Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Experience Related Abstracts

29 Controlling Fear: Jordanian Women’s Perceptions of the Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Rana F. Obeidat, Suzanne S. Dickerson, Gregory G. Homish, Nesreen M. Alqaissi, Robin M. Lally


Background: Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. Objective: To gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Results: Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women’s stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer. Women’s experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their pre-existing fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various health care institutions, and sociodemographic factors (e.g., education, age). Conclusions: Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the health care system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors, and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Implications for practice: Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

Keywords: Experience, Breast Cancer, phenomenology, early stage, Jordanian

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28 The World of Great Wines: The Douro Valley Experience

Authors: A. Oliveira-Brochado, R. Silva, C. Paulino


The aim of this paper is to use an experiential view of wine tourism to develop a battery of items that can potentially capture the overall Douro Valley experience from the tourist’s perspective. The Douro Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage region located in Portugal, was the target of this study. The research took a mixed approach using both qualitative and quantitative designs. Firstly, we combine the literature review on service quality scales with a content analysis of five in-depth interviews with winery managers and a focus group with wine tourists to identify the main dimensions of the overall tourism experience and to develop a battery of items for each dimension. Eight dimensions of the overall wine tourism experience came out, as follows: winery service and staff, winery facilities, winery service, wine product, wine region environment, wine region accessibilities, wine region´s offerings, and the wine region and winery reputation.

Keywords: Experience, Wine tourism, Survey, Douro region, wineries

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27 An Investigation of Service Quality in Tourism: An Experience of International Tourists in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee, Sakul Jaariyachamsit


The objectives of this research were to study five perceptions of service quality from international tourists who visited Bangkok, Thailand. The independent variables included gender, age, levels of education, occupation, and income while the dependent variables included their opinion on the service provided by employees in Thai tourism. An accidental random sampling method was utilized to get 215 respondents. The respondents were both male and female in the same proportion and most were between 21-40 years old. Most were married and had a graduate degree. The average income of the respondents was between $20,000-40,000. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents came to Thailand for the first time and spent about 6-8 days in Thailand and preferred to travel in small groups with no children. The five service perceptions of employees in tourism by the international tourists in descending order according to mean were reliable employees, neat and clean employees, polite employees, timely employees, and competent employees.

Keywords: Experience, Thailand, Service Quality, international tourists

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26 Reconceptualizing Human Trafficking: Revealings of the Experience of Ethiopian Migrant Returnees

Authors: Waganesh Zeleke, Abebaw Minaye


This study examined the act, means, and purpose of human trafficking in the case of Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa. Using a questionnaire survey data was gathered from 1078 returnees. Twelve focus group discussions were used to solicit detailed experience of returnee about the process of their 'unsafe' immigration. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis results revealed that against the mainstream thinking of human trafficking means such as forcing, coercing, abducting or threatening, traffickers used 'victims’ free will' means by providing false promises to and capitalizing on the vulnerability of migrants. The migrants’ living condition including unemployment, ambitious view to change their life, and low level of risk perception were found to be risk factors which made them vulnerable and target of the brokers and smugglers who served as a catalyst in the process of their 'unsafe' migration. Equal to the traffickers/brokers/agency, the migrants’ family, friends and Ethiopian embassies contributed to the deplorable situation of migrant workers. 64.4% of the returnees reported that their migration is self-initiated, and 20% reported peer pressure and 13.8 percent reported family pressure, and it is only 1.8% who reported having been pushed by brokers. The findings revealed that 69.5% of the returnees do not know about the lifestyle and culture of the host community before their leave. In a similar vein, 50.9% of the returnees reported that they do not know about the nature of the work they are to do and their responsibilities. Further, 81% of the returnees indicated that the pre-migration training they received was not enough in equipping them with the required skill. Despite the returnees experiences of various forms of abuse and exploitation in the journey and at the destination they still have a positive attitude for migration (t=9.7 mean of 18.85 with a test value of 15). The returnees evaluated the support provided by sending agencies and Ethiopian embassies in the destination to be poor. 51.8% of the migrants do not know the details of the contract they signed during migration. Close to 70% of the returnees expressed that they had not got any legal support from stakeholders when they faced problems. What is more is that despite all these 27.9% of the returnees indicated re-immigrating as their plan. Based on these findings on the context and experience of Ethiopian migrant returnees, implications for training, policy, research, and intervention are discussed.

Keywords: Experience, trafficking, Ethiopia, migrant, returnee, reconceptualizing

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25 Service Quality in Thai Tourism: An Experience of Inbound Tourists Visited Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Sudawan Somjai


The purposes of this research were to investigate the five important perceptions of service quality from inbound tourists who visited Bangkok, Thailand in the first quarter of 2014. Data were collected from over 10 important tourist destinations in Bangkok. The independent variables of this study included gender, age, levels of education, occupation, income, and country of origin while the dependent variables included their experience, opinion, and comment on the service received during visited tourist destinations. A simple random sampling method was performed to obtain 400 respondents. The respondents were both male and female in the same proportion. However, the majority were between 31-40 years old. Most were married with an undergraduate degree. Most were considered themselves as middle income with an average income of the respondents was between $30,001-40,000 per year. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents came to Bangkok because of low cost and high quality of tourism. The majority came to Bangkok for the first time and spent about 10 days in Thailand. The five important service perceptions that were observed by the inbound tourists in descending order according to mean were reliable of service provider, proper time of service provider, competency of service provider, neat and clean of service provider, and politeness of service provider.

