Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Expectations Related Abstracts

8 Smashed Mirror: Immigrant Students’ Constructions of South Africa

Authors: Vandeyar Saloshna, Vandeyar Hirusellvan


The image of post-apartheid South African Society that is reflected in the social mirror of the world is largely one of hope, faith, and aspiration. But is this reality? Utilizing social constructivism, case study approach and narrative inquiry, this chapter set out to explore the reflection of South African students from the lens of immigrant students. The picture that unfolds is troublesome in its negativity. In this chapter, we establish in detail what this picture is about and what implications it holds for South African Society.

Keywords: identity formation, Xenophobia, Expectations, immigrant students, social mirror, makwerekwere

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7 Sociological Analysis on Prisoners; with Special Reference to Prisoners of Death Penalty and Life Imprisonment in Sri Lanka

Authors: Wasantha Subasinghe


Crimes are one of big social problems in Sri Lanka. Crimes can be seen as simply way as an activity that against for the society or public law. There are offences in minor crimes and grave crimes including murder, rape, trafficking, robbery, excise, narcotic, kidnapping and so on. There are various forms of punishment such as bailing, fining, and prisoning to the death penalty. Death penalty contains the killing of an offender for an offense. There are 23 prison institutions in Sri Lanka including 03 closed prisoners and 20 remand prisons. There are 10 work camps, 02 open prison camps, 01 training school for youthful offenders and 02 correctional centers for youthful offenders. Capital punishment is legal in Sri Lanka as many other countries as India, Japan, Bangladesh, Iran and Iraq so on. When compared unconvicted prisoners from 2006-2010 there is an increase. It was 89190 in 2006 and it was 100191 in 2010. There were 28732 of convicted prisoners and it was 32128 in 2010. There were 165 Death sentences in 2006 and it was 96 in 2010. There are 540 individuals had been sentenced to death. The death penalty has not been implemented in Sri Lanka since 1976. Research problem: What are the feelings of prisoners as waiting for death?’ Objectives of the study were identifying prisoners’ point of view on their punishment and root causes for their offence. Case studies were conducted to identify the research problem and data were collected using formal interviews. Research area was Welikada prison. Stratified sampling method in probability samplings was used. Sample size was 20 cases from death penalty and life in prison prisoners and 20 from other convicted prisoners. Findings revealed causes and feelings them as offenders. They need if death penalty or freedom. Some of them need to convert death sentence to life imprisonment. They are physically and mentally damaged after their imprisonment. Lack of hope and as well as lack of welfare and rehabilitation programs they suffered their lives.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Expectations, death penalty, life imprisonment

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6 An Empirical Study of Gender, Expectations and Actual Experiences from Industrial Work Experience of Undergraduate Accounting Students in Selected Nigerian Universities

Authors: Obiamaka Nwobu, Samuel Faboyede, O. Oluseyi


This study investigated the influence of gender on expectations and actual experiences from Industrial Work Experience, which is an aspect of the curriculum of undergraduate accounting students in selected Nigerian Universities. A survey research design was employed. Copies of a research questionnaire were made and administered to eighty (80) accounting students in selected Nigerian Universities who embarked on Students’ Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES). Their expectations were juxtaposed with their actual experiences gleaned from the Industrial Work Experience. The data for the purpose of this study was analyzed using independent sample t-test. A total of fifteen (15) male and forty four (44) female students responded to the survey. This resulted in a response rate of 73.8 per cent. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the expectation of male and female undergraduate accounting students that the internship experience will be able to prepare them for an accounting career in the future, impart relevant knowledge, relate theories to work environment, enhance knowledge in financial accounting, cost accounting, accounting software, and general practice of accounting; prepare financial statements, interpret financial statements, develop problem solving skills, communication skills, and interpersonal skills; improve personal confidence and self-esteem, increase exposure to latest technology in the workplace, build rapport and networks, provide earnings, job experience, provide information and experience to choose career path. Furthermore, findings from the survey showed that there were differences in the expectations of students and their actual experiences with respect to their ability to relate theories to work environment, enhance knowledge in financial accounting, cost accounting, accounting software and exposure to latest technology in the workplace. The study only examined the perceptions of students from two Universities in South-West Nigeria. The research instrument used in this study can be administered to undergraduate accounting students in other universities in Nigeria. The Industrial Work Experience Scheme for undergraduate accounting students should be highly encouraged by tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This will ultimately make the students well prepared for a career in accounting.

