Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Experimental research Related Abstracts

6 From Waste Recycling to Waste Prevention by Households : Could Eco-Feedback Strategies Fill the Gap?

Authors: I. Dangeard, S. Meineri, M. Dupré


large body of research on energy consumption reveals that regular information on energy consumption produces a positive effect on behavior. The present research aims to test this feedback paradigm on waste management. A small-scale experiment on residual household waste was performed in a large french urban area, in partnership with local authorities, as part of the development of larger-scale project. A two-step door-to-door recruitment scheme led to 85 households answering a questionnaire. Among them, 54 accepted to participate in a study on waste (second step). Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the 3 experimental conditions : self-reported feedback on curbside waste, external feedback on waste weight based on information technologies, and no feedback for the control group. An additional control group was added, including households who were not requested to answer the questionnaire. Household residual waste was collected every week, and tags on curbside bins fed a database with waste weight of households. The feedback period lasted 14 weeks (february-may 2014). Quantitative data on waste weight were analysed, including these 14 weeks and the 7 previous weeks. Households were then contacted by phone in order to confirm the quantitative results. Regarding the recruitment questionnaire, results revealed high pro-environmental attitude on the NEP scale, high recycling behavior level and moderate level of source reduction behavior on the adapted 3R scale, but no statistical difference between the 3 experimental groups. Regarding the feedback manipulation paradigm, waste weight reveals important differences between households, but doesn't prove any statistical difference between the experimental conditions. Qualitative phone interviews confirm that recycling is a current practice among participants, whereas source reduction of waste is not, and mainly appears as a producer problem of packaging limitation. We conclude that triggering waste prevention behaviors among recycling households involves long-term feedback and should promote benchmarking, in order to clearly set waste reduction as an objective to be managed through feedback figures.

Keywords: Experimental research, Waste Reduction, household waste, eco-feedback

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5 Study on Moisture-Induced-Damage of Semi-Rigid Base under Hydrodynamic Pressure

Authors: Heng Liu, Baofeng Pan


Because of the high strength and large carrying capacity, the semi-rigid base is widely used in modern road engineering. However, hydrodynamic pressure, which is one of the main factors to cause early damage of semi-rigid base, cannot be avoided in the nature environment when pavement is subjected to some loadings such as the passing vehicles. In order to investigating how moisture-induced-damage of semi-rigid base influenced by hydrodynamic pressure, a new and effective experimental research method is provided in this paper. The results show that: (a) The washing action of high hydrodynamic pressure is the direct cause of strength reducing of road semi-rigid base. (b) The damage of high hydrodynamic pressure mainly occurs at the beginning of the scoring test and with the increasing of testing time the influence reduces. (c) Under the same hydrodynamic pressure, the longer the specimen health age, the stronger ability to resist moisture induced damage.

Keywords: Experimental research, hydrodynamic pressure, semi-rigid base, moisture-induced-damage

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4 Preliminary Conceptions of 3D Prototyping Model to Experimental Investigation in Hypersonic Shock Tunnels

Authors: Thiago Victor Cordeiro Marcos, Joao Felipe de Araujo Martos, Ronaldo de Lima Cardoso, David Romanelli Pinto, Paulo Gilberto de Paula Toro, Israel da Silveira Rego, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira


Currently, the use of 3D rapid prototyping, also known as 3D printing, has been investigated by some universities around the world as an innovative technique, fast, flexible and cheap for a direct plastic models manufacturing that are lighter and with complex geometries to be tested for hypersonic shock tunnel. Initially, the purpose is integrated prototyped parts with metal models that actually are manufactured through of the conventional machining and hereafter replace them with completely prototyped models. The mechanical design models to be tested in hypersonic shock tunnel are based on conventional manufacturing processes, therefore are limited forms and standard geometries. The use of 3D rapid prototyping offers a range of options that enables geometries innovation and ways to be used for the design new models. The conception and project of a prototyped model for hypersonic shock tunnel should be rethought and adapted when comparing the conventional manufacturing processes, in order to fully exploit the creativity and flexibility that are allowed by the 3D prototyping process. The objective of this paper is to compare the conception and project of a 3D rapid prototyping model and a conventional machining model, while showing the advantages and disadvantages of each process and the benefits that 3D prototyping can bring to the manufacture of models to be tested in hypersonic shock tunnel.