Keywords: Perception, Experience, Service Quality, inbound tourists

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24 Walkability with the Use of Mobile Apps

Authors: Dimitra Riza


This paper examines different ways of exploring a city by using smart phones' applications while walking, and the way this new attitude will change our perception of the urban environment. By referring to various examples of such applications we will consider options and possibilities that open up with new technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as ways of experiencing and interpreting the urban environment. The widespread use of smart phones gave access to information, maps, knowledge, etc. at all times and places. The city tourism marketing takes advantage of this event and promotes the city's attractions through technology. Mobile mediated walking tours, provide new possibilities and modify the way we used to explore cities, for instance by giving directions proper to find easily destinations, by displaying our exact location on the map, by creating our own tours through picking points of interest and interconnecting them to create a route. These apps act as interactive ones, as they filter the user's interests, movements, etc. Discovering a city on foot and visiting interesting sites and landmarks, became very easy, and has been revolutionized through the help of navigational and other applications. In contrast to the re-invention of the city as suggested by the Baudelaire's Flâneur in the 19th century, or to the construction of situations by the Situationists in 60s, the new technological means do not allow people to "get lost", as these follow and record our moves. In the case of strolling or drifting around the city, the option of "getting lost" is desired, as the goal is not the "wayfinding" or the destination, but it is the experience of walking itself. Getting lost is not always about dislocation, but it is about getting a feeling, free of the urban environment while experiencing it. So, on the one hand, walking is considered to be a physical and embodied experience, as the observer becomes an actor and participates with all his senses in the city activities. On the other hand, the use of a screen turns out to become a disembodied experience of the urban environment, as we perceive it in a fragmented and distanced way. Relations with the city are similar to Alberti’s isolated viewer, detached from any urban stage. The smartphone, even if we are present, acts as a mediator: we interact directly with it and indirectly with the environment. Contrary to the Flaneur and to the Situationists, who discovered the city with their own bodies, today the body itself is being detached from that experience. While contemporary cities turn out to become more walkable, the new technological applications tend to open out all possibilities in order to explore them by suggesting multiple routes. Exploration becomes easier, but Perception changes.

Keywords: Experience, Walking, body, Mobile Apps

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23 Impact of Experience-Oriented Marketing on the Buying Behaviour of the Consumers: An Application in Konya

Authors: Omer Akkaya, Ebru Esen, Nattanan Pankrobkaew


Though the experience concept found its place in the field of marketing in 1982, it is today in front of us as an important phenomenon in understanding the consumer behaviours. In parallel with the globalization and intensification of the competition, the enterprises have been in an effort to provide unique experiences for their consumers by going beyond providing services with the products. In this context, experience-oriented marketing enables the enterprises to use the marketing strategies of providing experiences for their customers and to have advantages in terms of competition. Based on it, this article discusses the concepts of experience, experience-oriented marketing and buying behaviour of consumers as a whole, and details about the application conducted in Konya Selcuklu University.

Keywords: Marketing, Experience, Consumer behavior, experience marketing

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22 Impact of Experience-Oriented Marketing on the Buying Behaviour of the Consumers: An Application in Konya Selcuk University

Authors: Omer Akkaya, Ebru Esen, Nattanan Pankrobkaew


Though the experience concept found its place in the field of marketing in 1982, it is today in front of us as an important phenomenon in understanding the consumer behaviours. In parallel with the globalization and intensification of the competition, the enterprises have been in an effort to provide unique experiences for their consumers by going beyond providing services with the products. In this context, experience-oriented marketing enables the enterprises to use the marketing strategies of providing experiences for their customers and to have advantages in terms of competition. Based on it, this article discusses the concepts of experience, experience-oriented marketing and buying behaviour of consumers as a whole, and details about the application conducted in Konya Selcuklu University.

Keywords: Experience, experience marketing, buying behaviour of consumers

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21 The Instruction of Imagination: A Theory of Language as a Social Communication Technology

Authors: Daniel Dor


The research presents a new general theory of language as a socially-constructed communication technology, designed by cultural evolution for a very specific function: the instruction of imagination. As opposed to all the other systems of intentional communication, which provide materials for the interlocutors to experience, language allows speakers to instruct their interlocutors in the process of imagining the intended meaning-instead of experiencing it. It is thus the only system that bridges the experiential gaps between speakers. This is the key to its enormous success.

