concentrations are also higher among smokers. Conclusion:The results show a significant exposure, mainly during manual laying, reveals an important risk particularly for the respiratory system.Considering the current criteria, carcinogenic risk due to the PHA seems not insignificant.

Keywords: Assessment, exposure, Occupational, Asphalt, PHA

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8 Exposure to Natural Outdoor Environment and Positive Health Impacts: A Synthesis of Empirical Research

Authors: Joris Zufferey, Roderick John Lawrence

Abstract:

This paper provides an overview of the state of the art about the positive health impacts of exposure to natural outdoor environments. It presents the results of a “review of reviews” in terms of empirical evidence and identifies some key questions. Finally, the authors stress the need to develop more interdisciplinary and systemic contributions. This synthesis of empirical research has been done as part of the EU- FP7 PHENOTYPE research project.

Keywords: Environment, exposure, phenotype, salutogenic effects

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7 The Amorphousness of the Exposure Sphere

Authors: Nipun Ansal

Abstract:

People guard their beliefs and opinions with their lives. Beliefs that they’ve formed over a period of time, and can go to any lengths to defy, desist from, resist and negate any outward stimulus that has the potential to shake them. Cognitive dissonance is term used to describe it in theory. And every human being, in order to defend himself from cognitive dissonance applies 4 rings of defense viz. Selective Exposure, Selective Perception, Selective Attention, and Selective Retention. This paper is a discursive analysis on how the onslaught of social media, complete with its intrusive weaponry, has amorphized the external ring of defense: the selective exposure. The stimulus-response model of communication is one of the most inherent model that encompasses communication behaviours of children and elderly, individual and masses, humans and animals alike. The paper deliberates on how information bombardment through the uncontrollable channels of the social media, Facebook and Twitter in particular, have dismantled our outer sphere of exposure, leading users online to a state of constant dissonance, and thus feeding impulsive action-taking. It applies case study method citing an example to corroborate how knowledge generation has given in to the information overload and the effect it has on decision making. With stimulus increasing in number of encounters, opinion formation precedes knowledge because of the increased demand of participation and decrease in time for the information to permeate from the outer sphere of exposure to the sphere of retention, which of course, is through perception and attention. This paper discusses the challenge posed by this fleeting, stimulus rich, peer-dominated media on the traditional models of communication and meaning-generation.

Keywords: Communication, Social Media, exposure, stimulus, discretion

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6 Exposure and Satisfaction toward Online News of Undergraduate Students in Thailand

Authors: Ekapon Thienthaworn

Abstract:

This research aims to study the exposure and satisfaction toward online news of undergraduate students in Bangkok, Thailand. This research is the survey research which 400 questionnaires are used to collect data with the accidental sampling technique and the data collected are analyzed with descriptive statistics. The result can be divided into 2 sections as follow: (1) Undergraduate students in Bangkok consume online news via most of the Smartphone. In most cases, they use average more than 2 hours per day. Most times to consume news are 22.01- 02.00 pm. Primary source is Facebook and the most interested news genre is entertainment news and headline of the day. (2) Undergraduate students in Bangkok have positive attitude in online news is a fastness and easy-to-access. Negative attitude is piracy. Finally, average satisfaction in consuming online news is in high levels.

Keywords: exposure, Bangkok, satisfaction, online news

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5 European Standardization in Nanotechnologies and Relation with International Work: The Standardization Can Help Industry and Regulators in Developing Safe Products

Authors: Patrice Conner

Abstract:

Nanotechnologies have enormous potential to contribute to human flourishing in responsible and sustainable ways. They are rapidly developing field of science, technology and innovation. As enabling technologies, their full scope of applications is potentially very wide. Major implications are expected in many areas, e.g. healthcare, information and communication technologies, energy production and storage, materials science/chemical engineering, manufacturing, environmental protection, consumer products, etc. However, nanotechnologies are unlikely to realize their full potential unless their associated societal and ethical issues are adequately attended. Namely nanotechnologies and nanoparticles may expose humans and the environment to new health risks, possibly involving quite different mechanisms of interference with the physiology of human and environmental species. One of the building blocks of the ‘safe, integrated and responsible’ approach is standardization. Both the Economic and Social Committee and the European Parliament have highlighted the importance to be attached to standardization as a means to accompany the introduction on the market of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, and a means to facilitate the implementation of regulation. ISO and CEN have respectively started in 2005 and 2006 to deal with selected topics related to this emerging and enabling technology. In the beginning of 2010, EC DG ‘Enterprise and Industry’ addressed the mandate M/461 to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI for standardization activities regarding nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Thus CEN/TC 352 ‘Nanotechnologies’ has been asked to take the leadership for the coordination in the execution of M/461 (46 topics to be standardized) and to contact relevant European and International Technical committees and interested stakeholders as appropriate (56 structures have been identified). Prior requests from M/461 deal with characterization and exposure of nanomaterials and any matters related to Health, Safety and Environment. Answers will be given to: - What are the structures and how they work? - Where are we right now and how work is going from now onwards? - How CEN’s work and targets deal with and interact with global matters in this field?

