Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Experimental Design Related Abstracts

13 The Development of Statistical Analysis in Agriculture Experimental Design Using R

Authors: Somruay Apichatibutarapong, Chookiat Pudprommart

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop of statistical analysis by using R programming via internet applied for agriculture experimental design. Data were collected from 65 items in completely randomized design, randomized block design, Latin square design, split plot design, factorial design and nested design. The quantitative approach was used to investigate the quality of learning media on statistical analysis by using R programming via Internet by six experts and the opinions of 100 students who interested in experimental design and applied statistics. It was revealed that the experts’ opinions were good in all contents except a usage of web board and the students’ opinions were good in overall and all items.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Applied Statistics, Experimental Design, r programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
12 The Control Illusion of Conditioned Superstition

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

The study examined the control illusion of conditioned superstition by using Taiwanese subjects. The study had a three-group experimental design, that is, conditioning group and a control group, and the conditioning group was further separated into superstitious and unsuperstitious groups. The results showed that conditioned superstition can significantly influence the control illusion. Further analysis showed that the control illusion in the superstitious conditioning group was significantly greater than in the control group or in the unsuperstitious conditioning group. Besides, there was no significant difference between the control group and the unsuperstitious conditioning group.

Keywords: Experimental Design, Control illusion, Conditioned superstition

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
11 Removal of Heavy Metals by KOH Activated Diplotaxis harra Biomass: Experimental Design Optimization

Authors: H. Tounsadi, A. Khalidi, M. Abdennouri, N. Barka

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to produce high quality activated carbons from Diplotaxis harra biomass by potassium hydroxide activation and their application for heavy metals removal. To reduce the number of experiments, full factorial experimental design at two levels were carried out to occur optimal preparation conditions and better conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of different variables during the activation process, such as carbonization temperature, activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio (g KOH/g carbon) have been investigated, and the best production conditions were determined. The experimental results showed that removal of cadmium and cobalt ions onto activated carbons was more sensitive to methylene blue index instead of iodine number. Although, the removal of cadmium and cobalt ions is more influenced by activation temperature with a negative effect followed by the impregnation ratio with a positive impact. Based on the statistical data, the best conditions for the removal of cadmium and cobalt by prepared activated carbons have been established. The maximum iodine number and methylene blue index obtained under these conditions and the greater sorption capacities for cadmium and cobalt were investigated. These sorption capacities were greater than those of a commercial activated carbon used in water treatment.

Keywords: Experimental Design, cadmium, activated carbon, cobalt, Diplotaxis harra, potassium hydroxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
10 Investigation of Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Bricks with Hierarchical Bayesian Path Analysis

Authors: Ersin Sener, Ibrahim Demir, Hasan Aykut Karaboga, Kadir Kilinc

Abstract:

Bayesian methods, which have very wide range of applications, are implemented to the data obtained from the production of F class fly ash-based geopolymer bricks’ experimental design. In this study, dependent variable is compressive strength, independent variables are treatment type (oven and steam), treatment time, molding time, temperature, water absorbtion ratio and density. The effect of independent variables on compressive strength is investigated. There is no difference among treatment types, but there is a correlation between independent variables. Therefore, hierarchical Bayesian path analysis is applied. In consequence of analysis we specified that treatment time, temperature and density effects on compressive strength is higher, molding time, and water absorbtion ratio is relatively low.

Keywords: Experimental Design, F class fly ash, geopolymer bricks, hierarchical Bayesian path analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
9 The Development of Congeneric Elicited Writing Tasks to Capture Language Decline in Alzheimer Patients

Authors: Lise Paesen, Marielle Leijten

Abstract:

People diagnosed with probable Alzheimer disease suffer from an impairment of their language capacities; a gradual impairment which affects both their spoken and written communication. Our study aims at characterising the language decline in DAT patients with the use of congeneric elicited writing tasks. Within these tasks, a descriptive text has to be written based upon images with which the participants are confronted. A randomised set of images allows us to present the participants with a different task on every encounter, thus allowing us to avoid a recognition effect in this iterative study. This method is a revision from previous studies, in which participants were presented with a larger picture depicting an entire scene. In order to create the randomised set of images, existing pictures were adapted following strict criteria (e.g. frequency, AoA, colour, ...). The resulting data set contained 50 images, belonging to several categories (vehicles, animals, humans, and objects). A pre-test was constructed to validate the created picture set; most images had been used before in spoken picture naming tasks. Hence the same reaction times ought to be triggered in the typed picture naming task. Once validated, the effectiveness of the descriptive tasks was assessed. First, the participants (n=60 students, n=40 healthy elderly) performed a typing task, which provided information about the typing speed of each individual. Secondly, two descriptive writing tasks were carried out, one simple and one complex. The simple task contains 4 images (1 animal, 2 objects, 1 vehicle) and only contains elements with high frequency, a young AoA (<6 years), and fast reaction times. Slow reaction times, a later AoA (≥ 6 years) and low frequency were criteria for the complex task. This task uses 6 images (2 animals, 1 human, 2 objects and 1 vehicle). The data were collected with the keystroke logging programme Inputlog. Keystroke logging tools log and time stamp keystroke activity to reconstruct and describe text production processes. The data were analysed using a selection of writing process and product variables, such as general writing process measures, detailed pause analysis, linguistic analysis, and text length. As a covariate, the intrapersonal interkey transition times from the typing task were taken into account. The pre-test indicated that the new images lead to similar or even faster reaction times compared to the original images. All the images were therefore used in the main study. The produced texts of the description tasks were significantly longer compared to previous studies, providing sufficient text and process data for analyses. Preliminary analysis shows that the amount of words produced differed significantly between the healthy elderly and the students, as did the mean length of production bursts, even though both groups needed the same time to produce their texts. However, the elderly took significantly more time to produce the complex task than the simple task. Nevertheless, the amount of words per minute remained comparable between simple and complex. The pauses within and before words varied, even when taking personal typing abilities (obtained by the typing task) into account.

Keywords: alzheimer's disease, Experimental Design, language decline, writing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
8 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sugar Cane Bagasse Using Recombinant Hemicellulases

Authors: Lorena C. Cintra, Izadora M. De Oliveira, Amanda G. Fernandes, Francieli Colussi, Rosália S. A. Jesuíno, Fabrícia P. Faria, Cirano J. Ulhoa

Abstract:

Xylan is the main component of hemicellulose and for its complete degradation is required cooperative action of a system consisting of several enzymes including endo-xylanases (XYN), β-xylosidases (XYL) and α-L-arabinofuranosidases (ABF). The recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes an endoxylanase (HXYN2), β-xylosidase (HXYLA), and an α-L-arabinofuranosidase (ABF3) were used in hydrolysis tests. These three enzymes are produced by filamentous fungi and were expressed heterologously and produced in Pichia pastoris previously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of recombinant hemicellulolytic enzymes on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The interaction between the three recombinant enzymes during SCB pre-treated by steam explosion hydrolysis was performed with different concentrations of HXYN2, HXYLA and ABF3 in different ratios in according to a central composite rotational design (CCRD) 23, including six axial points and six central points, totaling 20 assays. The influence of the factors was assessed by analyzing the main effects and interaction between the factors, calculated using Statistica 8.0 software (StatSoft Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA). The Pareto chart was constructed with this software and showed the values of the Student’s t test for each recombinant enzyme. It was considered as response variable the quantification of reducing sugars by DNS (mg/mL). The Pareto chart showed that the recombinant enzyme ABF3 exerted more significant effect during SCB hydrolysis, with higher concentrations and with the lowest concentration of this enzyme. It was performed analysis of variance according to Fisher method (ANOVA). In ANOVA for the release of reducing sugars (mg/ml) as the variable response, the concentration of ABF3 showed significance during hydrolysis SCB. The result obtained by ANOVA, is in accordance with those presented in the analysis method based on the statistical Student's t (Pareto chart). The degradation of the central chain of xylan by HXYN2 and HXYLA was more strongly influenced by ABF3 action. A model was obtained, and it describes the performance of the interaction of all three enzymes for the release of reducing sugars, and can be used to better explain the results of the statistical analysis. The formulation capable of releasing the higher levels of reducing sugars had the following concentrations: HXYN2 with 600 U/g of substrate, HXYLA with 11.5 U.g-1 and ABF3 with 0.32 U.g-1. In conclusion, the recombinant enzyme that has a more significant effect during SCB hydrolysis was ABF3. It is noteworthy that the xylan present in the SCB is arabinoglucoronoxylan, due to this fact debranching enzymes are important to allow access of enzymes that act on the central chain.