Keywords: Experience, Imagination, general theory of language, language as technology, social essence of language

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20 Design-Based Elements to Sustain Participant Activity in Massive Open Online Courses: A Case Study

Authors: C. Zimmermann, E. Lackner, M. Ebner


Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are increasingly popular learning hubs that are boasting considerable participant numbers, innovative technical features, and a multitude of instructional resources. Still, there is a high level of evidence showing that almost all MOOCs suffer from a declining frequency of participant activity and fairly low completion rates. In this paper, we would like to share the lessons learned in implementing several design patterns that have been suggested in order to foster participant activity. Our conclusions are based on experiences with the ‘Dr. Internet’ MOOC, which was created as an xMOOC to raise awareness for a more critical approach to online health information: participants had to diagnose medical case studies. There is a growing body of recommendations (based on Learning Analytics results from earlier xMOOCs) as to how the decline in participant activity can be alleviated. One promising focus in this regard is instructional design patterns, since they have a tremendous influence on the learner’s motivation, which in turn is a crucial trigger of learning processes. Since Medieval Age storytelling, micro-learning units and specific comprehensible, narrative structures were chosen to animate the audience to follow narration. Hence, MOOC participants are not likely to abandon a course or information channel when their curiosity is kept at a continuously high level. Critical aspects that warrant consideration in this regard include shorter course duration, a narrative structure with suspense peaks (according to the ‘storytelling’ approach), and a course schedule that is diversified and stimulating, yet easy to follow. All of these criteria have been observed within the design of the Dr. Internet MOOC: 1) the standard eight week course duration was shortened down to six weeks, 2) all six case studies had a special quiz format and a corresponding resolution video which was made available in the subsequent week, 3) two out of six case studies were split up in serial video sequences to be presented over the span of two weeks, and 4) the videos were generally scheduled in a less predictable sequence. However, the statistical results from the first run of the MOOC do not indicate any strong influences on the retention rate, so we conclude with some suggestions as to why this might be and what aspects need further consideration.

Keywords: Experience, Design Patterns, Case study, Dr. internet, MOOCs

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19 Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences and Attitude towards Children’s Problem Solving Strategies in Early Mathematics Learning

Authors: Temitayo Ogunsanwo


Problem-solving is an important way of learning way of learning because it propels children to use previous experiences to deal with new situations. The purpose of this study is to find out the attitude of pre-service teachers to problem-solving as a strategy for promoting early mathematics learning in children. This qualitative study employed a descriptive design to investigate the experiences of twenty second-year undergraduate early childhood education Pre-service teachers in a teaching practice and their attitude towards five-year-old children’s problem-solving strategies in mathematics. Pre-service teachers were exposed to different strategies for teaching children how to solve problems in mathematics. They were taken through a micro teaching in class using different strategies to teach problem-solving in different topics in the five-year-old mathematics curriculum. The students were then made to teach five-year-olds in neighbouring schools for three weeks, working in pairs, observing and recording children’s problem-solving activities and strategies. After the three weeks exercise, their experiences and attitude towards children’s problem-solving strategies were collected using open-ended questions and analysed in themes. Findings were discussed.

Keywords: Experience, Strategies, pre-service teachers, attitude, problem-solving, early mathematics learning

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18 The Principle of a Thought Formation: The Biological Base for a Thought

Authors: Ludmila Vucolova


The thought is a process that underlies consciousness and cognition and understanding its origin and processes is a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines. By integrating over twenty novel ideas and hypotheses of this theoretical proposal, we can speculate that thought is an emergent property of coded neural events, translating the electro-chemical interactions of the body with its environment—the objects of sensory stimulation, X, and Y. The latter is a self- generated feedback entity, resulting from the arbitrary pattern of the motion of a body’s motor repertory (M). A culmination of these neural events gives rise to a thought: a state of identity between an observed object X and a symbol Y. It manifests as a “state of awareness” or “state of knowing” and forms our perception of the physical world. The values of the variables of a construct—X (object), S1 (sense for the perception of X), Y (object), S2 (sense for perception of Y), and M (motor repertory that produces Y)—will specify the particular conscious percept at any given time. The proposed principle of interaction between the elements of a construct (X, Y, S1, S2, M) is universal and applies for all modes of communication (normal, deaf, blind, deaf and blind people) and for various language systems (Chinese, Italian, English, etc.). The particular arrangement of modalities of each of the three modules S1 (5 of 5), S2 (1 of 3), and M (3 of 3) defines a specific mode of communication. This multifaceted paradigm demonstrates a predetermined pattern of relationships between X, Y, and M that passes from generation to generation. The presented analysis of a cognitive experience encompasses the key elements of embodied cognition theories and unequivocally accords with the scientific interpretation of cognition as the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses, and cognition means thinking and awareness. By assembling the novel ideas presented in twelve sections, we can reveal that in the invisible “chaos”, there is an order, a structure with landmarks and principles of operations and mental processes (thoughts) are physical and have a biological basis. This innovative proposal explains the phenomenon of mental imagery; give the first insight into the relationship between mental states and brain states, and support the notion that mind and body are inseparably connected. The findings of this theoretical proposal are supported by the current scientific data and are substantiated by the records of the evolution of language and human intelligence.

