Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Exercise Related Abstracts

51 Physical Fitness in Omani Children with Sickle Cell Disease and Sickle Cell Trait

Authors: Mahfoodha Al-Kitani, Dylan Thompson, Keith Stokes


Sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) are the most common hematological diseases in Oman according to the national survey of genetic blood disorders. The aim of this study was to determine markers of physical fitness and anthropometrics indices in children with sickle cell disease and children with sickle cell trait and compare them with normal healthy children of the same age. One hundred and twenty male children participated in the present study divided to three groups: 40 with sickle disease (SCD; age, 13.3(.80), height, 131.9(3.5), mass, 29.2(3.1)); 40 with sickle cell trait (SCT; age, 12.2(.80), height, 141.0(9.9), mass, 38.0(4.4)); and 40 controls with normal hemoglobin (Con; age, 12.8(.80), height, 139.4(8.7), mass, 37.2(4.3)). All children completed a 5-min running exercise test on a treadmill at speed corresponding to 5 km/hr. Heart rate and was recorded during exercise and during 10-min of recovery. Blood lactate was measured before and 5 min after the completion of exercise. Children with SCD exhibited a higher mean value (P < 0.05) for percent body fat and fat mass than the normal healthy subjects and SCT subjects. Resting values of hemoglobin were similar in SCT (11.04(.78)) and control (10.8(94)) groups, and lower in SCD (8.89(.54); P < 0.05). There was a strong correlation between peak heart rate and resting hemoglobin levels for the three groups (r= -.472. n= 120, p < .0005).The SCD group (175.2(10.3)) exhibited higher mean heart rate during exercise than those observed in the SCT (143.7(9.5)) and normal control children (144.5(22.4); P < 0.05). Additionally, SCD children showed higher serum lactate values before and after treadmill exercise compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Children with sickle cell trait demonstrate similar physical fitness level and similar exercise responses to treadmill stress test to normal children. In contrast, SCD children have lower body mass, higher fat mass and lower physical fitness than children with SCT and healthy controls.

Keywords: Exercise, Children, Sickle cell disease, sickle cell trait

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50 Exercise and Aging Process Related to Oxidative Stress

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: Aging process is mainly related to endothelial function which may be impaired by oxidative stress (OS). Exercise is known to be beneficial to aging process, which may improve health and prevent appearance of chronic diseases in elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the OS markers related to exercise. Methods: A number of 80 subjects (healthy volunteers) were examined (38 male and 32 female), divided in 3 age groups: group I ≤ 30 years (n=24); group II – 31-50 years (n=24); group III - ≥ 51 year (n=32). Each group was divided to subgroups of sedentary subjects (SS) and subjects who exercise (SE). Group I: SS (n=11), SE (n=13); group II: SS (n=13), SE (n=10); group III: SS (n=23) SE (n=9). Lipid peroxidation (LP) as a fluorimetric method with thiobarbituric acid was used to estimate OS. Antioxidative status was determined by cell antioxidants such as enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose 6 phosphate (G-6-PD); and by extra cell antioxidants such as glutathione reductase (GR), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Increased values of LP were noticed along the aging process: group I – 3.30±0.3 µmol/L; group II – 3.91±0.2 µmol/L; group III – 3.94±0.8 µmol/L (p<0.05), while no statistical significance was found between male and female subjects. Statistical significance for OS was not found between SS and SE in group I as it was found in group II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.01). No statistical significance was found for all cell antioxidants and GR within the groups, while NO and TAC showed lower values in SS compared to SE in II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.05). Discussion and conclusion: Aging process showed increased OS which may be either due to impaired function of scavengers of free radicals or due to their enormous production. Well balanced exercise might be one of the factors that keep the integrity of blood vessel endothelium which slows down the aging process. Possible mechanism of exercise beneficial influence is shear stress by upregulation of genes coding for nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, due to obtained results we may conclude that OS is found to be diminished in the subject groups who perform exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Oxidative Stress, Aging Process, endothelial function

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49 The Global Children’s Challenge Program: Pedometer Step Count in an Australian School