Keywords: Experimental Design, Hydrolysis, recombinant enzymes, sugar cane bagasse

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
7 Optimization of Titanium Leaching Process Using Experimental Design

Authors: Arash Rafiei, Carroll Moore

Abstract:

Leaching process as the first stage of hydrometallurgy is a multidisciplinary system including material properties, chemistry, reactor design, mechanics and fluid dynamics. Therefore, doing leaching system optimization by pure scientific methods need lots of times and expenses. In this work, a mixture of two titanium ores and one titanium slag are used for extracting titanium for leaching stage of TiO2 pigment production procedure. Optimum titanium extraction can be obtained from following strategies: i) Maximizing titanium extraction without selective digestion; and ii) Optimizing selective titanium extraction by balancing between maximum titanium extraction and minimum impurity digestion. The main difference between two strategies is due to process optimization framework. For the first strategy, the most important stage of production process is concerned as the main stage and rest of stages would be adopted with respect to the main stage. The second strategy optimizes performance of more than one stage at once. The second strategy has more technical complexity compared to the first one but it brings more economical and technical advantages for the leaching system. Obviously, each strategy has its own optimum operational zone that is not as same as the other one and the best operational zone is chosen due to complexity, economical and practical aspects of the leaching system. Experimental design has been carried out by using Taguchi method. The most important advantages of this methodology are involving different technical aspects of leaching process; minimizing the number of needed experiments as well as time and expense; and concerning the role of parameter interactions due to principles of multifactor-at-time optimization. Leaching tests have been done at batch scale on lab with appropriate control on temperature. The leaching tank geometry has been concerned as an important factor to provide comparable agitation conditions. Data analysis has been done by using reactor design and mass balancing principles. Finally, optimum zone for operational parameters are determined for each leaching strategy and discussed due to their economical and practical aspects.

Keywords: Optimization, Performance Analysis, Experimental Design, titanium leaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
6 The Origin and Development of Entrepreneurial Cognition: The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Cognitive Style and Subsequent Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Salma Hussein, Hadia Aziz

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship plays a significant and imperative role in economic and social growth, and therefore, is stimulated and encouraged by governments and academics as a mean of creating job opportunities, innovation, and wealth. Indicative of its importance, it is essential to identify factors that encourage and promote entrepreneurial behavior. This is particularly true for developing countries where the need for entrepreneurial development is high and the resources are scarce, thus, there is a need to maximize the outcomes of investing in entrepreneurial development. Entrepreneurial education has been the center of attention and interest among researchers as it is believed to be one of the most critical factors in promoting entrepreneurship over the long run. Accordingly, the urgency to encourage entrepreneurship education and develop an enterprise culture is now a main concern in Egypt. Researchers have postulated that cognition has the potential to make a significant contribution to the study of entrepreneurship. One such contribution that future studies need to consider in entrepreneurship research is the cognitive processes that occur within the individual such as cognitive style. During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in cognitive style among researchers and practitioners specifically in innovation and entrepreneurship field. Limited studies pay attention to study the antecedent dynamics that fuel entrepreneurial cognition to better understand its role in entrepreneurship. Moreover, while many studies were conducted on entrepreneurship education, scholars are still hesitant regarding the teachability of entrepreneurship due to the lack of clear evidence of its impact. Furthermore, the relation between cognitive style and entrepreneurial intentions, has yet to be discovered. Hence, this research aims to test the impact of entrepreneurship education on cognitive style and subsequent intention in order to evaluate whether student’s and potential entrepreneur’s cognitive styles are affected by entrepreneurial education and in turn affect their intentions. Understanding the impact of Entrepreneurship Education on ways of thinking and intention is critical for the development of effective education and training in entrepreneurship field. It is proposed that students who are exposed to entrepreneurship education programs will have a more balanced thinking style compared to those students who are not exposed. Moreover, it is hypothesized that students having a balanced cognitive style will exhibit higher levels of entrepreneurial intentions than students having an intuitive or analytical cognitive style. Finally, it is proposed that non-formal entrepreneurship education will be more positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions than will formal entrepreneurship education. The proposed methodology is a pre and post Experimental Design. The sample will include young adults, their age range from 18 till 35 years old including both students enrolled in formal entrepreneurship education programs in private universities as well as young adults who are willing to participate in a Non-Formal entrepreneurship education programs in Egypt. Attention is now given on how far individuals are analytical or intuitive in their cognitive style, to what extent it is possible to have a balanced thinking style and whether or not this can be aided by training or education. Therefore, there is an urge need for further research on entrepreneurial cognition in educational contexts.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, Experimental Design, entrepreneurial intention, cognitive style