Keywords: Cognitive, Experience, Language, Agent, Feedback, Element, Imagery, awareness, Thought, sensory, symbol, motor, mental, first person, object

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17 Knowledge, Experiences, and Attitudes of Paediatric Nurses regarding Complementary Health Approaches Used by Themselves and Parents for Their Children in Turkey

Authors: Emine Efe, Vildan Cırık


Complementary health approaches are growing in popularity worldwide and play a substantial role in health care. It is very important for paediatric nurses to have knowledge of practices affecting the medical conditions of patients and to communicate with them through integrative nursing care. The purpose of this study was to determine paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of complementary health approaches (CHA) and their personal and professional attitudes to the use of complementary health approaches. This multicentre study was conducted with 1450 paediatric nurses in 18 hospitals in Turkey. Paediatric nurses included in the study were working in the following clinics: Paediatric Service, Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Haematology/Oncology. Data collection focused on the paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of CHA. A high proportion of our sample of paediatric nurses reported that they had used some form of CHA themselves; the most popular choices of CHA were prayer, massage, and vitamins techniques. Paediatric nurses reported positive experiences (drawing/music/art/dance therapies, prayer, herbs, thermal springs, massage, and reflexology) and negative experiences (herbs, thermal springs, prayer, and massage). This study may contribute to increased awareness of the potentially important role of paediatric nurses in the delivery of CHA. Paediatric nurses play important roles in helping patients to use complementary health approaches safely and accurately. Trainings on CHA should be organised, data collection forms including CHA should be created, and evidence-based studies should be focused towards improving the clinical practice of paediatric nurses.

Keywords: Turkey, Experience, Knowledge, attitude, complementary health approaches, paediatric nurses

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16 An Interpretive Study of Entrepreneurial Experience towards Achieving Business Growth Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Lens

Authors: Akunna Agunwah, Kevin Gallimore, Kathryn Kinmond


Entrepreneurship is widely associated and seen as a vehicle for economic growth; however, different scholars have studied entrepreneurship from various perspectives, resulting in multiple definitions. It is surprising to know most entrepreneurship definition does not incorporate growth as part of their definition of entrepreneurship. Economic growth is engineered by the activities of the entrepreneurs. The purpose of the present theoretical study is to explore the working practices of the successful entrepreneurs towards achieving business growth by understanding the experiences of the entrepreneur using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a lens. Ten successful entrepreneurs in the North West of England in various business sectors were interviewed using semi-structured interview method. The recorded audio interviews transcribed and subsequently evaluated using the thematic deductive technique (qualitative approach). The themes were examined using Theory of Planned Behaviour to ascertain the presence of the three intentional antecedents (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control). The findings categorised in two folds, firstly, it was observed that the three intentional antecedents, which make up Theory of Planned Behaviour were evident in the transcript. Secondly, the entrepreneurs are most concerned with achieving a state of freedom and realising their visions and ambitions. Nevertheless, the entrepreneur employed these intentional antecedents to enhance business growth. In conclusion, the work presented here showed a novel way of understanding the working practices and experiences of the entrepreneur using the theory of planned behaviour in qualitative approach towards enhancing business growth. There exist few qualitative studies in entrepreneurship research. In addition, this work applies a novel approach to studying the experience of the entrepreneurs by examining the working practices of the successful entrepreneurs in the North-West England through the lens of the theory of planned behaviour. Given the findings regarding TPB as a lens in the study, the entrepreneur does not differentiate between the categories of the antecedents reasonably sees them as processes that can be utilised to enhance business growth.

Keywords: Experience, Business Growth, theory of planned behaviour, interpretive

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15 Teachers' Experience for Improving Fine Motor Skills of Children with Down Syndrome in the Context of Special Education in Southern Province of Sri Lanka

Authors: Sajee A. Gamage, Champa J. Wijesinghe, Patricia Burtner, Ananda R. Wickremasinghe