Authors: D. Hilton


The importance and significance of this research is based upon the fundamental knowledge reported in the scientific literature that physical activity is inversely associated with obesity. In addition, it is recognized there is a global epidemic of sedentariness while at the same time it is known that morbidity and mortality are associated with physical inactivity and as a result of overweight or obesity. Hence this small study in school students is an important area of research in our community. An application submitted in 2005 for the inaugural Public Health Education Research Trust [PHERT] Post Graduate Research Scholarship scheme organized by the Public Health Association of Australia [PHAA] was awarded 3rd place within Australia. The author and title was: D. Hilton, Methods to increase physical activity in school aged children [literature review, a trial using pedometers and a policy paper]. Third place is a good result, however this did not secure funding for the project, as only first place received $5000 funding. Some years later within Australia, a program commenced called the Global Children's Challenge [GCC]. Given details of the 2005 award above were included an application submission prepared for Parkhill Primary School [PPS] which is located in Victoria, Australia was successful. As a result, an excited combined grade 3/ 4 class at the school [27 students] in 2012 became recipients of these free pedometers. Ambassadors for the program were Mrs Catherine Freeman [OAM], Olympic Gold Medalist – Sydney 2000 [400 meters], while another ambassador was Mr Colin Jackson [CBE] who is a Welsh former sprint and hurdling athlete. In terms of PPS and other schools involved in 2012, website details show that the event started on 19th Sep 2012 and students were to wear the pedometer every day for 50 days [at home and at school] aiming for the recommended 15,000 steps/day recording steps taken in a booklet provided. After the finish, an analysis of the average step count for this school showed that the average steps taken / day was 14, 003 [however only a small percentage of students returned the booklets and units] as unfortunately the dates for the program coincided with school holidays so some students either forgot or misplaced the units / booklets. Unfortunately funding for this program ceased in 2013, however the lasting impact of the trial on student’s knowledge and awareness remains and in fact becomes a good grounding for students in how to monitor basic daily physical activity using a method that is easy, fun, low cost and readily accessible.

Keywords: Exercise, Physical Activity, Walking, Australian school

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48 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: W. A. B. Wan Abas, N. A. Abu Osman, F. Ibrahim, M. K. Mohd Safee, N. A Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: Exercise, Muscle, Şalāt, electromyography

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47 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: W. A. B. Wan Abas, N. A. Abu Osman, F. Ibrahim, M. K. Mohd Safee, N. A. Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: Exercise, Muscle, Şalāt, electromyography

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46 Ultra-deformable Drug-free Sequessome™ Vesicles (TDT 064) for the Treatment of Joint Pain Following Exercise: A Case Report and Clinical Data

Authors: Joe Collins, Matthias Rother


Background: Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the relief of joint pain during and post-exercise. However, oral NSAIDs increase the risk of systemic side effects, even in healthy individuals, and retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 (Flexiseq®), a topical formulation containing ultra-deformable drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles, has demonstrated equivalent efficacy to oral celecoxib in reducing osteoarthritis-associated joint pain and stiffness. TDT 064 does not cause NSAID-related adverse effects. We describe clinical study data and a case report on the effectiveness of TDT 064 in reducing joint pain after exercise. Methods: Participants with a pain score ≥3 (10-point scale) 12–16 hours post-exercise were randomized to receive TDT 064 plus oral placebo, TDT 064 plus oral ketoprofen, or ketoprofen in ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles plus oral placebo. Results: In the 168 study participants, pain scores were significantly higher with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 than with TDT 064 plus placebo in the 7 days post-exercise (P = 0.0240) and recovery from muscle soreness was significantly longer (P = 0.0262). There was a low incidence of adverse events. These data are supported by clinical experience. A 24-year-old male professional rugby player suffered a traumatic lisfranc fracture in March 2014 and underwent operative reconstruction. He had no relevant medical history and was not receiving concomitant medications. He had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in 2008. The patient reported restricted training due to pain (score 7/10), stiffness (score 9/10) and poor function, as well as pain when changing direction and running on consecutive days. In July 2014 he started using TDT 064 twice daily at the recommended dose. In November 2014 he noted reduced pain on running (score 2-3/10), decreased morning stiffness (score 4/10) and improved joint mobility and was able to return to competitive rugby without restrictions. No side effects of TDT 064 were reported. Conclusions: TDT 064 shows efficacy against exercise- and injury-induced joint pain, as well as that associated with osteoarthritis. It does not retard muscle soreness recovery after exercise compared with an oral NSAID, making it an alternative approach for the treatment of joint pain during and post-exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, joint pain, TDT 064, phospholipid vesicles

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45 Exercise Intensity Increasing Appetite, Energy, Intake Energy Expenditure, and Fat Oxidation in Sedentary Overweight Individuals

Authors: Ghalia Shamlan, M. Denise Robertson, Adam Collins


Appetite control (i.e. control of energy intake) is important for weight maintenance. Exercise contributes to the most variable component of energy expenditure (EE) but its impact is beyond the energy cost of exercise including physiological, behavioural, and appetite effects. Exercise is known to acutely influence effect appetite but evidence as to the independent effect of intensity is lacking. This study investigated the role of exercise intensity on appetite, energy intake (EI), appetite related hormone, fat utilisation and subjective measures of appetite. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 10 sedentary overweight volunteers. Subjects undertook either 8 repeated 60 second bouts of cycling at 95% VO2max (high intensity) or 30 minutes of continuous cycling, at a fixed cadence, equivalent to 50% of the participant’s VO2max (low intensity) in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured fasted, postprandial, and pre and post-exercise. Satiety was assessed subjectively throughout the study using visual analogue scales (VAS). Ad libitum intake of a pasta meal was measured at the end (3-h post-breakfast). Interestingly, there was not significant difference in EE fat oxidation between HI and LI post-exercise. Also, no significant effect of high intensity (HI) was observed on the ad libitum meal, 24h and 48h EI post-exercise. However the mean 24h EI was 3000 KJ lower following HI than low intensity (LI). Despite, no significant differences in hunger score, glucose, NEFA and GLP-1 between both intensities were observed. However, NEFA and GLP-1 plasma level were higher until 30 min post LI. In conclusion, the similarity of EE and oxidation outcomes could give overweight individuals an option to choose between intensities. However, HI could help to reduce EI. There are mechanisms and consequences of exercise in short and long-term appetite control; however, these mechanisms warrant further explanation. These results support the need for future research in to the role of in regulation energy balance, especially for obese people.