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
5 Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Authors: S. Ghafoori, A. Al-Harbi, B. Al-Ajmi, A. Al-Shaalan, A. Al-Ajmi, M. Ali Juma

Abstract:

Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Keywords: Experimental Design, toluene, speed of sound, octane

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
4 Optimization of Manufacturing Process Parameters: An Empirical Study from Taiwan's Tech Companies

Authors: Chao-Ton Su, Li-Fei Chen

Abstract:

The parameter design is crucial to improving the uniformity of a product or process. In the product design stage, parameter design aims to determine the optimal settings for the parameters of each element in the system, thereby minimizing the functional deviations of the product. In the process design stage, parameter design aims to determine the operating settings of the manufacturing processes so that non-uniformity in manufacturing processes can be minimized. The parameter design, trying to minimize the influence of noise on the manufacturing system, plays an important role in the high-tech companies. Taiwan has many well-known high-tech companies, which show key roles in the global economy. Quality remains the most important factor that enables these companies to sustain their competitive advantage. In Taiwan however, many high-tech companies face various quality problems. A common challenge is related to root causes and defect patterns. In the R&D stage, root causes are often unknown, and defect patterns are difficult to classify. Additionally, data collection is not easy. Even when high-volume data can be collected, data interpretation is difficult. To overcome these challenges, high-tech companies in Taiwan use more advanced quality improvement tools. In addition to traditional statistical methods and quality tools, the new trend is the application of powerful tools, such as neural network, fuzzy theory, data mining, industrial engineering, operations research, and innovation skills. In this study, several examples of optimizing the parameter settings for the manufacturing process in Taiwan’s tech companies will be presented to illustrate proposed approach’s effectiveness. Finally, a discussion of using traditional experimental design versus the proposed approach for process optimization will be made.

Keywords: Neural Network, Quality Engineering, Genetic Algorithm, Experimental Design, parameter design

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
3 Investigating Differential Psychological Impact of Translated Movies: An Experimental Design

Authors: Sonakshi Saxena, Moosath Harishankar Vasudevan

Abstract:

The current study seeks to investigate the differences in the psychological impact of movies in their original and translated versions. International cinema is exemplar of the success of globalization. The multitude of languages in the global village does not seem to impede the common cinematic goal of filmmakers across linguistic boundaries. To understand, hence, whether the psychological impact of movies, intentional or otherwise, is preserved when the original is translated into a different language, an experimental design was adopted. Multilingual participants in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for the same. A control group and an experimental group were randomly assigned and the psychological impacts of movies were studied under two conditions- a) watching the movie in its original language, and b) watching the movie in its original language as well as translated version. For the second condition, the experimental group was further divided into two groups randomly to balance order effects. The major aspects of psychological impact assessed were emotional impact and attitude towards the movie. The scores were compared for the two groups. It is further discussed whether the experience is salient across language or do languages inherently possess the ability to alter experiences of the audience.