Background: Teachers working in the context of special education have an enormous responsibility of enhancing performance skills of children in their classroom settings. Fine Motor Skills (FMS) are essential functional skills for children to gain independence in Activities of Daily Living. Children with Down Syndrome (DS) are predisposed to specific challenges due to deficits in FMS. This study is aimed to determine the teachers’ experience on improving FMS of children with DS in the context of special education of Southern Province, Sri Lanka. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all consenting eligible teachers (n=147) working in the context of special education in government schools of Southern Province of Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on literature and expert opinion to assess teachers’ experience regarding deficits of FMS, limitations of classroom activity performance and barriers to improve FMS of children with DS. Results: Approximately 93% of the teachers were females with a mean age ( ± SD) of 43.1 ( ± 10.1) years. Thirty percent of the teachers had training in special educationand 83% had children with DS in their classrooms. Major deficits of FMS reported were deficits in grasping (n=116; 79%), in-hand manipulation (n=103; 70%) and bilateral hand use (n=99; 67.3%). Paperwork (n=70; 47.6%), painting (n=58; 39.5%), scissor work (n=50; 34.0%), pencil use for writing (n=45; 30.6%) and use of tools in the classroom (n=41; 27.9%) were identified as major classroom performance limitations of children with DS. Parental factors (n=67; 45.6%), disease specific characteristics (n=58; 39.5%) and classroom factors (n=36; 24.5%), were identified as major barriers to improve FMS in the classroom setting. Lack of resources and standard tools, social stigma and late school admission were also identified as barriers to FMS training. Eighty nine percent of the teachers informed that training fine motor activities in a special education classroom was more successful than work with normal classroom setting. Conclusion: Major areas of FMS deficits were grasping, in-hand manipulation and bilateral hand use; classroom performance limitations included paperwork, painting and scissor work of children with DS. Teachers recommended regular practice of fine motor activities according to individual need. Further research is required to design a culturally specific FMS assessment tool and intervention methods to improve FMS of children with DS in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Experience, Special Education, Teachers, down syndrome, fine motor skills, classroom activities

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14 The Recovery Experience Study of People with Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Sudkhanoung Ritruechai, Somrak Choovanichwong, Kruawon Tiengtom, Peanchanan Leeudomwong


The purposes of this qualitative research were to study the recovery experience of people with bipolar disorder and also to propose a development approach to the Bipolar Friends Club. The participants were eight people with bipolar disorder for six to twenty years (four women and four men). They have been members of the Bipolar Friends Club for two to ten years. They have no mental symptoms in order to provide sufficient information about their recovery experiences and have returned to everyday life with their family, community, and work. The data were collected by doing an in-depth interview. Two interviews were done, each from 45-90 minutes and four to five weeks apart. The researcher sent the results of the preliminary data analysis to the participants two to three days beforehand. Confirmation of the results of the preliminary data analysis from the first interview was done at the second interview. The research study found that the participants had a positive experience of being a Bipolar Club member. The club continued its activities following Recovery Oriented Service: ROS to the participants. As a result, they recovered in eight areas as follows. 1) Intellectual: The wisdom of joining the group has brought knowledge and experiences from an exchange with others in self-care as well as a positive thinking in life. 2) Social: The participants have set up a group to take care of each other and to do activities which have brought warmth. Their social network which was normally little has also been increased. 3) Spiritual: The concept of religion has been used to lead the life of the participants. 4) Occupational: One participant is a student while the others do work. All of them have done well. 5) Environmental: The participants would be able to adapt to the environment and cope with their problems better. 6) Physical: Most female participants have difficulties with losing weight which leads them saying that they are ‘not fully recovered’. 7) Emotional: The participants feel calmer than before entering the club. They have also developed more tolerance to problems. 8) Financial: The participants would be able to control their spending by themselves and with the help of their family members. The people with bipolar disorder have suggested that the services of the club are perfect and should be continued. The results of the study encourage the Bipolar Friends Club, as well as other clubs/associations that support the recovery of patients. Consideration of the recovery has highlighted the need for ongoing and various life-enhancing programs for the caregivers and their loved ones with bipolar disorder. Then, they would be able to choose the program that suits their needs to improve their life.

Keywords: Experience, Recovery, people with bipolar disorder, club

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13 Directors’ Compensation: Analyzing the Multilevel Factors That Exert the Greatest Influence

Authors: Isabel Acero, Nuria Alcalde


The economic crisis and notorious corporate scandals have caused social indignation and sparked the debate concerning the underlying rationality of the compensation that directors receive. In this context, this study examines the determinants of the remuneration of directors in listed Spanish companies using individualized data. A multilevel methodology appropriate for this type of data has been used that allows us to differentiate between inter-company variations and intra-company variations. The results show that company size is the variable (at the company level) that exerts the greatest influence on the level of director´s compensation. One surprising finding is that the presence of independent directors on the board has a positive influence on remuneration. At the individual level, tenure and experience have a significant influence on the level of compensation, while the director´s level of education does not appear to have an effect on it.