Keywords: Exercise, Energy Expenditure, food intake, appetite

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44 Effect of 12 Weeks Pedometer-Based Workplace Program on Inflammation and Arterial Stiffness in Young Men with Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Mohd Alauddin Mohd Ali, Norsuhana Omar, Amilia Aminuddina Zaiton Zakaria, Raifana Rosa Mohamad Sattar, Kalaivani Chellappan, Norizam Salamt, Zanariyah Asmawi, Norliza Saari, Aini Farzana Zulkefli, Nor Anita Megat Mohd. Nordin


Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction leading to arterial stiffness. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AS), as tools for the assessment of vascular damages are widely used and have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation. Several studies noted that regular exercise is associated with reduced arterial stiffness. The lack of exercise among Malaysians and the increasing CVD morbidity and mortality among young men are of concern. In Malaysia data on the workplace exercise intervention is scarce. A programme was designed to enable subjects to increase their level of walking as part of their daily work routine and self-monitored by using pedometers. The aim of this study to evaluate the reducing of inflammation by measuring CRP and improvement arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral PWV (PWVCF) and AI. A total of 70 young men (20 - 40 years) who were sedentary, achieving less than 5,000 steps/day in casual walking with 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors were recruited in Institute of Vocational Skills for Youth (IKBN Hulu Langat). Subjects were randomly assigned to a control (CG) (n=34; no change in walking) and pedometer group (PG) (n=36; minimum target: 8,000 steps/day). The CRP was measured by using immunological method while PWVCF and AI were measured using Vicorder. All parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Data for analysis was conducted using Statistical Package of Social Sciences Version 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). At post intervention, the CG step counts were similar (4983 ± 366vs 5697 ± 407steps/day). The PG increased step count from 4996 ± 805 to 10,128 ±511 steps/day (P<0.001). The PG showed significant improvement in anthropometric variables and lipid (time and group effect p<0.001). For vascular assessment, the PG showed significantly decreased for time and effect (p<0.001) for PWV (7.21± 0.83 to 6.42 ± 0.89) m/s; AI (11.88± 6.25 to 8.83 ± 3.7) % and CRP (pre= 2.28 ± 3.09, post=1.08± 1.37mg/L). However, no changes were seen in CG. As a conclusion, a pedometer-based walking programme may be an effective strategy for promoting increased daily physical activity which reduces cardiovascular risk markers and thus improve cardiovascular health in terms of inflammation and arterial stiffness. The community intervention for health maintenance has potential to adopt walking as an exercise and adopting vascular fitness index as the performance measuring tools.

Keywords: Exercise, Inflammation, arterial stiffness, pedometer

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43 The Effect of Exercise, Reflexology and Chrome on Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: F. Arslan, S.D. Guven, A. Özcan, H. Vatansev, Ö. Taşgin


Weight, hypertension and dyslipidemia control and increased physical activity are required for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (METS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of core exercise, reflexology and intake chrome picolinate on METS. This study comprised a twelve-week randomized controlled trial. A total of 25 university workers with metabolic risk factors participated in this study voluntarily. They were randomly divided into three groups: Those undertaking a core exercise program (n=7), reflexology intervention group (n=8) and intake chrome group (n=10). The subjects took part in a core exercise program for one hour per day, three days a week and a reflexology interfered for thirty minutes per day, one days a week and chrome group took chrome picolinate every day in week for twelve weeks. The components of metabolic syndrome were analyzed before and after the completion of all the intervention. There were significant differences at pre-prandial blood glucose in the core exercise group and at systolic blood pressure in chrome group after the twelve week interventions (p < 0.005). While High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) excluding the components of METS decreased after the interventions on the all groups; levels of HDL and the other components of METS decreased in reflexology group. There was a clear response to the twelve-week interventions in terms of METS control. Besides, the reflexology intervention should not be applied to individuals with low HDL levels and core exercise and intake chrome picolinate suggested to improve the components of METS.