Keywords: Characterization, Nanotechnologies, Safety, Environmental protection, exposure, Health Risks, responsible and sustainable ways

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4 Application of Human Biomonitoring and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling to Quantify Exposure to Selected Toxic Elements in Soil

Authors: Eric Dede, Marcus Tindall, John W. Cherrie, Steve Hankin, Christopher Collins

Abstract:

Current exposure models used in contaminated land risk assessment are highly conservative. Use of these models may lead to over-estimation of actual exposures, possibly resulting in negative financial implications due to un-necessary remediation. Thus, we are carrying out a study seeking to improve our understanding of human exposure to selected toxic elements in soil: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) resulting from allotment land-use. The study employs biomonitoring and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to quantify human exposure to these elements. We recruited 37 allotment users (adults > 18 years old) in Scotland, UK, to participate in the study. Concentrations of the elements (and their bioaccessibility) were measured in allotment samples (soil and allotment produce). Amount of produce consumed by the participants and participants’ biological samples (urine and blood) were collected for up to 12 consecutive months. Ethical approval was granted by the University of Reading Research Ethics Committee. PBPK models (coded in MATLAB) were used to estimate the distribution and accumulation of the elements in key body compartments, thus indicating the internal body burden. Simulating low element intake (based on estimated ‘doses’ from produce consumption records), predictive models suggested that detection of these elements in urine and blood was possible within a given period of time following exposure. This information was used in planning biomonitoring, and is currently being used in the interpretation of test results from biological samples. Evaluation of the models is being carried out using biomonitoring data, by comparing model predicted concentrations and measured biomarker concentrations. The PBPK models will be used to generate bioavailability values, which could be incorporated in contaminated land exposure models. Thus, the findings from this study will promote a more sustainable approach to contaminated land management.

Keywords: exposure, Biomonitoring, Toxic Elements, PBPK modelling

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3 [Keynote Talk]: Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment to Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Basin of South India

Authors: K. Shimola, M. Krishnaveni

Abstract:

This paper examines vulnerability assessment of water resources in a semi-arid basin using the 4-step approach. The vulnerability assessment framework is developed to study the water resources vulnerability which includes the creation of GIS-based vulnerability maps. These maps represent the spatial variability of the vulnerability index. This paper introduces the 4-step approach to assess vulnerability that incorporates a new set of indicators. The approach is demonstrated using a framework composed of a precipitation data for (1975–2010) period, temperature data for (1965–2010) period, hydrological model outputs and the water resources GIS data base. The vulnerability assessment is a function of three components such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The current water resources vulnerability is assessed using GIS based spatio-temporal information. Rainfall Coefficient of Variation, monsoon onset and end date, rainy days, seasonality indices, temperature are selected for the criterion ‘exposure’. Water yield, ground water recharge, evapotranspiration (ET) are selected for the criterion ‘sensitivity’. Type of irrigation and storage structures are selected for the criterion ‘Adaptive capacity’. These indicators were mapped and integrated in GIS environment using overlay analysis. The five sub-basins, namely Arjunanadhi, Kousiganadhi, Sindapalli-Uppodai and Vallampatti Odai, fall under medium vulnerability profile, which indicates that the basin is under moderate stress of water resources. The paper also explores prioritization of sub-basinwise adaptation strategies to climate change based on the vulnerability indices.

Keywords: exposure, Vulnerability, Adaptive Capacity, Sensitivity, overlay analysis

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2 Rabies Surveillance Data Analysis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during 2012/13: Retrospective Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Fantu Lombamo Untiso, Sylvia Murphy, Emily Pieracci

Abstract:

Background: Rabies is a highly fatal viral disease of all warm-blooded animals including human globally. However, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened. Objective: Reviewing of recorded data and analyzing it to generate information on the status of rabies in Addis Ababa in the year 2012/13. Methods: A retrospective data were used from the Ethiopian Public Health Institute rabies case record book registered in the year 2012/13. Results: Among 1357 suspected rabid animals clinically examined; only 8.84% were positive for rabies. Out of 216 animal brains investigated in the laboratory with Fluorescent Antibody Technique, 55.5% were confirmed rabies positive. Among the laboratory confirmed positive rabies cases, high percentage of the animals came from Yeka (20%) and lower number from Kirkos subcity (3.3%). Out of 1149 humans who came to the institute seeking anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, 85.65% and 7.87% of them were exposed to suspected dogs and cats respectively. 3 human deaths due to rabies were reported in the year after exposure to dog bite of unknown vaccination status. Conclusion: The principal vector of rabies in Addis Ababa is dog. Effective rabies management and control based on confirmed cases and mass-immunization and control of stray dog populations is recommended.

Keywords: Surveillance, Rabies, exposure, Addis Ababa

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1 The Long-Run Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Malaria: Evidence from the Brazilian Eradication Campaign

Authors: Henrique Veras De Paiva Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper investigates the long-term relationship between early life exposure to malaria and adult socioeconomic outcomes in Brazil. The identification strategy relies on exogenous variation in the risk of malaria outbreaks in different states and seasons of the year to identify early life exposure according to the timing and location of birth. Furthermore, Brazil has undergone a successful campaign of malaria eradication during the late 1950s, which allows for comparing outcomes of birth cohorts born just prior to and just after eradication to identify the extent of in utero exposure. Instrumental variables estimates find consistent negative treatment effects of in utero exposure to malaria on socioeconomic outcomes, such as educational attainment and health status. The effects are stronger for exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy than during other periods of gestation. Additionally, consistent with previous findings, men are more likely to exhibit larger long-term effects.

Keywords: Education, Health, exposure, Malaria, eradication, instrumental variables

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