Keywords: Experience, Tenure, Compensation, multilevel, board of directors

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12 Tsunami Disasters Preparedness among the Coastal Residence in Penang, Malaysia

Authors: A. R. Shakura, A. B. Elistina, M. S. Aini, S. Norhasmah, A. Fakhru’l-Razi


Tsunami 2004 was an unforeseeable event that caught Malaysia of guard resulting with 68 losses of lives and with an estimated economic loss of about 55.15billion US dollar. Scientists predict that if the earthquake epicentre originates from the Andaman-Nicobar region, the coastal population of Penang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate to safety. Thus, a study was conducted to enhance resiliency of Penang community as the area was the worst affected region during 2004 tsunami disaster. This paper is intended to examine the factors that influence intention to prepare for future tsunami among the coastal residence in Penang. The differences in the level of intention to prepare were also examined between those who experience and did not experience the 2004 tsunami. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design using a survey method. A total of 503 respondents were chosen systematically and data gathered were analysed using SPSS. Both genders, male and female were equally represented with a mean age of 44 years. Data indicated that the level of intention to prepare for tsunami disaster was moderate (M=3.72) with no significant difference in intention to prepare between those who had experienced or had not experienced the 2004 tsunami. Subsequently, results from a multiple regression analysis found that sense of community to be the most influential factor followed by subjective norm, trust, positive outcome expectancy and risk perception, explaining the 57% variance in intention to prepare. These factors reflect the influence of the collectivistic culture in Malaysia whereby households plus communities have a central role in encouraging each other. Therefore, the findings highlights the potential of adopting a community based disaster risk management as recommended by the United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) which encompasses the cooperation between the local community and relevant stakeholders in preparing for future tsunami disaster.

Keywords: Experience, Tsunami, Disaster Management, intention to prepare

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11 Black Protests in Poland: Analysis of Women's Movement in Poland, 2016-2018

Authors: Aneta Ostaszewska


The purpose of this research is to reflect on 'black protests' of women in Poland. 'Black protests' have been organized nationwide since October 2016 as a sign of opposition and resistance to anti-women government’s policy and its attempts to exacerbate abortion law. Women protest not only in the biggest cities (Warsaw, Cracow or Wroclaw) but in over 140 towns and villages all over Poland. The research represents qualitative methodological approach – an active research method. It has involved the observation, description, and analysis of 'black protests' carried out mainly in Warsaw (the capital of Poland). The focus has been on behavior and attitudes of protesting women: protesters’ slogans, statements, and views, the ways of dressing up, ways of participating and involvement in protests. Research also involves the analysis of social media discourse: the analysis of content published by women on social media. Black protests are an example of a grassroots social initiative of women in Poland. What unites women is opposition to government policy. The primary space of communication has become the Internet – especially social media (Facebook). A new social movement 'Dziewuchy dziewuchom' (Girls for girls) has been born as well as organization of 'Ogolnopolski Strajk Kobiet' (Nationwide women's strike) as a result of 'black protest'. These protests and marches became a way of emphasizing women’s subjectivity as well as political and civic activity.

Keywords: Experience, Women, Poland, black protests, communitas, abortion law

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10 Exploring Thai Early Childhood Teachers’ Experience and Concerns regarding Teaching Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong


In view of the Thailand government policy creating increasing awareness of opportunity for children with special needs, the number of children with disabilities enrolled in kindergartens in Thailand has increased. This study explores early childhood teachers’ experiences and concerns of teaching children with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The population of the study was private early childhood teachers who teach in inclusive classrooms in Thailand. Quantitative data obtained through a questionnaire were supplemented by early childhood teachers’ interviews to identify key experiences and concerns of the teachers when teaching children with and without disabilities in the same classrooms. The results of this study indicated that many teachers face challenges including lack of professional development opportunities, difficulty identifying the needs of all children and how to use effective strategies to support inclusive practices in their classrooms. Teachers also expressed concern about parents’ lack of willingness to accept children without disabilities studying together with those with disabilities in the same classrooms. Findings from this study can inform program support for parents and professional support needs of teachers in the provision of high-quality inclusive programs for all students.

Keywords: Experience, Early Childhood, Inclusive Education, Thailand, the concern

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9 The Experience of Head Nurse: Phenomenological Research of Implementing Islamic Leadership Style in Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital

Authors: Jamaludin Tarkim, Yoga Teguh Guntara, Maftuhah


Islamic leadership style is model of leadership style applied by the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Islamic leadership style is applied, namely Syura (deliberation), ‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality), and Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. This research aims to gain an overview of the experience of Head Nurse in the implementation of Islamic leadership style. This research is a qualitative one with descriptive phenomenology design through in-depth interviews. Participants were occupied as Head Nurse at the Hospital room Syarif Hidayatullah, set directly (purposive) with the principle of suitability (appropriateness) and sufficiency (adequacy). Retrieval of data and research conducted during the month of June 2014. Data collected in the form of recording in-depth interviews and analysis with Collazi method. This research identified four themes Syura (deliberation);‘Adl bil qisth (justice, with equality); Hurriyyah al-kalam (freedom of expression) and along with the values of Islam in the Islamic leadership style. The results of this research can provide a review of the Head Room experience in the application of Islamic leadership style at Syarif Hidayatullah Hospital already skilled leadership during the process, but the application is still not maximized. Required further research on in-depth exploration of how to get more comprehensive results from room Head Nurse experience in the application of Islamic leadership style, as well as subsequent researchers can choose a wider scope and complex so get more complete data.