Keywords: Exercise, Blood Pressure, body mass index, METS, pre-prandial blood glucose

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42 Systolic Blood Pressure and Its Determinants: Study in a Population Attending Pharmacies in a Portuguese Coastal City

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, M. Brito, C. Lemos, A. Mascarenhas, E. Teixeira Lemos


Hypertension is a common condition causing cardio and cerebrovascular complications. Portugal has one of the highest mortality rates from stroke and a high prevalence of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and premature mortality, particularly in the elderly population. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in a Portuguese population living in a coastal city and to identify some of its determinants (namely gender, age, the body mass index and physical activity frequency). A total of 91 adults who attended three pharmacies of a coastal city in the center of Portugal, between May and August of 2013 were evaluated. Attendants who reported to have diabetes or taking antihypertensive drugs in the 2 previous weeks were excluded from the study. Sociodemographic factors, BMI, habits of exercise and BP were assessed. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. The majority of the studied population was constituted by women (75.8%), with a mean age of 54.2±1.6 years old, married or living in civil union and that had completed secondary school or had higher education (40%). They presented a mean BMI of 26.2±4.76 Kg/m2. and were sedentary. The mean BP was 127.0±17.77mmHg- 74.69 ± 9.53. In this population, we found 4.3% of people with hypertension and 16.1% with normal high blood pressure. Men exhibit a tendency to present higher systolic blood pressure values than women. Of all the factors considered, SBP values also tended to be higher with age and higher BMI values. Despite the fact that the mean values of SBP did not present values higher than 140 mmHg we must be concerned because the studied population is undiagnosed for hypertension. Our study even with some limitations might be a prelude to the upcoming research about the underlying factors responsible for the occurrence of SBP.

Keywords: Exercise, Hypertension, age, obesity and gender

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41 The Effect of Rowing Exercise on Elderly Health

Authors: Rachnavy Pornthep, Khaothin Thawichai


The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of rowing ergometer exercise on older persons health. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 was control group (10 male and 10 female) Group 2 was experimental group (10 male and 10 female). The time for study was 12 week. Group 1 engage in normal daily activities Group 2 Training with rowing machine for 20 minutes three days a week. The average age of the experimental group was 73.7 years old, mean weight 55.4 kg, height 154.8 cm in the control group, mean age was 74.95 years, mean weight 48.6 kg, mean height 153.85 cm. Physical fitness test composted of body size, flexibility, Strength, muscle endurance and cardiovascular endurance. The comparison between the experimental and control groups before training showed that body weight, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were significantly different. The flexibility, strength, cardiovascular endurance was not significantly different. The comparison between the control group and the experimental group after training showed that body weight, body mass index and cardiovascular endurance were significantly different. The ratio of waist to hips, flexibility and muscular strength were not significantly different. Comparison of physical fitness before training and after training of the control group showed that body weight, flexibility (Sit and reach) and muscular strength (30 – Second chair stand) were significantly different. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, muscles flexible (Shoulder girdle flexibility), muscle strength (30 – Second arm curl) and the cardiovascular endurance were not significantly difference. Comparison of physical fitness before training and after training the experimental group showed that waist to hip ratio, flexibility (sit and reach) muscle strength (30 – Second chair stand), cardiovascular endurance (Standing leg raises - up to 2 minutes) were significantly different. The Body mass index and the flexibility (Shoulder girdle flexibility) no significantly difference. The study found that exercising with rowing machine can improve the physical fitness of the elderly, especially the cardiovascular endurance, corresponding with the past research on the effects of exercise in the elderly with different exercise such as cycling, treadmill, walking on the elliptical machine. Therefore, we can conclude that exercise by using rowing machine can improve cardiovascular system and flexibility in the elderly.

Keywords: Exercise, Rowing, Elderly, effect

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40 The Correlation between Nasal Resistance and Obligatory Oronasal Switching Point in Non-Athletic Non-Smoking Healthy Men

Authors: Amir H. Bayat, Mohammad R. Alipour, Saeed Khamneh


As the respiration via nose is important physiologically, many studies have been done about nasal breathing that switches to oronasal breathing during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the role of anterior nasal resistance as one of the effective factors on this switching. Twelve young, healthy, non-athletic and non-smoker male volunteers with normal BMI were selected after physical examination and participated in exercise protocol, including measurement of the ventilation, work load and oronasal switching point (OSP) during exercise, and anterior rhinomanometry at rest. The protocol was an incremental exercise with 25 watt increase in work load per minute up to OSP occurrence. There was a significant negative correlation between resting total anterior nasal resistance with OSP, work load and ventilation (p<0.05, r= -0.709). Resting total anterior nasal resistance can be considered as an important factor on OSP occurrence. So, the reducing the resistance of nasal passage may increase nasal respiration tolerance for longer time during exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, ventilation, anterior nasal resistance, OSP, work load

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39 Effect of One-Period of SEAS Exercises on Some Spinal Biomechanical and Postural Parameters in the Students with Idiopathic Scoliosis