Keywords: Gender, Expectations, actual experiences, industrial work experience

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5 Evidence of Conditional and Unconditional Cooperation in a Public Goods Game: Experimental Evidence from Mali

Authors: Maria Laura Alzua, Maria Adelaida Lopera


This paper measures the relative importance of conditional cooperation and unconditional cooperation in a large public goods experiment conducted in Mali. We use expectations about total public goods provision to estimate a structural choice model with heterogeneous preferences. While unconditional cooperation can be captured by common preferences shared by all participants, conditional cooperation is much more heterogeneous and depends on unobserved individual factors. This structural model, in combination with two experimental treatments, suggests that leadership and group communication incentivize public goods provision through different channels. First, We find that participation of local leaders effectively changes individual choices through unconditional cooperation. A simulation exercise predicts that even in the most pessimistic scenario in which all participants expect zero public good provision, 60% would still choose to cooperate. Second, allowing participants to communicate fosters conditional cooperation. The simulations suggest that expectations are responsible for around 24% of the observed public good provision and that group communication does not necessarily ameliorate public good provision. In fact, communication may even worsen the outcome when expectations are low.

Keywords: Expectations, random coefficients model, conditional cooperation, discrete choice model, public goods game

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4 [Keynote Talk]: New Generations and Employment: An Exploratory Study about Tensions between the Psycho-Social Characteristics of the Generation Z and Expectations and Actions of Organizational Structures Related with Employment (CABA, 2016)

Authors: Esteban Maioli


Generational studies have an important research tradition in social and human sciences. On the one hand, the speed of social change in the context of globalization imposes the need to research the transformations are identified both the subjectivity of the agents involved and its inclusion in the institutional matrix, specifically employment. Generation Z, (generally considered as the population group whose birth occurs after 1995) have unique psycho-social characteristics. Gen Z is characterized by a different set of values, beliefs, attitudes and ambitions that impact in their concrete action in organizational structures. On the other hand, managers often have to deal with generational differences in the workplace. Organizations have members who belong to different generations; they had never before faced the challenge of having such a diverse group of members. The members of each historical generation are characterized by a different set of values, beliefs, attitudes and ambitions that are manifest in their concrete action in organizational structures. Gen Z it’s the only one who can fully be considered "global," while its members were born in the consolidated context of globalization. Some salient features of the Generation Z can be summarized as follows. They’re the first fully born into a digital world. Social networks and technology are integrated into their lives. They are concerned about the challenges of the modern world (poverty, inequality, climate change, among others). They are self-expressive, more liberal and open to change. They often bore easily, with short attention spans. They do not like routine tasks. They want to achieve a good life-work balance, and they are interested in a flexible work environment, as opposed to traditional work schedule. They are critical thinkers, who come with innovative and creative ideas to help. Research design considered methodological triangulation. Data was collected with two techniques: a self-administered survey with multiple choice questions and attitudinal scales applied over a non-probabilistic sample by reasoned decision. According to the multi-method strategy, also it was conducted in-depth interviews. Organizations constantly face new challenges. One of the biggest ones is to learn to manage a multi-generational scope of work. While Gen Z has not yet been fully incorporated (expected to do so in five years or so), many organizations have already begun to implement a series of changes in its recruitment and development. The main obstacle to retaining young talent is the gap between the expectations of iGen applicants and what companies offer. Members of the iGen expect not only a good salary and job stability but also a clear career plan. Generation Z needs to have immediate feedback on their tasks. However, many organizations have yet to improve both motivation and monitoring practices. It is essential for companies to take a review of organizational practices anchored in the culture of the organization.