Keywords: Experience, nursing management, head nurse, Islamic leadership style

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8 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati


Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: Assurance, Experience, reputation, expertise, audit quality, capability, independence, responsiveness, auditor’s rotation

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7 Effect of Experience on Evacuation of Mice in Emergency Conditions

Authors: Gang Xu, Shouxiang Lu, Xuelin Zhang, Teng Zhang, Shenshi Huang


With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing of the population in the city, the evacuation of pedestrians suffering from disaster environments such as fire in a room or other limited space becomes a vital issue in modern society. Mice have been used in experimental crowd evacuation in recent years for its good similarities to human in physical structure and stress reaction. In this study, the effect of experience or memory on the collective behavior of mice was explored. To help mice familiarize themselves with the design of the space and the stimulus caused by smoke, we trained them repeatedly for 2 days so that they can escape from the emergency conditions as soon as possible. The escape pattern, trajectories, walking speed, turning angle and mean individual escape time of mice in each training trail were analyzed. We found that mice can build memory quickly after the first trial on the first day. On the second day, the evacuation of mice was maintained in a stable and efficient state. Meanwhile, the group with size of 30 (G30) had a shorter mean individual escape time compared with G12. Furthermore, we tested the experience of evacuation skill of mice after several days. The results showed that the mice can hold the experience or memory over 3 weeks. We proposed the importance of experience of evacuation skill and the research of training methods in experimental evacuation of mice. The results can deepen our understanding of collective behavior of mice and conduce to the establishment of animal models in the study of pedestrian crowd dynamics in emergency conditions.

Keywords: Experience, Behavior, mice, Evacuation, group size

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6 Evaluating Factors Affecting Audiologists’ Diagnostic Performance in Auditory Brainstem Response Reading: Training and Experience

Authors: M. Zaitoun, S. Cumming, A. Purcell


This study aims to determine if audiologists' experience characteristics in ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) reading is associated with their performance in interpreting ABR results. Fifteen ABR traces with varying degrees of hearing level were presented twice, making a total of 30. Audiologists were asked to determine the hearing threshold for each of the cases after completing a brief survey regarding their experience and training in ABR administration. Sixty-one audiologists completed all tasks. Correlations between audiologists’ performance measures and experience variables suggested significant associations (p < 0.05) between training period in ABR testing and audiologists’ performance in terms of both sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, the number of years conducting ABR testing correlated with specificity. No other correlations approached significance. While there are relatively few significant correlations between ABR performance and experience, accuracy in ABR reading is associated with audiologists’ length of experience and period of training. To improve audiologists’ performance in reading ABR results, an emphasis on the importance of training should be raised and standardized levels and period for audiologists training in ABR testing should also be set.

Keywords: Experience, training, Performance, audiology, ABR

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5 The Dark Side of Tourism's Implications: A Structural Equation Modeling Study of the 2016 Earthquake in Central Italy

Authors: B. Kulaga, A. Cinti, F. J. Mazzocchini


Despite the fact that growing academic attention on dark tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, among the various reasons for travelling death-related ones, are very ancient. Furthermore, the darker side of human nature has always been fascinated and curious regarding death, or at least, man has always tried to learn lessons from death. This study proposes to describe the phenomenon of dark tourism related to the 2016 earthquake in Central Italy, deadly for 302 people and highly destructive for the rural areas of Lazio, Marche, and Umbria Regions. The primary objective is to examine the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism site, using the structural equation model, applied for the first time to a dark tourism research in 2016, in a study conducted after the Beichuan earthquake. The findings of the current study are derived from the calculations conducted on primary data compiled from 350 tourists in the areas mostly affected by the 2016 earthquake, including the town of Amatrice, near the epicenter, Castelluccio, Norcia, Ussita and Visso, through conducting a Likert scale survey. Furthermore, we use the structural equation model to examine the motivation behind dark travel and how this experience can influence the motivation and emotional reaction of tourists. Expected findings are in line with the previous study mentioned above, indicating that: not all tourists visit the thanatourism sites for dark tourism purpose, tourists’ emotional reactions influence more heavily the emotional tourist experience than cognitive experiences do, and curious visitors are likely to engage cognitively by learning about the incident or related issues.

Keywords: Experience, Motivation, Dark Tourism, structural equation model, emotional reaction

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4 Exploring Mothers' Knowledge and Experiences of Attachment in the First 1000 Days of Their Child's Life

Authors: Athena Pedro, Laura Bradfield, Zandile Batweni, Michael Dare, Ashley Nyman