Authors: Sokhanguei Yahya, Zandi Ahmad, Saboonchi Reza


Objective: The new and modern lifestyle, especially in the twenty-first century and lack of movement in spinal structure have made patients and the physicians in the field of health and also other insurance companies in the developed and developing countries worry more than before about the abnormalities of spinal column- this great healthcare problem. The high prevalence of spinal column in all age groups -from children to adults- and in all professions have led the researchers to the idea of giving an opportunity to all those who worry about the dangers threatening the spinal column. Therefore, one of the corrective methods for these patients is using SEAS exercises. Materials and Methods: This study aims at investigating the effect of one-period of SEAS exercises on some spinal biomechanical and postural parameters in the students with idiopathic scoliosis. According to the nature of the study and research objectives as well as the data collection methods, the current research is a semi-empirical survey. The research population is comprised of students with idiopathic scoliosis. A total number of 30 students were selected using available sampling and divided into two groups of control and SEAS exercises. Scoliometer was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to categorize the findings. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical models were used to confirm that the distribution of the data is normal and T-test was used for effectiveness. Hypothesis testing was done using SPSS21. Conclusion: Results show that SEAS exercises have a significant effect in Adam’s Test. Therefore, according to the obtained results, SEAS exercises can be used to recover idiopathic scoliosis among the students. Further studies in larger samples and treatment, periods as well as more follow-up investigations appear to be essential to prove these effects.

Keywords: Exercise, SEAS exercises, idiopathic scoliosis, Adam’s test

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38 Effects of Sprint Training on Athletic Performance Related Physiological, Cardiovascular, and Neuromuscular Parameters

Authors: Dede Basturk, Asim Cengiz, Hakan Ozalp


Practicing recurring resistance workout such as may cause changes in human muscle. These changes may be because combination if several factors determining physical fitness. Thus, it is important to identify these changes. Several studies were reviewed to investigate these changes. As a result, the changes included positive modifications in amplified citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity, increased capacity for pyruvate oxidation, improvement on molecular signaling on human performance, amplified resting muscle glycogen and whole GLUT4 protein content, better health outcomes such as enhancement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Sprint training also have numerous long long-term changes inhuman body such as better enzyme action, changes in muscle fiber and oxidative ability. This is important because SV is the critical factor influencing maximal cardiac output and therefore oxygen delivery and maximal aerobic power.

Keywords: Exercise, training, Performance, sprint

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37 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail


Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Exercise, Hypertension, Blood Pressure, peak VO2

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36 A Clinical Cutoff to Identify Metabolically Unhealthy Obese and Normal-Weight Phenotype in Young Adults

Authors: Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Rafael Luís Luporini, José Carlos Bonjorno Junior, Renata Pedrolongo Basso Vanelli, Manoel Carneiro de Oliveira Junior, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, Renata Trimer, Renata G. Mendes, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Audrey Borghi-Silva


Rationale: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and functional capacity in young obese and normal-weight people are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether their metabolically healthy (MH) or at risk (AR) phenotype influences cardiorespiratory fitness in this vulnerable population such as obese adults but also in normal-weight people. HOMA insulin resistance index (HI) and leptin-adiponectin ratio (LA) are strong markers for characterizing those phenotypes that we hypothesized to be associated with physical fitness. We also hypothesized that an easy and feasible exercise test could identify a subpopulation at risk to develop metabolic and related disorders. Methods: Thirty-nine sedentary men and women (20-45y; 18.530 kg.m-2) underwent a clinical evaluation, including the six-minute step test (ST), a well-validated and reliable test for young people. Body composition assessment was done by a tetrapolar bioimpedance in a fasting state and in the folicular phase for women. A maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, as well as the ST, evaluated the oxygen uptake at the peak of the test (VO2peak) by an ergospirometer Oxycon Mobile. Lipids, glucose, insulin were analysed and the ELISA method quantified the serum leptin and adiponectin from blood samples. Volunteers were divided in two groups: AR or MH according to a HI cutoff of 1.95, which was previously determined in the literature. T-test for comparison between groups, Pearson´s test to correlate main variables and ROC analysis for discriminating AR from up-and-down cycles in ST (SC) were applied (p<0.05). Results: Higher LA, fat mass (FM) and lower HDL, SC, leg lean mass (LM) and VO2peak were found in AR than in MH. Significant correlations were found between VO2peak and SC (r= 0.80) as well as between LA and FM (r=0.87), VO2peak (r=-0.73), and SC (r=-0.65). Area under de curve showed moderate accuracy (0.75) of SC <173 to discriminate AR phenotype. Conclusion: Our study found that at risk obese and normal-weight subjects showed an unhealthy metabolism as well as a poor CRF and functional daily activity capacity. Additionally, a simple and less costly functional test associated with above-mentioned aspects is able to identify ‘at risk’ subjects for primary intervention with important clinical and health implications.