Keywords: Experimental research, hypersonic shock tunnel

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3 The Derivation of a Four-Strain Optimized Mohr's Circle for Use in Experimental Reinforced Concrete Research

Authors: Edvard P. G. Bruun


One of the best ways of improving our understanding of reinforced concrete is through large-scale experimental testing. The gathered information is critical in making inferences about structural mechanics and deriving the mathematical models that are the basis for finite element analysis programs and design codes. An effective way of measuring the strains across a region of a specimen is by using a system of surface mounted Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs). While a single LVDT can only measure the linear strain in one direction, by combining several measurements at known angles a Mohr’s circle of strain can be derived for the whole region under investigation. This paper presents a method that can be used by researchers, which improves the accuracy and removes experimental bias in the calculation of the Mohr’s circle, using four rather than three independent strain measurements. Obtaining high quality strain data is essential, since knowing the angular deviation (shear strain) and the angle of principal strain in the region are important properties in characterizing the governing structural mechanics. For example, the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) developed at the University of Toronto, is a rotating crack model that requires knowing the direction of the principal stress and strain, and then calculates the average secant stiffness in this direction. But since LVDTs can only measure average strains across a plane (i.e., between discrete points), localized cracking and spalling that typically occur in reinforced concrete, can lead to unrealistic results. To build in redundancy and improve the quality of the data gathered, the typical experimental setup for a large-scale shell specimen has four independent directions (X, Y, H, and V) that are instrumented. The question now becomes, which three should be used? The most common approach is to simply discard one of the measurements. The problem is that this can produce drastically different answers, depending on the three strain values that are chosen. To overcome this experimental bias, and to avoid simply discarding valuable data, a more rigorous approach would be to somehow make use of all four measurements. This paper presents the derivation of a method to draw what is effectively a Mohr’s circle of 'best-fit', which optimizes the circle by using all four independent strain values. The four-strain optimized Mohr’s circle approach has been utilized to process data from recent large-scale shell tests at the University of Toronto (Ruggiero, Proestos, and Bruun), where analysis of the test data has shown that the traditional three-strain method can lead to widely different results. This paper presents the derivation of the method and shows its application in the context of two reinforced concrete shells tested in pure torsion. In general, the constitutive models and relationships that characterize reinforced concrete are only as good as the experimental data that is gathered – ensuring that a rigorous and unbiased approach exists for calculating the Mohr’s circle of strain during an experiment, is of utmost importance to the structural research community.

Keywords: Experimental research, Reinforced Concrete, shell tests, Mohr’s circle

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2 Using Reading to Learn Pedagogy to Promote Chinese Written Vocabulary Acquisition: An Evaluative Study

Authors: Mengping Cheng, John Everatt, Alison Arrow, Amanda Denston


Based on the available evidence, Chinese heritage language learners have a basic level of Chinese language proficiency with lower capability in literacy compared to speaking. Low levels of literacy are likely related to the lack of reading activities in current textbook-based pedagogy used in Chinese community schools. The present study aims to use Reading to Learn pedagogy which is a top-down language learning model and test the effectiveness of Reading to Learn on Chinese heritage learners’ written vocabulary acquisition. A quasi-experiment with the pre-test/post-test non-equivalent group design was conducted. The experimental group received Reading to Learn instructions and the control group had traditional textbook-based instructions. Participants were given Chinese characters tasks (a recognize-and-read task and a listen-and-point task), vocabulary tasks (a receptive vocabulary task and a productive vocabulary task) and a sentence cloze test in pre-tests and post-tests. Data collection is in progress and results will be available shortly. If the results show more improvement of Chinese written vocabulary in the experimental group than in the control group, it will be recommended that Reading to Learn pedagogy is valuable to be used to maintain and develop Chinese heritage language literacy.

Keywords: Experimental research, Vocabulary Acquisition, Chinese heritage language, Reading to Learn pedagogy

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1 Investigation of Several Parameters on Local Scour around Inclined Dual Bridge Piers

Authors: Murat Çeşme


For a bridge engineer to ensure a safe footing design, it is very important to estimate the maximum scour depth around the piers as accurately as possible. Many experimental studies have been performed by several investigators to obtain information about scouring mechanism. In order to examine the effect of inclination of dual bridge piers on scour depth under clear-water conditions for various uniform flow depths, an experimental research on scaled dual bridge piers has been carried over in METU Hydromechanics Lab. Dimensional and non-dimensional curves were developed and presented to show the variation of scour depth with respect to various parameters such as footing angle with the vertical, flow depth and footing dimensions. Results of the study were compared to those obtained from a similar study performed with single inclined piers to see the effect of the second pier on scour depths. Useful equations for the design engineers were developed based on multiple regression analyses to be used for predicting local scour depths around inclined piers in uniform and non-uniform sediments.

Keywords: Experimental research, scour depth, inclined dual bridge piers, footing safety, clear water condition

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