Keywords: Employment, Organizational Culture, Organizations, Expectations, generation Z, psycho-social characteristics

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3 Frames as Interests and Goals: The Case of MedTech Entrepreneurs' Capital Raising Strategies in Australia

Authors: Joelle Hawa, Michael Gilding


The role of interest as a driver of action has been an on-going debate in the sociological sciences. This paper shows evidence as to how economic actors frame their environment in terms of interests and goals to take action. It introduces the concept of 'dynamic actor compass', a cognitive tool that is socially contingent and allows economic actors to navigate their environment, evaluate the level of alignment of interests and goals with other players, and decide whether or not they are willing to rely on, collaborate or partner with others in the field. The paper builds on Kaplan’s model of framing contests and integrates Max Weber’s interests, and ideas construct as well as Beckert’s concept of fictional expectations. The author illustrates this conceptual framework in the case of MedTech entrepreneurs’ capital raising activities in Australia. The study adopts a grounded theory methodology, running in-depth interviews with 24 MedTech entrepreneurs in order to examine their decision-making processes and actions to finance their innovation trajectory. The findings show that participants take into account material and ideal interests and goals that they impose adapt or negotiate with other actors in their environment. These interactions affect the way MedTech entrepreneurs perceive other funders in the field, influencing their capital raising strategies.

Keywords: Goals, Expectations, Financing Innovation, frames, interest-oriented action, managerial cognition

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2 A Literature Review on Successful Implementation of Online Education in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Desiree Wieser


Online education can be one way to differentiate for higher education institutions (HEI). Nevertheless, it is often not that clear how to successfully implement online education and what it actually means. Literature reveals that it is often linked to student success and satisfaction. However, while researchers succeeded in identifying the determinants impacting on student success and satisfaction, they often ignored expectations. In fact, learning success and satisfaction alone often fall short to explain if and why online education has been implemented successfully and why students perceive the study experience as positive or negative. The present study reveals that considering expectations can contribute to a better understanding of the overall study experience.

Keywords: Online Education, Student success, Expectations, student satisfaction

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1 A Perspective on Education to Support Industry 4.0: An Exploratory Study in the UK

Authors: Sin Ying Tan, Mohammed Alloghani, A. J. Aljaaf, Abir Hussain, Jamila Mustafina


Industry 4.0 is a term frequently used to describe the new upcoming industry era. Higher education institutions aim to prepare students to fulfil the future industry needs. Advancement of digital technology has paved the way for the evolution of education and technology. Evolution of education has proven its conservative nature and a high level of resistance to changes and transformation. The gap between the industry's needs and competencies offered generally by education is revealing the increasing need to find new educational models to face the future. The aim of this study was to identify the main issues faced by both universities and students in preparing the future workforce. From December 2018 to April 2019, a regional qualitative study was undertaken in Liverpool, United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were conducted with employers, faculty members and undergraduate students, and the results were analyzed using the open coding method. Four main issues had been identified, which are the characteristics of the future workforce, student's readiness to work, expectations on different roles played at the tertiary education level and awareness of the latest trends. The finding of this paper concluded that the employers and academic practitioners agree that their expectations on each other’s roles are different and in order to face the rapidly changing technology era, students should not only have the right skills, but they should also have the right attitude in learning. Therefore, the authors address this issue by proposing a learning framework known as 'ASK SUMA' framework as a guideline to support the students, academicians and employers in meeting the needs of 'Industry 4.0'. Furthermore, this technology era requires the employers, academic practitioners and students to work together in order to face the upcoming challenges and fast-changing technologies. It is also suggested that an interactive system should be provided as a platform to support the three different parties to play their roles.

Keywords: Knowledge, Skills, Expectations, attitude, industry needs

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