Keywords: Exercise, Metabolism, Obesity, Fitness, Aerobic Capacity

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35 Relationship between Exercise Activity with Incidence of Overweight-Obesity in Medical Students

Authors: Randy M. Fitratullah, Afriwardi, Nurhayati


Overweight-obesity caused by exercise. The objective of this research is to analyze the relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of medical faculty of Andalas Univesity batch 2013. This is an analytical observational research with case-control method. This research conducted in FK Unand on September-October 2015. The population of this research is medical students batch 2013. 26 samples (13 samples were case, 13 samples were control) were taken by purposive sampling technique and analysed using statistical univariate and bivariate analysis. Exercise questionnaire was used as research instruments. Based on the interview with questionnaire, anaerobic exercise was majority in case group and aerobic exercise was majority in control group. The case and control group have a rare category in exercise. Less category was majority in exercise duration of case and enough category was majority in control group. Bivariate analysis is using chi-square test with cell combining to 2x2 table, obtained p-value=0.097 in sort of exercise, p-value=1,000 in the frequency of exercise, and p-value=0,112 in duration of exercise, which means statistically unsignificant. There is no relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of FK Unand batch 2013. For medical students suffers overweight-obesity is suggested for increase the frequency of exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Frequency, Duration, aerobic, overweight-obesity, anaerobic

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34 Evaluation of Resting Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure of Staff of Multi-National Petroleum Company in Warri, Nigeria

Authors: Ekpon Oghenetega Philip, Tayire Okabare Favour, Boye Ejobowah Thomas


The study evaluated the resting systolic blood pressure (RSBP) and resting diastolic blood pressure (RDBP) of staff of a multi-national petroleum company in Nigeria with the aim of helping the staff maintain optimal health which is necessary to carry out their secular work. Eleven healthy male (age 36.9±10.48 years, mean±S.D) and 38 healthy female (39.99±12.23 years, mean±S.D) staff of the multi-national petroleum company performed an incremental exercise on a treadmill and cycle ergometers to determine RSBP and RDBP. An assessment of the health status of the staff of the company was carried out using a physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) to determine their suitability for the program. Analysis of the t-test for male staff of RSBP shows that it was statistically significant with a calculated t value of 2.19, α = 0.05 and t-calculated for RSBP of female staff was 1.897, α = 0.05 showing a significance. While the t-calculated RSBP for male staff of the multi-national company is 0.44 with α =0.05 and the female RDBP is 4.129, α = 0.05 and they are all significant. It was recommended that staff of the company should regularly visit the company gym during their leisure hours to maintain optimum health.

Keywords: Exercise, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pressure staff

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33 Modifying Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors in Urban Primary School Children: Three Different Exercise Interventions

Authors: Anneke Van Biljon


Background: Exercise is a primary form of preventing and improving cardiometabolic disease risk factors; however specific exercise variables and their associated health benefits in children are inconclusive. A preliminary study revealed that different exercise variables may improve particular cardiometabolic health benefits. Objectives: This study further investigated the specific cardiometabolic health benefits associated with three isocaloric exercise interventions set at different intensities. Methods: Hundred-and-twenty (n = 120) participants between the ages of 10 – 14 years old were assigned to four different study groups 1. High intensity interval training (HIIT) at > 80% MHR 2. Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) at 65% – 70% MHR 3. Alternative intensities (ALT) of HIIT and MICT 4. Control group. Exercise interventions were designed to generate isocaloric workloads of ~154.77 kcal per session, three times per week for five weeks. The one-way ANOVA test established comparisons between group means. Post hoc tests were calculated to determine specific group differences. Results: Although, all exercise groups improved cardiometabolic health, the MICT group showed greater improvements in fasting glucose (-9.30%), whereas cardiorespiratory fitness increased most by 31.33% (p = 0.000) within the HIIT group. Finally, ALT group recorded overall superior and additional cardiometabolic health benefits compared with both MICT and HIIT groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that superior benefits may be elicited when combining and alternating MICT and HIIT. These results provide specific exercise recommendations for achieving optimal and substantial cardiometabolic health benefits in children which will contribute towards achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 2030.

Keywords: Exercise, Pediatrics, Interventions, cardiometabolic disease risk factors

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32 Effectiveness of Exercise and TENS in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Authors: Arben Murtezani, Shefqet Mrasori, Vančo Spirov, Bukurije Rama, Oliver Dimitrovski, Visar Bunjaku


Overview: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. Clinical indicators of discomfort are related to the use of the joint stiffness during first motions after extended rest and restricted joint range of motion can cause substantial pain and disability. There is little evidence that physical therapy methods of management cause long-lasting reduction in signs and symptoms. Exercise programs premeditated to improve physical fitness have beneficial effects on chronic pain and disability of the musculoskeletal system. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study with a 2-month follow-up period was conducted between April 2016 and June 2016 at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Prishtina. Forty six patients with TMDs, (more than three months duration of symptoms) were randomized into two groups: the TENS therapy group (n=24) and combination of active exercise and manual therapy group (n=22). The TENS therapy group patients were treated with twelve sessions of TENS. The treatment period of both groups was 3 weeks at an outpatient clinic. Following main outcome measures were evaluated: (1) pain at rest (2) pain at stress (3) impairment (4) mouth opening at base-line, before and after treatment and at 3 month follow-up. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed in both treatment groups. In the TENS group 73% (16/22) achieved at least 80% improvement from baseline in TMJ pain at 2 months compared with 54% (13/24) in the exercise group (difference of 19%; 95% confidence interval 220 to 30%). Active and passive maximum mouth opening has been greater in the TENS group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy in combination with TENS seems to be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