The rapid growth and development of an infant in the first 1000 days of life means that this time period provides the greatest opportunity for a positive developmental impact on a child’s life socially, emotionally, cognitively and physically. Current research is being focused on children in the first 1000 days, but there is a lack of research and understanding of mothers and their experiences during this crucial time period. Thus, it is imperative that more research is done to help better understand the experiences of mothers during the first 1000 days of their child’s life, as well as gain more insight into mothers’ knowledge regarding this time period. The first 1000 days of life, from conception to two years, is a critical period, and the child’s attachment to his or her mother or primary caregiver during this period is crucial for a multitude of future outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ understanding and experience of the first 1000 days of their child’s life, specifically looking at attachment in the context of Bowlby and Ainsworths’ attachment theory. Using a qualitative methodological framework, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 12 first-time mothers from low-income communities in Cape Town. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that mothers articulated the importance of attachment within the first 1000 days of life and shared experiences of how they bond and form attachment with their babies. Furthermore, these mothers expressed their belief in the long-term effects of early attachment of responsive positive parenting as well as the lasting effects of poor attachment and non-responsive parenting. This study has implications for new mothers and healthcare staff working with mothers of new-born babies, as well as for future contextual research. By gaining insight into the mothers’ experiences, policies and intervention efforts can be formulated in order to assist mothers during this time, which ultimately promote the healthy development of the nation’s children and future adult generation. If researchers are also able to understand the extent of mothers’ general knowledge regarding the first 1000 days and attachment, then there will be a better understanding of where there may be gaps in knowledge and thus, recommendations for effective and relevant intervention efforts may be provided. These interventions may increase knowledge and awareness of new mothers and health care workers at clinics and other service providers, creating a high impact on positive outcome. Thus, improving the developmental trajectory for many young babies allows them the opportunity to pursue optimal development by reaching their full potential.

Keywords: Experience, Knowledge, attachment, Mothers, first 1000 days

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3 Inclusive Education in South African Universities: Pre-Service Teachers’ Experiences

Authors: Cina Mosito, Toyin Mary Adewumi, Charlene Nissen


One of the goals of inclusive education is to provide learners with suitable learning environments and prospects to best attain their potential. This study sought to determine the experiences of studying inclusive education on pre-service teachers’ teaching within the South African education context. A purposeful sample comprising 6 pre-service teachers was selected from a university of technology located in the Western Cape South Africa. Data were collected using open-ended questionnaires, which were exploratory in nature and analyzed thematically. The findings supported significant proportions of experiences as self-reported by pre-service teachers. The pre-service teachers’ experiences of studying inclusive education included inclusive education as an “eye-opener” to the fact that learners experiencing various barriers to learning can be accommodated in the regular classrooms, exposure to some aspects of inclusive education, such as diversity, learners’ rights, and curriculum differentiation. It was also revealed that studying inclusive education made pre-service teachers love and enjoy teaching more. The study shows that awareness of inclusive education has influenced pre-service teachers in South African schools.

Keywords: Experience, Inclusive Education, South Africa, pre-service teacher

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2 An Exploratory Study of the Student's Experience by Applying Different Tools for E-Learning and E-Teaching

Authors: Angel Daniel Munoz Guzman


E-learning is becoming more and more used every day. For online, hybrid or complete presential programs, there are some e-teaching platforms like Google classroom, Blackboard and Canva, also there are platforms for full e-learning like coursera, edx or udemy. These tools are changing the way students acquire knowledge at schools. But, today that is not enough, the world is changing and the student´s needs and skills are changing too and getting more complex, new tools have to be added to keep them engaged and potentialize their learning, especially now that the world is living the situation that is changing everything: Covid19 pandemic. In this study, the students’ experience is analyzed by applying different e-tools and following the Tec21 Model and the new flexible and digital model, both developed by the Tecnologico de Monterrey University. The evaluation of the students’ experience has been made by the cuantitative PrEmo method of emotions. Findings suggest that the quantity of e-tools used during a course does not affect the students’ learning, instead the impact on their experience is given by how a teacher links every available learning tool and makes them work as one in order to keep the student engaged and motivated.

Keywords: Education, e-Learning, Experience, Technology, Student, E-teaching, e-tools

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1 Education Levels & University Student’s Income: Primary Data Analysis from the Universities of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Ashraf


It is experimentally conceded reality that education not just promotes social and intellectual abilities yet, in addition, the incomes of people. The present study is directed to investigate the connection between education level and student income. Data of different education levels is acquired from 300 students through field review from four public sector Universities; two from upper Punjab (University of Gujarat and Government college university-Lahore) and two from lower Punjab (Islamia University-Bahawalpur and The University of Sahiwal). Two-phase estimation is based on the Mincerian human capital model. The first stage presents statistical/descriptive investigation, which shows positive linkage among higher education and income of the students. Econometric estimation is estimated in the second stage by applying Ordinary least Square Method (OLS). Econometric examination reaffirms the importance of higher education as the impact of higher education on students’ incomes accelerates as we move from lower-level education to higher-level education. Educational levels, experience, and working hours are sure and noteworthy with student’s income. Econometric estimation additionally investigated that M. Phil and Ph.D. students have a higher income than bachelor students. Concerning the students, the income profile study commended that the Government ought to give part-time jobs or internships to students as indicated to labor market demand.

Keywords: Education, Experience, Universities, student’s income

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