Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

expenditure Related Abstracts

4 Oil-price Volatility and Economic Prosperity in Nigeria: Empirical Evidence

Authors: Yohanna Panshak

Abstract:

The impact of macroeconomic instability on economic growth and prosperity has been at forefront in many discourses among researchers and policy makers and has generated a lot of controversies over the years. This has generated series of research efforts towards understanding the remote causes of this phenomenon; its nature, determinants and how it can be targeted and mitigated. While others have opined that the root cause of macroeconomic flux in Nigeria is attributed to Oil-Price volatility, others viewed the issue as resulting from some constellation of structural constraints both within and outside the shores of the country. Research works of scholars such as [Akpan (2009), Aliyu (2009), Olomola (2006), etc] argue that oil volatility can determine economic growth or has the potential of doing so. On the contrary, [Darby (1982), Cerralo (2005) etc] share the opinion that it can slow down growth. The earlier argument rest on the understanding that for a net balance of oil exporting economies, price upbeat directly increases real national income through higher export earnings, whereas, the latter allude to the case of net-oil importing countries (which experience price rises, increased input costs, reduced non-oil demand, low investment, fall in tax revenues and ultimately an increase in budget deficit which will further reduce welfare level). Therefore, assessing the precise impact of oil price volatility on virtually any economy is a function of whether it is an oil-exporting or importing nation. Research on oil price volatility and its outcome on the growth of the Nigerian economy are evolving and in a march towards resolving Nigeria’s macroeconomic instability as long as oil revenue still remain the mainstay and driver of socio-economic engineering. Recently, a major importer of Nigeria’s oil- United States made a historic breakthrough in more efficient source of energy for her economy with the capacity of serving significant part of the world. This undoubtedly suggests a threat to the exchange earnings of the country. The need to understand fluctuation in its major export commodity is critical. This paper leans on the Renaissance growth theory with greater focus on theoretical work of Lee (1998); a leading proponent of this school who makes a clear cut of difference between oil price changes and oil price volatility. Based on the above background, the research seeks to empirically examine the impact oil-price volatility on government expenditure using quarterly time series data spanning 1986:1 to 2014:4. Vector Auto Regression (VAR) econometric approach shall be used. The structural properties of the model shall be tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron. Relevant diagnostics tests of heteroscedasticity, serial correlation and normality shall also be carried out. Policy recommendation shall be offered on the empirical findings and believes it assist policy makers not only in Nigeria but the world-over.

Keywords: Budget, volatility, prosperity, oil-price, expenditure

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3 Tax Expenditures: A Review and Analysis

Authors: Khalid Javed

Abstract:

This study examines a feature of the budget process called the tax expenditure budget. The tax expenditure concept relies heavily on a normative notion that shielding certain. Taxpayer income from taxation deprives government of its rightful revenues. This view is inconsistent with the proposition that income belongs to the taxpayers and that tax liability is determined through the democratic process, not through arbitrary, bureaucratic Assumptions. Furthermore, the methodology of the tax expenditure budget is problematic as its expansive tax base treats the multiple taxation of saving as the norm. By using an expansive view of income as the underlying assumption of the tax expenditure concept, this viewpoint institutionalizes a particular bias into the decision-making process.

Keywords: revenue, expenditure, tax budget, propostion

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2 Economics of Household Expenditure Pattern on Animal Products in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Abdulhamid, B. Hamidu, S. Mohammed, S. Idi

Abstract:

This study examined the household expenditure pattern on animal products in Bauchi metropolis. A cross-sectional data were collected from 157 households using systematic sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression models. The results reveal that the mean age, mean household size, mean monthly income and mean total expenditure on animal products were found to be 39 years, 7 persons, N28,749 and N1,740 respectively. It was also found that household monthly income, number of children and educational level of the household heads (P<0.01) significantly influence the level of household expenditure on animal products. Similarly, income was found to be the most important factor determining the proportion of total expenditure on animal products (20.91%). Income elasticity was found to be 0.66 indicating that for every 1% increase in income, expenditure on animal products would increase by 0.66%. Furthermore, beef was found to be the most preferred (54.83%) and most regularly consumed (61.84%) animal products. However, it was discovered that the major constraints affecting the consumption of animal products were low-income level of the households (29.85%), high cost of animal products (15.82%) and increase in prices of necessities (15.82%). Therefore to improve household expenditure on animal products per capita real income of the households should be improved through creation of employment opportunities. Also stabilization of market prices of animal products and other foods items of necessities through increased production are recommended.

Keywords: Economics, Animal Products, households, expenditure

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1 An Appraisal of Revenue Collection in Local Government: A Case Study of Boripe Local Government Iragbiji Osun State

Authors: Olanike O. Akinwale, Isiaka S. Adedoyin

Abstract:

Revenue is a fund realized by the government to meet both current and capital expenditures. The study found out the various ways through which local governments in Nigeria generate revenue or obtain funds and determined whether the people of Boripe local government are paying tax as at when due and also evaluated how the revenue generated is being used by the local government. During the course of this study, research questionnaires were drafted and distributed to respondents in the local government secretariat who supplied the information needed to carry out the research work. Data were collected by using simple random sampling technique where members of the population have been given equal chance of being picked as a member of the sample. Data were analysed using chart table; the chart analyzed the figure of the past two years revenue and expenditure of the local government. It was deduced from the result that revenue generated but this was not up to what one expected for this local government to finance the projected expenditure when the size was considered, its location as well as its natural endowment of this local government. This was due to lack of cooperation of the people and staffs within the local government in the local government jurisdiction as well as fraudulent activities the revenue collectors engaged in. Revenue generation is a fuel for development in any organization whether public or private. The ability of revenue drive of Boripe was not strong enough since the targeted revenue from taxation was not enough to meet the projected expenditure for a particular year as in 2016, the difference was carried forward to the next year.

Keywords: Local Government, questionnaire, appraisal, revenue, expenditure

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