Keywords: Exercise, manual therapy, TENS, temporomandibular joint disorders

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31 Physical Activity, Exercise and Physical Fitness in Different Generation

Authors: Carl J. Caspersen, Kenneth E. Powell, Gregory M. Christenson, Kirupa V. Patel


‘Physical activity’, ‘exercise’, and ‘physical fitness’ are terms that describe different concepts. However, they are often confused with one another, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This paper proposes definitions to distinguish them. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, Conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical fitness is a set of attributes that are either health- or skill-related. The degree to which people have these attributes can be measured with specific tests. These definitions are offered as an interpretational framework for comparing studies that relate physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness to health. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally. Regular moderate intensity physical activity – such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports – has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. Moreover, adequate levels of physical activity will decrease the risk of a hip or vertebral fracture and help control weight. Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. In these guidelines, physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.

Keywords: Sports, Exercise, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness

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30 Temporal Profile of Exercise-Induced Changes in Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels of Schizophrenic Individuals

Authors: Caroline Lavratti, Pedro Dal Lago, Gustavo Reinaldo, Gilson Dorneles, Andreia Bard, Laira Fuhr, Daniela Pochmann, Alessandra Peres, Luciane Wagner, Viviane Elsner


Approximately 1% of the world's population is affected by schizophrenia (SZ), a chronic and debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder. Among possible factors, reduced levels of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been recognized in physiopathogenesis and course of SZ. In this context, peripheral BDNF levels have been used as a biomarker in several clinical studies, since this neurotrophin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier in a bi-directional manner and seems to present a strong correlation with the central nervous system fluid levels. The patients with SZ usually adopts a sedentary lifestyle, which has been partly associated with the increase in obesity incidence rates, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. On the other hand, exercise, a non-invasive and low cost intervention, has been considered an important additional therapeutic option for this population, promoting benefits to physical and mental health. To our knowledge, few studies have been pointed out that the positive effects of exercise in SZ patients are mediated, at least in part, to enhanced levels of BDNF after training. However, these studies are focused on evaluating the effect of single bouts of exercise of chronic interventions, data concerning the short- and long-term exercise outcomes on BDNF are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a concurrent exercise protocol (CEP) on plasma BDNF levels of SZ patients in different time-points. Material and Methods: This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Centro Universitário Metodista do IPA (no 1.243.680/2015). The participants (n=15) were subbmited to the CEP during 90 days, 3 times a week for 60 minutes each session. In order to evaluate the short and long-term effects of exercise, blood samples were collected pre, 30, 60 and 90 days after the intervention began. Plasma BDNF levels were determined with the ELISA method, from Sigma-Aldrich commercial kit (catalog number RAB0026) according to manufacturer's instructions. Results: A remarkable increase on plasma BDNF levels at 90 days after training compared to baseline (p=0.006) and 30 days (p=0.007) values were observed. Conclusion: Our data are in agreement with several studies that show significant enhancement on BDNF levels in response to different exercise protocols in SZ individuals. We might suggest that BDNF upregulation after training in SZ patients acts in a dose-dependent manner, being more pronounced in response to chronic exposure. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS)/Brazil.

Keywords: Exercise, Schizophrenia, BDNF, time-points

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29 The Effect of Exercise on Quality of Life in Pregnancy

Authors: Hacer Unver, Rukuye Aylaz


Aim: This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of exercising on quality of life in pregnancy. Material and Method: The population of the study was formed by 580 pregnants who were registered to 10 Family Health Center located in the city center of Malatya. The sample of the study, on the other hand, was formed by 230 pregnants who had minimal sample size according to known population sample size calculation. The data of this descriptive study was collected between October 2013 and September 2014 from the Family Health Centers located in the city center of Malatya. The data were collected using pregnant introductory form, exercise benefit and barrier scale, quality of life scale. Percentage distributions, t-test, Variance Analysis (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Pearson Correlation tests were used in the analysis of the data. Result: It was determined that 69.1% of the pregnants participating to the study did not know the benefits of exercising and 89.6% did not exercise. Quality of life mental health scores of those who exercised were determined to be higher and statistically significant (p<0.05). A positive correlation was determined between the exercise benefit scala and physical quality of life scores of the pregnants in this study (0.268, p=0.001). It was also detected that the more exercise performed led to higher total quality of life scores. Conclusion: In consequence, exercising was determined to positively affect the quality of life in pregnants. Therefore, it is recommended that nurses should give education regarding the importance and benefits of exercise during pregnancy in order to increase the quality of life.

Keywords: Exercise, Quality of Life, midwife, pregnant woman

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28 Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Authors: Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Marilia A. Correia, Wagner J. R. Domingues, Aline C. Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Lauro C. Vianna, Gabriel G. Cucato


Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.