Keywords: Translation, Experimental Design, movies, psychological impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2 Structural Invertibility and Optimal Sensor Node Placement for Error and Input Reconstruction in Dynamic Systems

Authors: Maik Kschischo, Dominik Kahl, Philipp Wendland, Andreas Weber

Abstract:

Understanding and modelling of real-world complex dynamic systems in biology, engineering and other fields is often made difficult by incomplete knowledge about the interactions between systems states and by unknown disturbances to the system. In fact, most real-world dynamic networks are open systems receiving unknown inputs from their environment. To understand a system and to estimate the state dynamics, these inputs need to be reconstructed from output measurements. Reconstructing the input of a dynamic system from its measured outputs is an ill-posed problem if only a limited number of states is directly measurable. A first requirement for solving this problem is the invertibility of the input-output map. In our work, we exploit the fact that invertibility of a dynamic system is a structural property, which depends only on the network topology. Therefore, it is possible to check for invertibility using a structural invertibility algorithm which counts the number of node disjoint paths linking inputs and outputs. The algorithm is efficient enough, even for large networks up to a million nodes. To understand structural features influencing the invertibility of a complex dynamic network, we analyze synthetic and real networks using the structural invertibility algorithm. We find that invertibility largely depends on the degree distribution and that dense random networks are easier to invert than sparse inhomogeneous networks. We show that real networks are often very difficult to invert unless the sensor nodes are carefully chosen. To overcome this problem, we present a sensor node placement algorithm to achieve invertibility with a minimum set of measured states. This greedy algorithm is very fast and also guaranteed to find an optimal sensor node-set if it exists. Our results provide a practical approach to experimental design for open, dynamic systems. Since invertibility is a necessary condition for unknown input observers and data assimilation filters to work, it can be used as a preprocessing step to check, whether these input reconstruction algorithms can be successful. If not, we can suggest additional measurements providing sufficient information for input reconstruction. Invertibility is also important for systems design and model building. Dynamic models are always incomplete, and synthetic systems act in an environment, where they receive inputs or even attack signals from their exterior. Being able to monitor these inputs is an important design requirement, which can be achieved by our algorithms for invertibility analysis and sensor node placement.

Keywords: Observability, Experimental Design, data-driven dynamic systems, inversion of dynamic systems, sensor node placement

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1 Development, Optimization, and Validation of a Synchronous Fluorescence Spectroscopic Method with Multivariate Calibration for the Determination of Amlodipine and Olmesartan Implementing: Experimental Design

Authors: Noha Ibrahim, Eman S. Elzanfaly, Said A. Hassan, Ahmed E. El Gendy

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to develop a sensitive synchronous spectrofluorimetric method with multivariate calibration after studying and optimizing the different variables affecting the native fluorescence intensity of amlodipine and olmesartan implementing an experimental design approach. Method: In the first step, the fractional factorial design used to screen independent factors affecting the intensity of both drugs. The objective of the second step was to optimize the method performance using a Central Composite Face-centred (CCF) design. The optimal experimental conditions obtained from this study were; a temperature of (15°C ± 0.5), the solvent of 0.05N HCl and methanol with a ratio of (90:10, v/v respectively), Δλ of 42 and the addition of 1.48 % surfactant providing a sensitive measurement of amlodipine and olmesartan. The resolution of the binary mixture with a multivariate calibration method has been accomplished mainly by using partial least squares (PLS) model. Results: The recovery percentage for amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium in tablets dosage form were found to be (102 ± 0.24, 99.56 ± 0.10, for amlodipine and Olmesartan, respectively). Conclusion: Method is valid according to some International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, providing to be linear over a range of 200-300, 500-1500 ng mL⁻¹ for amlodipine and Olmesartan. The methods were successful to estimate amlodipine besylate and olmesartan in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation.

Keywords: Experimental Design, amlodipine, multivariate calibration, central composite face-centred design, fractional factorial design, olmesartan

Procedia PDF Downloads 1