Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

exfoliation Related Abstracts

7 Study of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)-Clay Nanocomposites Prepareted by Extrusion Reactive Method

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

A method for the exfoliation of polyethylene terephtalate (PET) - clay nanocomposites has been reported in this study. Montmorillonite clay based polyethylene terephtalate nanocomposites were prepared by reactive melt-mixing. To achieve this, untreated clay was first functionalized with the crosslinking agent compound based mainly on peroxide/sulphur and TMTD as accelerator or activator for sulphur. Furthermore, the different blends composition of PET/clay were directly mixed in melt state in closed chamber of plastograph at given working conditions for short time and in one step process. To investigate the microstructure modification and thermal, mechanical and rheological properties the DSC, WAXS, microhardness, FTIR and tensile properties were performed. The resulting structure of the modified samples shows that total exfoliation appears at 4% w/w of clay to PET matrices. The crystallinity and tensile modulus were correlated by the H microhardness and the DSC shows no significant effect on the cristallinity degree. The mechanical properties were improved significantly. The viscosity decreases for 4% clay and the activation energy is the minimum. The WAXS measurement shows a partial exfoliation without any intercalation which is the most relevant point. The grafting of organic to inorganic nanolayers was observed by Si—O—C and Si—C bonds by FTIR.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing

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6 Study of Nanoclay Blends Based on PET/PEN Prepared by Reactive Extrusion

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

A new route of preparation of compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)/poly(ethylenenaphthalene2,6-dicarboxylate) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites has been successfully performed in one step by reactive melt extrusion. To achieve this, untreated clay was first purified and functionalized “in situ” with a compound based on an organic peroxide/sulfur mixture and (tetra methyl thiuram disulfide) TMTD as accelerator or activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first mixed separately in the melt state with different amounts of functionalized clay. It was observed that the compositions PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay showed total exfoliation. These completely exfoliated compositions, called nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new nPET/nPEN nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The nPET/nPEN nanoblends were compared to neat blends of PET/PEN. The blends and the nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nanostructure/properties relationships were investigated. The results of the WAXS measurements study showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral nanolayers of clay was complete and the octahedral structure disappeared totally. From the different WAXS patterns, it is seen that all samples are amorphous phase. The thermal study showed that there are only one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition. This indicated that both PET/PEN blends and nPET/nPEN blends were compatible in the entire range of compositions. In addition, nPET/nPEN blends present lower Tc values and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET/PEN blends. The obtained results indicate that nPET/nPEN blends are somewhat different from the pure ones in nanostructure and behavior, thus showing the additional effect of nanolayers. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, PEN

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5 Study of Nano Clay Based on Pet

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachoura

Abstract:

A (PET)/clay nano composites has been successfully performed in one step by reactive melt extrusion. The PEN was first mixed in the melt state with different amounts of functionalized clay. It was observed that the composition PET/4 wt% clay showed total exfoliation. These completely exfoliated composition called nPET, was used to prepare new nPET nano composites in the same mixing batch. The nPEN was compared to neat PET. The nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nanostructure/properties relationships were investigated. From the different WAXS patterns, it is seen that all samples are amorphous phase. In addition, nPET blends present lower Tc values and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing

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4 Study of the ZnO Effect on the Properties of HDPE/ ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, D. Benachour, N. Kharchi

Abstract:

A HDPE/ZnO nano composites have been successfully performed using the co-mixing. The ZnO was first co-mixed with the stearic acid then added to the polymer in the plastograph. The nano composites prepared with the co-mixed ZnO were compared to those prepared with the neat TiO2. The nano composites were characterized by different techniques as the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The micro and nano structure/properties relationships were investigated. The present study allowed establishing good correlations between the different measured properties.

Keywords: Nano Composites, ZnO, exfoliation, HDPE, co-mixing

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3 Study of the Montmorillonite Effect on PET/Clay and PEN/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

Nanocomposite polymer / clay are relatively important area of research. These reinforced plastics have attracted considerable attention in scientific and industrial fields because a very small amount of clay can significantly improve the properties of the polymer. The polymeric matrices used in this work are two saturated polyesters ie polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN).The success of processing compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ poly(ethylene naphthalene) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites in one step by reactive melt extrusion is described. Untreated clay was first purified and functionalized ‘in situ’ with a compound based on an organic peroxide/ sulfur mixture and (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) as the activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first separately mixed in the molten state with functionalized clay. The PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay compositions showed total exfoliation. These compositions, denoted nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new n(PET/PEN) nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The n(PET/PEN) nanoblends were compared to neat PET/PEN blends. The blends and nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. Microstructural and nanostructural properties were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral clay nanolayers is complete and the octahedral structure totally disappears. It was shown that total exfoliation, confirmed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements, contributes to the enhancement of impact strength and tensile modulus. In addition, WAXS results indicated that all samples are amorphous. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study indicated the occurrence of one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition. This was evidence that both PET/PEN and nPET/nPEN blends are compatible in the entire range of compositions. In addition, the nPET/nPEN blends showed lower Tc and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET/PEN blends. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that n(PET/PEN) blends are different from the pure ones in nanostructure and physical behavior.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, blends, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, DSC, PEN, DRX, plastograph

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2 Clay Effect on PET/Clay and PEN/Clay Nanocomposites Properties

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour

Abstract:

Reinforced plastics or nanocomposites have attracted considerable attention in scientific and industrial fields because a very small amount of clay can significantly improve the properties of the polymer. The polymeric matrices used in this work are two saturated polyesters, i.e., polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). The success of processing compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/poly(ethylene naphthalene) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites in one step by reactive melt extrusion is described. Untreated clay was first purified and functionalized ‘in situ’ with a compound based on an organic peroxide/ sulfur mixture and (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) as the activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first separately mixed in the molten state with functionalized clay. The PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay compositions showed total exfoliation. These compositions, denoted nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new n(PET/PEN) nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The n(PET/PEN) nanoblends were compared to neat PET/PEN blends. The blends and nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. Microstructural and nanostructural properties were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral clay nanolayers is complete, and the octahedral structure totally disappears. It was shown that total exfoliation, confirmed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements, contributes to the enhancement of impact strength and tensile modulus. In addition, WAXS results indicated that all samples are amorphous. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study indicated the occurrence of one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, montmorillonite, PET, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing, DSC, PEN, DRX, plastograph

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1 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Aysen Onen, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz

Abstract:

In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: activated carbon, exfoliation, coagulation by wet spinning, graphene oxide fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 192