Keywords: Exercise, Blood Pressure, isometric, peripheral artery disease

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27 Empirical Study of Health Behaviors of Employees in Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing

Authors: Yogesh Pawar


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behaviors of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) employees in relation to diet, exercise, sleep, stress, and social habits. This was a qualitative research study, using in-depth,semi-structured interviews. Descriptive data were collected from a two-stage purposive sample of 28 IT-BPO employees from two IT companies and one BPOs in Pune. The majority of interviewees reported having an unhealthy diet and/or sedentary lifestyle. Lack of time due to demanding work schedules was the largest barrier to diet and exercise. Given the qualitative study design and limited sampling frame, results may not be generalizable. However, the qualitative data suggests that Pune’s young IT-BPO employees may be at greater risk of lifestyle-related diseases than the general population. The data also suggests that interventions incorporating social influence may be a promising solution, particularly at international call centers. The results from this study provide qualitative insight on the motives for health behaviors of IT-BPO employees, as well as the barriers and facilitators for leading a healthy lifestyle in this industry. The findings provide the framework for future workplace wellness interventions.

Keywords: Information Technology, Exercise, Wellness, Qualitative Research

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26 Evaluation of Serine and Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels in Depression and the Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Rats

Authors: V. A. Doss, R. Sowndarya, K. Juila Rose Mary


Objective: Amino acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective of the present study was to identify the amino acids as possible metabolite biomarkers for depression using GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) before and after exercise regimen in brain samples of depression induced animal models. Methods: Depression-like behaviour was induced by Chronic Unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Severity of depression was measured by forced swim test (FST) and sucrose consumption test (SCT). Swimming protocol was followed for 4 weeks of exercise treatment. Brain obtained from depressed and exercise treated rats were used for the metabolite analysis by GCMS. Subsequent statistical analysis obtained by ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed significant metabolic changes. Results: Amino acids such as alanine, glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, proline and branched chain aminoacids (BCAs) Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine were determined in brain samples of control, depressed and exercised groups. Among these amino acids, the levels of D-Serine and branched chain amino acids were found to be decreased in depression induced rats. After four weeks of swimming exercise regimen, there were improvements in the levels of serine and Branched chain amino acids. Conclusion: We suggest that Serine and BCAs may be investigated as potential metabolite markers using GCMS and their beneficial metabolic changes in Exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Biomarker, Metabolomics, Depression, forced swim test, GCMs, amino acid metabolites

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25 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Raphael Ritti-Dias


Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.

Keywords: Exercise, arterial stiffness, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load

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24 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein


Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: Exercise, Back pain, vibration training, occupational health management

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23 The Correlation between Education, Food Intake, Exercise, and Medication Obedience with the Average of Blood Sugar in Indonesia

Authors: Aisyah Rahmatul Laily


Indonesia Ministry of Health is increasing their awareness on non communicable diseases. From the top ten causes of death, two of them are non communicable diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the two non communicable diseases above that have the increasing number of patient from year to year. From that problem, this research is made to determine the correlation between education, food intake, exercise, and the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar. In this research, the researchers used observational and cross-sectional studies. The sample that used in this research were 50 patients in Puskesmas Gamping I Yogyakarta who have suffered from Diabetes Mellitus in long period. The researcher doing anamnesis by using questionnaire to collect the data, then analyzed it with Chi Square to determine the correlation between each variable. The dependent variable in this research is the average of blood sugar, whereas the independent variables are education, food intake, do exercise, and the obedience of medication. The result shows a relation between education and average blood sugar level (p=0.029), a relation between food intake and average blood sugar level (p=0.009), and a relation between exercise and average blood sugar level (p=0.023). There is also a relation between the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar (p=0,002). The conclusion is that the positive correlations exist between education and average blood sugar level, between food intake and average blood sugar level, and between medication obedience and average blood sugar level.

Keywords: Education, Exercise, food intake, average of blood sugar, medication obedience

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22 Serum Anti-Oxidation Enzymes Response to L-Carnitine Supplementation

Authors: farah NAMENI, Hamidreza Poursadra, Maasumeh Nurani Pilehrud


Exercise training induced Inflammation and stress. Antioxidant, for example L- Carnitine has beneficial effects in immune system and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. L- Carnitine protects the tissue against the oxidative side effect and helps the body to protect against stress during and after acute exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-Carnitine on the blood enzymes: GPX SOD, CAT and GR response. In this study, 20 basketball players girls participated. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; placebo and supplementation. Antioxidadision enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase) evaluated. L-Carnitine supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg powder for 14 dys. Then all participates trained basketball exercise acute. Blood samples were drawn vein before and immediately after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase were measured, and data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-test. Our results showed: SOD, GPX and GPX (P < 0.05) have a significant increase. These results suggest L-Carnitine supplementation may increase GPX SOD, CAT, and basal anti oxidative capacity. L-Carnitine can modulate the alterations of exercise oxidative damage in girl basketball players.

Keywords: Exercise, Cat, anti-oxidant, l-carnitine, SOD, GPX

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